« 前へ次へ »
at the present day, now-a-days. Unsere Sitten werten der Nachwelt journey ? 9. I overtook my brother after three days' journey. cinst eben so ersøheinen, wie uns heut zu Tage die unster Vorfahren, our 10. Six months ago I was on the point of going to America, but customs one day will appear to posterity just as (do) those of now I am very glad that I remained at home. our ancestors to us at the present day. Die Goldgier treibt
SECTION XCIV.-IDIOMATIC PHRASES (continued). beutiges Tages viele Tausende nach Californien, the immoderate desire
Hören (to hear), followed by auf with an accusative, signifies for gold drives, at the present day, many thousands to Cali
" to listen to ;” as :-Er hört auf das, was ich ihm fage, he listens fornia.
to what I tell him. VOCABULARY.
Hören, however, when connected with auf as a mere prefix, Ableiten, to turn off, Gin'holen. (See above.) | Pacten, to pack, pack signifies" to cease, to discontinue ;” as :-&s hört auf zu regnen, derive. Erler'nung, f.learning, up.
it stops raining (ceases to rain). Der Regen hört auf, the rain Alarich, m. Alaric. acquisition. Richtplaß, m. place of Ungft, f. anxiety. Geson'nen sein, to be execution.
1. Aber, in the phrase Hunderte und aber Hunderte, Tausende und Be'graben, to inter, inclined, to in. Strömung. f. stream aber Tausende, etc., signifies " yet again, yet more, still other." bury. tend.
ing, current, so, also, O weh und aber weh dem Mann, 0 woe and yet again woe Begriff. m. concep- Gothe, m. Goth. flood.
to the man. tion, notion (im Innig, heartfelt, Verrei'ler, to go on a
2. Zu Grunde gehen, “ to go to the ground, or to the bottom, Begriff sein, to be hearty.
journey, travel, that is, to sink, to founder," has hence the general signification, on the point). leiten, to guide, lead, set out.
"to go to ruin, or be destroyed.” So, also, zu Grunbe richten, "to Busen'to, an. Bugento conduct.
Zuvor', before. destroy, to ruin," etc.; as :- Das Schiff ist mit Mann und Maus zu (river in Italy).
Grunde gegangen, the ship with man and mouse has perished RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.
(gone to the bottom). Unvorsichtige Speculationen haben den Kauf: Er wünschte mir eine an'genehme He wished me a pleasant jour. mann zu Grunde gerichtet, imprudent speculations have effected the Reise.
ruin of the merchant.
ney. Ich geben'le früherer Zeiten, und ge. I remember former times, and
VOCABULARY. bach'te Ihrer oft während meiner thought of you often during Abendbrot, n. supper. Hafen, m. harbour, Schande, f. shame, Krankheit. my sickness. Auf'hören. (See above.) ; port.
disgrace, infamy. Iety geben'te seinen Fleiß zu beloh'nen. I intend to reward his diligence. Preslau, n. Breslau. Lächeln, to smile. Segel, n. sail. Er gerachte mir ein leid zu thun. He designed to do me an injury. Dulden, to bear, suf. Landen, to land, come Ta gesgeschäft, n. busi30 bin nicht geson'nen darein zu I do not intend to agree to it. fer, tolerate.
ness of the day. wil'sigen.
Erle'gen, to slay, kill. Linde, f. linden-tree. Ufer, n. bank, shore. Io pacte meinen Koffer, weil ich ge. I am packing my trunk, be- Faustrecht, n.club-law, Mittagßmahl, n.dinner Verrich'ten, to do, person'nen bin, in ei'nigen Tagen eine cause I intend in a few days
Gebrauch', m. usage, Rath, counsel ; dazu Verschwen'derisch, proEr ist im Begriff, nach A'sien zu He is on the point of going to custom, fashion.
fann Rath werden, digal, lavish, proreisen.
Gerei'chen, to redound, that may be done, fuse. Hustav Adolph führte seine Schweden Gustavus Adolphus led his turn to, conduce. or it may happen. Bersin'fen, to sink.
von Sieg jut Sieg, und erkaufte troops (Swedes) from victory Grab, n. grave. Regensburg, n. Ratis. Verza'gen, to faint, Den bei Lüßen mit seinem Leben. to victory, and purchased the Habsburg, n. Haps bon.
lose courage. one at Lützen with his life. burg (original Reich, n. empire, king- 3wif'tigkeit, f. discord, Der Dlig'ableiter ist eine wich'tige The lightning-rod is an impor house of the im dom, realm.
dissension, quaramerifa‘nische Erfindung. tant American invention, perial family of Reichstag, m. imperial
diet, diet. EXERCISE 180.
RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. 1. Ich wünsche Ihnen einen guten Morgen. 2. Ich habe die Ehre, Ihnen einen guten Morgen zu wünschen. 3. Ich gedente (Sect. XLVI.) Höret auf, des Lebens Teppich vor Cease to spread life's carpet meiner Freunde mit inniger Liebe. 4. In den Zeiten des Glückes gedachte
mich aus-zubreiten, ich bin elend out before me; I am miserer seiner nicht, wohl aber in den Stunden der Angst und Noth. 5. Ich Sebalber dieses lah, hörte er auf zu As soon as he saw this, he
und gefan'gen (Schiller).
able and imprisoned. gebenfe zu verreifen 6. Ich gebenfe bald wieder zu fommen. 7. Wir gebenken zu verteilen. 8. Zhr gedachtet es böse mit mir zu machen. 9.
ceased to play (stopped playDer Bater ist gesønnen, darein zu willigen. 10. Ich war nicht gesonnen,
ing). babin zu gehen. 11. 3ch vgđe meinen Koffer, weil ich gesonnen bin, in Liebig gehört zu den gelehr'testen Liebig belongs to (is among) bent cesten Tagen zu verreifen. 12. Ich stehe im Begriffe, abzureisen. 13.
the most learned men of 34 bin im Begriffe , außgugehen. :'14. Man führt den Berbrecher zum Er ging nicht eher aus, alê biß er He did not go out before (till)
eine Stunde gele'sen batte.
he had read an hour. mit Polen. 18. Der Kaufmann führt Waaren zum Markte. 19. Ein Der russische Feldzug richtete die The Russian campaign ruined Ekeines Kind leitete den blinden Mann. 20. Alarid wurde von den Gothen
“Grande Armée" (wie man sie (destroyed) the "Grand in dem Busento begraben, nachdem sie zuvor die Strömung abgeleitet hatten. zu nennen pflegte) zu Grunde. Army” (as it used to be 21. Er leitet einen Jeden nach seinem Rath. 22. Wer fich nicht von der
called). Vernunft leiten lait, der läuft Gefahr, daß ihn seine Leidenschaften in's Ver. Bei dem russischen Feld-zuge ging die In the Russian campaign the berben führen. 23. Der fleißige Schüler holte seine Gameraden bei der
“Grande Armée" zu Grunde. “Grand Army ” was de. Erlernung der englischen Sprache noch ein, obgleich tiefelben beinahe vier
stroyed. Wochen eher angefangen hatten 24. Wir holten die Freunde auf ihrem Tau'sente und aber Tau'sende kamen Thousands upon thousands lost Wege noch ein, obgleich sie eine halbe Stunde früher fortgegangen waren.
um ihr Leben.
their lives. 25. feut zu Tage erreichen die Menschen fein so hohes Alter mehr, ale in Als ich ankam, las er eben meinen As I arrived he was just readfrüheren Zeiten. 26. Man bërt heut zu Tage von nichts Anderm sprechen,
ing my letter. als von Krieg. 27. Max. hört þcutiges Tages viel Flagen über schlechte Das gereicht' ihm zur großen Ehre. That redounds greatly to his Zeiten.
honour. EXERCISE 181.
EXERCISE 182. 1. I wish you a good evening. 2. I have the pleasure to wish 1. Ac Rudolph von Habsburg Kaiser von Deutschlant geworden war, you a good morning. 3. When in foreign conntries, we often hörten die innern Zwiftigkeiten und das sogenannte Fauslrecht in biesem remember with affection our friends at home. 4. I intend to go Reiche auf. 2. Nachbem fie einige Hirsche erlegt hatten, hörten fie auf next month to the Continent. 5. Do you intend to remain long zu jagen. 3. Es hört auf zu regnen, und wir fönnen nun unsere Reise there ? 6. No, I do not intend to remain long there ; I shall weiter fortseßen. 4. Mein Bruder ift zu Hause
, er liegt schon adyt Lage Boon retorn. 7. He tried to overtake his friend in learning the zu Bette. 5. In Deutschland find andere Sitten und Gebrauche, als int German language, but he could not, as his friend was too far Amerifa. 6. Zu Regensburg wurten in der letten Zeit die Reichstage advanced. š. Do you intend to overtake your brother on his gehalten. 7. Die hohe Schule zu Breslau gehört zu den besten in Deutsche
land. 8. Als wir hinkamen, speisten sie gerade zu Mittag. 9. Sie 13. Die Athener erklärten, Niemand als Jupiter follte von nun an in Athen pflegten nicht eher ihr Abendbrot zu essen, als bie sie alle Tage geschäfte regieren. 14. So lange mein Innerstes mein Betragen bilkgt, wird (fell) verrichtet hatten. 10. Unter einer alten Linde, welche in dem Hofe stand, tas Hrtheil der Leute mich nicht beunruhigen. 15. Er hat den legten hielten fie im Sommer
, bei schönem Wetter, ihr Mittagemahl. 11. Als Punft seiner Rede besonders hervorgehoben. 16. Sie machten sich auf seine die Cholera in Paris herrschte, starben Tausende und aber Tausende an Rechnung lustig, und er nahm es nicht wahr. berselben. 12. Die Soldaten ziehen zu Felde. 13. Bei dem leßten
EXERCISE 136 (Vol. II., page 408). Sturme find mehrere Schiffe zu Grunde gegangen. 14. Der Bettler geht
1. The teacher loves and praises the diligent scholar.= The diligent son Thür zu Thür, und von Dorf zu Dorf. 15. Das gereicht mir zur scholar is loved and praised by the teacher. 2. The huntsman shoots
, Ehre, ihm zur Schande. 16. Mir zu Gefallen fönnten Sie es thun. 17. not only wolves and bears, but also birds. = Not only wolves and bears
, Der Feind steuert mit allen Segeln nach Osten zu. 18. Das ist für ihn but also birds, are shot by the huntsman. 3. The mother warned the zu gut. 19. Ich bin nur zu gewiß, daß es so kommen wirt. 20. && son. = The son was warned by the mother. 4. The letter-carrier fann auch dazu Rath werden, wenn wir erst unsere eigenen Angelegenheiten brought a letter.=The letter was brought by the letter-carrier. 5. geordnet haben werden. 21. Das Leben ist, Freund, ein ernstes Geschäft, The Jew has bought the poor man's horse. = The poor man's horse —oulde sein Ingemach ; so nur wird dir die Reise sanft. 22. Endlich has been bought by the Jew. 6. The Swiss has sung the songs of the landest du doch sicher am Ufer, in deinem Hafen; er heißt das Grab. 23. Alps beautifully. The songs of the Alps have been beautifully sung by Er hat sich und seine Freunde zu Grunde gerichtet. 24. Er hat bei tiefen forgotten by the child. 8. The butcher has killed the call. =The call
the Swiss. 7. The child has forgotten the book. =The book has been Arbeiten feine Gesundheit zu Grunde gerichtet. 25. Nelson richtete die fran- has been killed by the butcher. 9. The commander-in-chiel will praise zösische Flotte zu Grunde. 26. Wenn er nicht vorsichtig ist, so kann in his soldiers. = The soldiers will be praised by their commander-inkurzer Zeit fein ganzes Geschäft zu Grunde gehen.
chief. 10. God will reward the good. = The good will be rewarded by EXERCISE 183.
God. 11. The neighbour will have assisted the friend.=The friend 1. Are you listening to what I tell you? 2. Yes, I am listen- will have been assisted by the neighbour. 12. The
heathen priest win
= The poor girl will have been Gacrificed ing to what you say. 3. Do you think that he will listen wil by the heathen priest. 13. Cæsar was murdered with the co-operation lingly to that proposal? 4. If you listen to what the teacher of his friend Brutus. 14. The steepest rocks are climbed by the tells you, you will acquire knowledge. 5. Can we remain with chamois-hunters. 15. The favourable moment is seized by the prudent you until the storm has ceased? 6. As soon as the rain ceases,
16. There was more done in half an hour than at other times we shall continue our journey. 7. As soon as we saw our
in an hour, 17. The quarrel was carried on with great animosity On teacher, we stopped playing and began to write. 8. Hundreds both sides. 18. Already many a valuable hour has been mis-spent upon hundreds lost their lives by the revolution in France. 9. in a few days. 20. At last it has been ascertained who is the thief
(literally, unused). 19. The work is finished at last, and will appear After his imprudent speculation had ruined him, he became 21. The bridge was carried away by the ice. 22. The camels are often more careful. 10. It redounds to the honour of a king, to killed by the travellers in the desert, in order to obtain water. 23. govern his dominion in peace. 11. Do not despair when for. The sons of Brutus had been condemned to death by their father. 24. tune does not smile on thee, or even when thou art sunk in the Prometheus had been bound by Jupiter with chains to a rock. 25. deepest misery; for it may happen, ere thou thinkest it, that The affair will become very interesting. 26. It is to be hoped that thou mayest be providentially disburdened of all thy troubles. the enemy has been beaten. 27. A solemn judgment will be held some
day after all people have been assembled. 28. Many will be praised KEY TO EXERCISES TO LESSONS IN GERMAN.
who expected censure, and many be censured who expected praise.
29. This youth had been calumniated. 30. His innocence will be EXERCISE 134 (Vol. II., page 407).
recognised, after his honest actions will have been perceived. 1. Excuse me, sir; it was not done intentionally. 2. If he did it intentionally, he is by no means to be excused. 3. Although you did not do it purposely, still it is culpable. 4. Had you done it purposely,
THE UNIVERSITIES.-IV. then you ought to be ashamed of yourself. 5. They have liberated the
CAMBRIDGE.-II. prisoner on purpose. 6. This man has not intentionally brought on this delay. 7. As long as such men are at the head of the State we We resume our remarks upon this University, by endeavouring cannot expect an improvement. 8. As long as I have no employment, to give our readers some idea of the expenses which a student I cannot be contented. 9. As long as you are well-behaved, you shall will incur in the course of his residence. These will divide have everything that you require. 10. As long as the world has stood, themselves into three heads-fees, tuition, and general expenses. no one has made such an assertion. 11. I will work for you as long Of these, of course, the last is by far the greatest, the second as you are ill. 12. As long as he was absent we took care of his whole will vary according to the requirements of the student, and the family. 13. You can lodge in my house as long as you like. 14. I first will form but a small item in comparison with the whole. he does not stay so long, he cannot receive my letters any longer. 15. This man works from day-break till late at night. 16. From this time
Both university and college fees are made to vary with the forth I shall take a walk every day from the river to the mountain. position or rank of a student, according as he is a nobleznan, a 17. I have now received a letter, and shall go to my friends as soon as fellow-commoner, a pensioner, or a sizar., Three of these names I can. 18. I shall have arranged all my affairs till the twentieth of it may be necessary to explain. The great majority of students January. 19. As I have now arrived, I shall speak to him as soon at the University are called pensioners. They pay the ordinary as I see him. 20. When they came at last, it had become night. fees, and the full value of the accommodation which they receive 21. From this time forth we shall be friends. 22. We intend to re- from their college. They dine at the common table in hall, and main in town till it grows evening. 23. The merchant put everything enjoy no especial privileges. Sizars are distinguished from these on one account. 24. What you have done is now placed to my ac- in that, on first going into residence, they declare themselves to count, and I must suffer for the wrong which you have committed. need some help towards the expenses of their University course. 25. The heat is suffocating to-day. 26. The unfortunate man was suffocated by the smoke. 27. The weeds choke the tender plants. 28. Formerly the name carried with it an inferior position, but in the The town was given up to be plandered by the infuriated soldiers. 29. present day the avowal of poverty is a protection against many He was left to his fate. 30. He gave especial importance to his gal. temptations, and is despised by none whose acquaintance is lant behaviour, and
publicly praised him. 31. In his embarrassment worth cultivating. The fellow-commoner, on the other hand, is he could not utter a word. 32. She produced an old book after a long one who, either from being older than the majority of undersearch.
graduates, or from some other reason, is desirous of mixing EXERCISE 135 (Vol. II., page 407).
rather with the fellows of the college. He pays higher fees, and 1. Die Bücher, welche ich bei Ihnen gekauft habe, fönnen Sie auf meine dines with the fellows in hall, but is allowed no other privileges. Rechnung sepen. 2. Die Sieger machten sich auf Rechnung ihrer Feinde The principal college fees which a man must pay while an Lustig. 3. So lange der Mensch Beschäftigung hat, kann er zufrieden sein. undergraduate, are the caution money, the admission fee, and 4. So lange die Welt stehen wird, wird Gottes Wort nicht untergehen. 5. the fee for tuition. The first is paid to the college, and remains Ich werde für meinen Freund arbeiten so lange er frank ist. 6. So lange in its possession so long as the student's name remains upon the die Schüler fleißig sind, wird ihr Lehrer fie loben. 7. Sie fönnen bei books. Sizars pay £10, pensioners £15, fellow-commoners £25, meiner Familie bleiben so lange Sie wollen.' 8. Wenn Sie bleiben wollen, and noblemen £50. The admission fee varies at the different bis ich diese Briefe fertig habe, so fönnen Sie dieselben meinem Freunde mit colleges between £3 and £5. The terminal payment or tuition nehmen. 9. Von nun an werden wir mehr Zeit auf das Studiren verwen--that is, for the care which the tutor of the college takes of den. 10. Das Schiff war dem Winte und den Wellen Preis gegeben. the interest of the student and for attendance at the college 11. Von Tagesanbruch bis spät in die Nacht war die Stadt beni Feuer ces lectures-varies with the position of the student. A sizar pays £2, Sfeintes ausgesept. 12. Die Sonne bricht zwischen den Wolfen hervor. Ia pensioner £6, a fellow.commoner £10, and a nobleman £13.
FOR A PENSIONER.
We pass now to the University fees. These are paid to per week being compulsory. The charge for this varies in the the common chest (1) on matriculation, (2) on attending profes- different colleges from 1s. 6d. to 28. 6d. per day. This comprises sors' lectures, (3) for the previous examination, and (4) on taking a certain dinner, and anything had which is not comprised in a degree. On matriculation, a sizar pays 158.; a pensioner, £5; the college provision is supplied from the kitchen and charged a fellow-commoner, £10 10s.; a nobleman, £15 108. The total for separately. As regards breakfast and tea, the student may fees on going into residence, therefore, are-for a sizar, £13 15s.; supply himself if he pleases from shops in the town, but more for a pensioner, £23; for a fellow-commoner, £45 10s.; for a usually bread, butter, and milk are dealt out from the college nobleman, £70. On passing the previous examination, every butteries every morning to the various gyps for their respective student pays £2 10s., and for every series of professors' lectures masters. Other things will be kept in stock by the student himself. (one series of which is required from the candidates for the ordi- To sum up briefly the annual expenses while at Cambridge, and pary degree) the fee is £3 3s. On taking the degree of B.A., taking rather a low estimate, we may compute them as follows :which is the only one of which we shall speak, every student pays £7 to the University, and a sum varying from £3 to £6
Tuition. to his college.
Rooms At present we have mentioned only the tuition afforded by
Attendance, Gyp and Wife the college to all students alike. This, as we have pointed
Coals, about out in our former article, is in most cases insufficient for Cost of living for 25 weeks, at 25s. per week. those who are desirous of taking a good place in any of the Sundries, about honour triposes. It is, of course, almost impossible that a Shoe-cleaning lecturer, who has to deal with perhaps forty or fifty men in
3 00 the course of an hour, can devote much attention to individuals,
£73 16 0 however much he may exert himself in his endeavours to do so. Moreover, the course of reading which will be most suitable Under the heading “extras" are included all fines, library pay. will vary according to the powers or previous reading of the ments, etc. A sizar's expenditure will be diminished by £12 in various students, and a course of lectures cannot therefore be the tuition, by £1 10s. in the gyp, and possibly by £3 in the made to suit every one. Hence the necessity for obtaining the rooms, making the total about £57 6s. This, again, is a very assistance of a private tutor in addition to the lectures provided low estimate, and does not include private tuition, clothing, by the college. The ordinary charge per term is £8, and for pocket-money, the cook's bill, or any expenses except those the long vacation £12. An addition of £36 to the year's which are absolutely necessary during a residence of twenty-five expenses is a very important item, and weighs considerably weeks at the University. Taking everything into consideration, with the poorer class of students in their choice of reading. except the expenses of living while away from Cambridge, we The above charges are considered to entitle the pupil to one should say that the lowest amount upon which a man can live hour's private tuition every other day. But those tutors who with anything like comfort is £140 for a pensioner, and £120 take a large number of pupils, usually read with them in for a sizar. A syndicate of the University have just presented classes, which has, at all events, one beneficial effect in exciting a report on a scheme for enabling students to be members of the a feeling of competition. The professors' lectores and other University and obtain a degree without being members of a sources of instruction remain to be mentioned. Our space college. This will probably materially diminish the expenses of would fail us if we attempted to speak of these individually, residence. and we therefore content ourselves with remarking that it is We have now to consider the various means by which a by means of these that the University proper—that is, as dis- student may partially, and in some cases wholly, defray the tinct from the colleges—gives its instruction. One course, at expenses of his University course. We have said sufficient least, is required of every candidate for the poll degree or the on the subject of sizarships. We shall therefore pass on at theological examination. In the latter case, the course must once to scholarships and exhibitions, whether from the school, be that of one of the divinity professors. Many of the lectures the college, the University, or from some mercantile company. given are of a very high order, and in the mathematical branches To take first the mercantile scholarships. These are given by they are of little practical use, so far as regards the tripos ex some of the great City companies to young men, generally song aminations, except to men of the highest ability.
of freedmen, on their going up to the University, and a prior These, then, are the three methods of acquiring knowledge claim is usually given to those who ask for them on the ground while residing at Cambridge :—by college lectures, which are of poverty. They range from £30 to £50 a-year. compulsory, and paid for in the terminal payment to the college All the large public schools, and many private ones also, are tator; by private tuition, which is voluntary, and ought not to endowed with exhibitions for the benefit of their elder boys on be required by any but candidates for high honours; and by uni- leaving school. They are given for proficiency in various versity lectures, which are voluntary, except in the case of poll branches of education, mostly in classics or mathematics. They men, for whom one course is compulsory.
are the means of sending to the University many boys who, but We pass on now to the question of general expense, apart for the assistance thus given, would be debarred from the from fees and tuition. On going into residence, the first question privilege. They range from £30 to £70, and some even as which arises is that of obtaining rooms, the second that of fur- high as £100 a-year. nishing them. The question is often raised as to the compara The pecuniary rewards given by the colleges to undergradutive economy of living in college or in lodgings in the town. So ates are of three kinds : minor scholarships, scholarships, and many collateral influences affect the matter that it cannot be exhibitions. Of these, the first are of recent establishment. satisfactorily settled in a genoral answer. The rent of lodgings They are offered for public competition amongst intending is undoubtedly higher, but the outlay in furnishing is avoided, students before going into residence, and are really probationary and a man of quiet tastes may certainly lead a more retired scholarships, usually lasting for two years, and varying in value life in lodgings than he can in college. But the student must from £50 to £70 a-year. The holders of them enjoy all the remember that out of college he never really tastes the true privileges of scholars. Scholarships are usually given by the flavour of university life.
colleges for competition amongst their own members. A scholar The rent of lodgings varies from £5 to £15 per term; the differs from an exhibitioner in that he is on the foundation of rent of rooms in college from £4 to £10 per annum, the average the college. His position is higher than that of the ordinary being about £6. In addition to this there is in college the charge undergraduate, and he receives a certain amount of income, for attendance, £1 per term for a bedmaker only, £1 109. for a generally £50 a year, from the college revenues. An exhibitioner, gpp and his wife who will act as bedmaker. Furniture is gene- on the other hand, even though he may receive more money from rally taken on valuation from the preceding occupant of the the college, is not on the foundation, and his exhibition is only rooms, but the new-comer is not obliged to take any article given at the option of the master and seniors. A scholarship which he may not wish for. In this way the expense of furnish is usually tenable till the student is of standing to take the ing is sometimes exceedingly small, £15 being sufficient to fit degree of M.A. op, scantily of course, a sitting-room, a bed-room, and a gyp The highest honour which a student can gain during his room. This will not include linen or plate.
undergraduate course is that of obtaining one of the University All students dine in hall
, a certain number of dinners there scholarships. These vary very much in value, and are given
for proficiency in various subjects, among which mathematics, with lead oxide in several proportions ; with 7 molecules of the classics, Hebrew, theology, law, and poetry are included. They oxide it forms Turner's yellow; with one molecule a white paint are competed for by the best men of all years, and their value is produced, whieh is prepared by Bell of Newcastle, Cassel's to the successful candidate consists rather in the distinction yellow is still more basic. which they confer than in the pecuniary emolument which they Iodide of Lead (PbI,) falls as a beautiful yellow precipitate bring.
when an iodide is added to a lead solution. We have thus endeavoured to give our readers some slight The other salts of lead afford nothing of peculiar interest, sketch of the University and of its internal dealings with its The oxalate is the most insoluble, and therefore its precipitate own members. We shall consider in another article the local offers a good test for the presence of the metal. examinations which it holds, both for youths and young women, Besides the characteristics of these salts, already mentioned, in various parts of the country.
lead may be reduced with ease on charcoal, thus its presence is
by no means difficult to ascertain. LESSONS IN CHEMISTRY.-XXV.
The Noble Metals have already been defined to be those which LEAD (continued)-MERCURY-SILVER.
are capable of being reduced from their oxides by heat. They
are nine in number : Mercury, silver, platinum, gold, palladium, Dry air has no action on lead; but if moisture be present, the rhodium, ruthenium, osmium, and iridium. bright surface of the metal is soon tarnished by a closely-adhering film of oxide. Lead, on account of its pliability, is much
MERCURY OR QUICKSILVER. used for water-pipes and cisterns; but it should never be used SYMBOL, Hg - COMBINING WEIGHT, 200 — SPECIFIC GRAVITY, 13 59 for storing rain-water, for this is pure water containing air, and
– DENSITY OF VAPOUR, 100. in such water the oxide of lead is soluble, rendering the liquid Occasionally mercury is found native, disseminated in sma!? poisonous. Well-waters, containing nitrates and chlorides, act globules through the rock. Its chief ore is cinnabar (mercuric on lead, forming soluble salts, therefore they should not be sulphide). The extraction of the metal is simple, and is effected brought in contact with it; but hard waters have little or no either by heating the ore in retorts, burning off the sulphur, and action on lead, for a thin deposit of sulphate or carbonate is distilling the mercury; or by mixing the ore with some body formed on its surface, preserving it from further action. How- like quicklime, with which the sulphur combines, the metal as ever, water charged with carbonic acid gas is capable of dissolv- before distilling off. ing the lead carbonate to a dangerous extent.
Cinnabar is mined in many parts of the world : Almaden, in Lead is used in several alloys: shot is composed of lead, which Spain, and Idria, in Carniola, are the most important European is alloyed with a little arsenic, to render it hard and more easily mines. granulated. The other important alloys have been mentioned. The metal is imported into England in iron bottles. With most There are three oxides of lead.
metals it forms amalgams; but the film of oxide, ever present Plumbic oxide, or litharge (PbO), is a yellow powder formed on the surface of iron, prevents the amalgamation of the metals
. when lead is heated in a current of air. It is soluble in caustic, At -- 40° it becomes a solid, crystallising in octahedra ; at 3500 potash, or soda ; and if the solution be allowed to stand, car it boils; but at all temperatures it seems to give off vapour, bonic acid is gradually absorbed from the air, the alkali rendered In the Torricellian vacuum, the space above the mercurial a carbonate, and the lead oxide deposited in transparent dode-column in a barometer, globules of mercury may often be found cahedral crystals. Litharge is capable of fusion, and then com condensed on the tube. bines with glass, etc., forming fusible plumbic silicates. It is Hydrochloric acid has no action upon it; with sulphuric acid a largely used as a fux, and for glazing earthenware. A solution sulphate is formed, sulphurous acid coming of. The action with of it in lime-water is prepared for a hair-dye. The lime par- nitric acid is violent, nitrous acid gas being copiously evolved; tially decomposes the hair, when the lead with the sulphur in when triturated with sulphur or iodine, it will unite with them. the hair forms lead sulphide, staining the hair black.
Its action on the human frame is serious, producing salivaPerowide of Lead, or Plumbic Dioxide (PbO2), is a brown tion; and the workmen are subject to "mercurial palsy," : powder obtained by digesting red-lead in nitric acid. It can peculiar form of nervous debility. be decomposed by a high heat, becoming litharge, and giving
Black Mercurous Occide (Hg,O) and the Red Mercuric Oxide off oxygen. With sulphuric acid a sulphate is formed, and (HgO) are the only oxides. The former is obtained by the oxygen comes off ; with hydrochloric acid chlorine is evolved, action of potash on mercuric nitrate or on calomel. It is a dark and a plumbic chloride is made.
grey powder, and when heated is decomposed into metallio Minium or Red Lead (PbO,Pb0,) is a compound of the other mercury and two oxides; it is obtained by heating plumbic oxide or massicot,
Red Mercuric Oxide.—This oxide may be prepared by heating but not sufficiently to fuse it into litharge; it absorbs oxygen, the metal in the air to a temperature of 300° ; but this process and becomes bright red. Its chief use is in the manufacture of is slow, and the one generally adopted is the decomposition of flint glass; it is also employed to colour inferior sealing-wax mercuric nitrate by cautiously heating. In a state of fine suband in paper-staining. At a high temperature it parts with division it is yellow; such is the case when it is precipitated by some of its oxygen and becomes litharge.
potash from a solution of the nitrate. Plumbic Carbonate, or White Lead (PbO,Co.), is the well
The sulphides correspond to the oxides. known paint; it may be obtained in a state of purity by pre
Mercurous Sulphide (Hg,S) is a black powder, and may be cipitation from a solution of a plumbic salt by an alkaline car. procured by the action of sulphuretted hydrogen, or a merourous bonate. To procure it in large quantities, sheets of lead are salt. exposed to the simultaneous action of acetic acid and carbonic Mercuric Sulphide (HgS) is the ore cinnabar, or vermilion. acid. This is effected by placing the sheets rolled into coils in It is prepared artificially by heating together sulphur and 6 earthenware pots, at the bottom of which is some crude vinegar times its weight of mercury; the black mass thus formed is (acetic acid); these pots are packed in manore, from the fer placed in tall earthen pots, the lower parts of which are redmentation of which the carbonic acid is supplied. The acetic hot. The top is then closed, and after thirty-two hours the vessel acid, volatilised by the heat of the fermentation, attacks the is opened; the sublimation being complete, the vermilion is metal oxidised by the air, forming acetate of lead (sugar of found deposited on the upper parts of the vessel. lead). The carbonic acid gradually displaces the acetic acid Mercurous Chloride, or Calomel (Hg,ci), is usually prepared by from its combination, and thus the plumbic carbonate is formed. triturating 17 parts of corrosive sublimate, moistened with 13
Lead Sulphide (PbS).—Galena has been noticed as the chief parts of mercury, and then subliming. It is a white powder ore of lead. Artificially, this compound may be produced by decomposed by the alkalies, but insoluble in water. It is passing a current of sulphuretted hydrogen through a solution largely used in medicize. of a lead salt. Dilute nitric acid causes this compound to Mercuric Chloride, or Corrosive Sublimate (HgC1), is formed deposit its sulphur ; but if the acid be strong, both the lead and when mercury burns in chlorine, or when mercurio oxide is disthe sulphar are oxidised, forming a lead sulphate.
solved in hydrochloric acid; it is usually prepared by subliming a Plumbic Chloride (PbC1,) is precipitated from a solution of The nitrate by the addition of sodium chloride. It combines * The density of its vapour is 100, being an exception to the rule:
mixture of salt and mercuric sulphate. In this instance the Argentic Sulphide (Ag,S) is found as the mineral "silver action is
glance.” Sulphuretted hydrogen precipitates it from a silver 2NaCl + Hg50. = HgCl, + Na,so,
solution; it falls as a black powder. It is also decomposed by the alkalies, but is soluble in water; The presence of silver is easily detected by the precipitation it is a violent poison. The white of eggs (albumen) is the of the chloride. Copper, zinc, and iron precipitate metallic antidote, since with this substance an insoluble compound is silver from its solutions; mercury produces the crystalline deformed. The action of ammonia on these chlorides is peculiar, posit, which is an amalgam, and is known as “arbor Dianæ." a molecule of amidogen (NH) replacing an atom of chlorine :- Phosphorus also becomes coated with silver when suspended in (1.) Hg,Cl, + 2NH, = Hg,C1,NH, + NH,Cn.
an argentic solution. (2.) HgCl + 2NH, Hg,Cl,NH, + NH,Cl.
Mercury, lead, and silver are distinguishable by the action of
their chlorides with ammonia. Mercurous Iodide is a green powder, formed when any mercuroas salt is acted on by potassium iodide ; it easily decom- the chloride of mercury is blackened.
The chloride of silver is soluble—that of lead insoluble ; while poses, even by light, into
Mercuric Iodide, which is a brilliant red colour, formed with mercuric salts and potassium iodide ; it is soluble in an
LESSONS IN BOOKKEEPING.–XII. excess of the latter solution. The mercurous salts are distin. guished from the mercuric salts by the addition of a chloride,
COTTON BOOK. when calomel falls.
In the Day-Book, which was given in our last lesson, all the The salts of mercury are readily recognised by the appear- transactions relating to the purchase and sale of the different ance of the metal when they are submitted to heat.
kinds of Cotton have been entered as a primary record of these transactions; but if the merchant be desirous of keeping a dis
tinct and separate account of his dealings in Cotton, in order to SYMBOL, Ag - COMBINING WEIGHT, 108 -SPECIFIC GRAVITY, 10-5. be able to tell at a glance what is actually in his Warehouse, or
Silver, the most beautiful of the metals, is frequently, though in Stock, as the phrase is, he will have a book similar to the not plentifully, met with in a native state; it is often combined following specially made for the purpose. In this book, the with mercury, antimony, and gold; but usually is found as a transactions can be more clearly and distinctly arranged; for sulphide, with the sulphur ores of lead, antimony, copper, and he can have a separate account of each kind of cotton, with iron.
columns for the number of the bags, the net weight in pounds, The chief silver mines are those of Peru and Mexico ; Kongs- the rate per pound, the prime cost, and the selling price; and he berg, in Norway; and Schnuberg, in Saxony.
can appropriate the one side of the folio for the purchases, and Its extraction from lead has been already noticed.
the other side of the folio for the sales; so that the difference To liberate the metal from its ores the method of amalgama- between them can be found in a moment, if necessary. If any tion is often resorted to, which consists in reducing the silver particular kind of Cotton be all sold, then this book will show to the state of a chloride by roasting the crushed ore with salt; at once what has been gained or lost by the transactions in this then it is placed in barrels of water with pieces of iron, which kind; and as the same principle is applicable to all kinds, it are made to revolve by this means. The iron becomes a follows that if all the Cotton of every kind has been sold, this chloride, and the metallic silver is liberated. Mercury is now book will show, both individually and collectively, the gain or added, with which the silver amalgamates. The mercury is loss on each, and the gain or loss on the whole. This is a great then distilled off and the silver remains.
advantage where a merchant deals chiefly or wholly in any parThe metal is the best conductor of heat and electricity, and ticular kinds of goods, as he can form an idea of his gain or exhibits extraordinary ductility.
loss on the principal part or the whole of his business acSilver is largely used in the arts, but is then usually alloyed, cordingly without consulting his Ledger or striking a general to give it the requisite hardness for wear. Standard silver, of balance. which coins are made, contains 7.5 per cent. of copper. Since It is evident that in any trade, business, or mercantile proit is capable of receiving the highest polish, it is much used for fession, such a book as this for every separate species of goods reflectors. When melted it possesses the remarkable property bought and sold would be of immense advantage, and would of absorbing oxygen from the air ; this it liberates again on certainly be preferable to one book, such as the Day-Book, cooling, and hence the surface of a cooled mass is covered with where all kinds of goods are indiscriminately classed together bubbles, from which the oxygen has escaped.
according to the dates of the different transactions ; for the There is reason to believe that three oxides exist: the sub-oxide order of dates, though highly important, is not so useful to a (Ag,0), the silver oxide (Ag,0), and the neutral peroxide (Ag,02). merchant as the classification of his transactions; whilst even
The Silver Oxide (Ag,0) is precipitated as a brown powder when in that classification this order can be preserved. Hence a merpotash is added to a solution of argentine nitrate.
chant may have his Sugar-Book, his Indigo-Book, his Tea-Book, When this powder, freshly precipitated, is digested for some his Coffee-Book, etc., according to the nature of his business ; hours in ammonia, fulminating silver is the result, which must be and in keeping books by Single Entry, which many persons yet carefully dried in small quantities on pieces of blotting-paper. mistakenly follow, such books as these are indispensably neces
Argentic Nitrate (AgNO3) is produced when the metal is dis- sary, inasmuch as the Ledger kept by Single Entry gives them solved in nitric acid. It may be obtained in tabular crystals; no information whatever as to the actual state of their Assets it is soluble in its own weight of cold water. When fused it is and Liabilities. If the book, such as the following, be devoted sold as lanar caustic. With organic matter, in sunlight, it under to one or more classes of goods, and each be kept separate and goes decomposition, staining the body with black suboxide. This distinct, so that no confusion be introduced into the different property is the foundation of photography.
transactions, it may be called legitimately the Stock or WareArgentic Chloride (AgCl) falls as a white, curdy precipitate house Book, as the merchant can always tell his Stock of Goods whenever a chloride is added to a silver solution :
by consulting it, without actually going to the warehouse and AgNO, + Naci AgCl + Na.NO,
turning over the goods in order to see what he has got in hand. When heated strongly it melts; and when cool it is named horn the account of clear gain made by the purchase and sale of
The following is the state of the Profit and Loss account, or silver from its appearance. chloride, it is only necessary to moisten it with dilute sulphurie Cotton of different kinds from January to June, as per Cottonacid, and place a piece of zinc in contact with it; a gradual
Book :transfer of the chlorine from the silver to the zinc takes place. Gain on Berbice
£60 5 8 In sunlight it changes colour, becoming purple, with a loss of
33 04 chlorine. It is readily soluble in ammonia.
85 14 8 Argentic Iodide (AgI) is the most sensitive to light of the silver
123 16 8 salts; for this purpose the collodion of the photographer is
355 4 10 iodised, so that when the plate is immersed in the bath of
111 16 5 argentic nitrate, on its surface may be formed a film of iodide of
$769 18 7