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afterwards, a repetition of the process, when, in a future case, to the right of c d. Upon d m draw the plan of the lower the object above varies in size and form from the one below, the block; afterwards the plan of the upper one, e h i k; all its difficulties will not be so great. Probably it will be advisable to sides being one foot within the larger plan. In Fig. 59 we recapitulate some of the work, to prevent failure. Make a b have represented only the upper block; the lower one will be equal to the distance the object is to the left of the eye; draw simply a repetition of the one in Fig. 57, which our pupils 6 P8; make bf equal to the distance

must not omit repeating when drawing the nearest angle is within the picture;

PP

Fig. 59. We will now commence with and because the line from b vanishes

the HL, and proceed upwards. The at ps, therefore the line from f, to cut

E, DE, PP, and Ps will be the same off the point within, must be drawn to

as in Fig. 57. The distance of the DE', the distance point of E or Ps, to

nearest angle a from the PP must be determine the nearest part of the ob

Fig. 58,

measured from b to c on the pp, and ject c. (Some writers on Perspective

equal to psc, taken from Fig. 58. call the DE the DPS, meaning the dis.

The distance c f, of the point a within, tance of the point of sight. It makes

must be equal to f e (Fig. 58). Draw no practical difference, because Del or

from a to vpl, and also the other way DEə represents the space between the

to the prin m; a line from m perpeneye and the picture plane, that is, be

dicularly to PP will be the line of contween E and PS; Ps being on the pic

tact, upon which to measure the thickture plane, which is supposed to be in

ness, m n, of the block. The length & perpendicular position; the line

and breadth to be cut off on the lines below, marked PP, being its base.—See

which vanish to vpl and vpo must be Fig. 21, Vol. II., page 360.) Through

taken from the plan, viz., e h for c, directed from DVP', draw a line to

the length, and e k for the breadth, T; make r s equal to the length of the

as shown in e h and o k (Fig. 59). It block; draw from

will be noticed & back again to

that the differences DVP, which will

of dimensions be-cut the vanishing

Fig. 59.

tween the two line from c to vpl

blocks, and the in m; cm will

greater distance then be the per.

of the lower block spective represen

from the PP, causes. tation of mk

16f 2

PP

a change of posilength of the

tion for the line of block. Through

contact, or rather, C, directed from

another line of DVP, draw a line

contact must be into n; make no

troduced. The perequal to the width

pendicular from i of the block, and

is the line of conrule from o back

HL

tact for the lower again to DVP2;

vp2
DVPT

DVP2

vel block, whilst the this will cut the

one from m will be line from c to vp

the line of contact in v; cv will be

for the upper; the width of the

Fig. 60,

proving that in all block. We trust

cases the first part A the remainder of

of the construction the work, includ

to be considered is ing the thickness

the position of the of the block, will

nearest point of present no difficul.

the object, with ties.

regard to the eye We will make

and the PP; leavfurther use of this

ing the rest to problem, by chang.

whatever may reing the proportions

sult from the work, of the upper block

according to the to 4 feet long, and DE HL ovlea

varied character PS

DE 2 feet wide; its

DO of the subject, and plan being in the

the conditions centre of the plan

given in the stateof the lower one.

ment. In this case a plan

Before we make must be drawn

any further appliboth of the blocks

cation of the rule and the PP, to show

and process of the how the former are PP

above problem, we situated and con

will explain anonected with the latter, and from which we obtain the propor-ther important step connected with this part of our subject, tions and distances of the several parts from one another and afterwards combine the two in an especial case. and from the PP. Therefore Fig. 58 is the first considera Our next consideration will be the way in which we can make tion; it is a plan constructed according to the particulars use of a diagonal line for determining retiring distances and regiven in the question. Draw the PP. Anywhere, say from tiring proportions; that is, the angle which the diagonal makes a, draw the line a b, at an angle of 400 with the PP. Upon with the PP (we will suppose it to be the diagonal of a square). this last line find the point d, the nearest angle within the The diagonal is obtained by bisecting the angle formed by the P?; draw d c perpendicularly with the PP; place Ps 3 feet vanishing lines from a to vpl and vp> ; its vP and distance point

DE

PS

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DP found, and in all respects treated as are the vanishing lines of 11. Find the length of the side of a square which is equal in retiring sides.

area to the rectangle, the sides of which are 513 yards 1 foot PROBLEM XXXVI. (Fig. 60).—Two square slabs of different 11 inches and 1628 yards 11 inches. dimensions, the smaller of which is lying upon the other; the How much would it cost to cover the area with turf at 41d. plans of their centres coincide; the nearest angle of the lower per square yard ? one touches the PP. The side of the larger slab is 4:5 feet; the 12. If 100 lbs. of tea be bought at 45. 4d. and sold at 58., smaller, 3 feet. Thickness of each, 1 foot. Angle of sight, distance, and 100 lbs. of sugar bought at 6d. and sold at 78., what profit and height of the eye, as in the last problem.

per cent. will be realised on the whole outlay ? A portion of the subject represented by the plan A must be 13. The removal of a quantity of brick earth, 32 square yards constructed, for the purpose of obtaining the length of that part in area and of a uniform depth of 2 yards, costs £2 2s. 80.; of the diagonal line between a and b. As the angles of the what is the cost of the removal of a cubic yard ? object are right angles, therefore the angle formed by the 14. A person's average annual expenditure, from the year vanishing lines from E to the HL will be a right angle. Bisect 1830 to the year 1850 inclusive, is £391 98. 2d. He finds that it by the line E 0; E O will then be the vanishing line of the in 1830 he spent £391 168., and in 1851, £445 8s. 9d. What diagonal of the slabs, and o the VP. Find its distance point by was his average annual expenditure from 1831 to 1851 indrawing from o the aro E DO. After the lower slab, mc de, clusive ? is drawn according to previous instructions, produce the per 15. In Austria 120 gulden (paper currency) are worth 100 pendicular m c through v; make mc and c v equal to the silver gulder. What amount of paper money should be obtained thickness of the slabs; in other words, mark their heights on the for £10 sterling if the value of £1 be 9 gulden 30 kreutzers in line of contact from m. Draw the diagonals m o, co, and silver (60 kreutzers 1 gulden)? V 0; also the diagonal d. Our object now is to determine the 16. What sum at £4 per cent. compound interest will amount nearest angle of the upper slab. Upon the diagonal of the base, in two years to £405 12s. ? m 0, we must cut off the distance of a b, in the plan A. Make 17. Å room is 60 feet long by 29 feet wide; how many people on n equal to the line a b, and from n draw a line to do, can be seated in it on chairs 11 feet wide, and placed 2 feet outting the retiring diagonal m o in h; mh will then be the apart from back to back, allowing a clear passage 3 feet wide perspective distance of a b. From h draw the perpendicular down the middle of the room and a space of 15 feet deep at one her; this perpendicular, cutting the diagonal from c, gives the end ? nearest angle of the upper slab in s; cv being the measured

18. Divide 296-293 by 41.967 so as to have six decimal places thickness of the upper slab, therefore s r is the perspective in the quotient. thickness. The diagonal d e, cutting the retiring base of the 19. Find the length of the longest chain in terms of which 88 upper slab from s each way, gives the perpendicular edges at 1 yards 2 feet 5 inches and 119 yards 2 feet 1 inch can both be and k. The remaining retiring lines must be directed to their expressed as integers. respective vanishing points.

20. By selling at 4} per cent. profit, a tradesman gained £47 14s. ; what was the prime cost of his goods ?

21. The interest on a certain sum of money for two years is LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.XLVI. £71 16s. 7 d., and the discount on the same sum for the same EXERCISE 64.-MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.

time is £63 17s., simple interest being reckoned. Find the 1. Reduce to a proper fraction

rate per cent. and the sum.

22. A barters some tea with B for flour which is worth 2} + 11 — 21 Х

2s. 3}d. a stone, but uses a false pound weight of 15€ oz. 3 + 2) — 41 過錯+ - 39.1 + $

What value should B set upon his flour that the exchange may 2. How many bricks 9 inches long, 4 broad, and 4 thick, be fair ? will be required for a wall 30 feet long, 20 feet high, and 4 feet 23. A garrison consisting of 2000 men, fixds during a siege thick, allowing 64 per cent. of the space for mortar ?

that it has provisions for six weeks; at the end of a fortnight 3. When hay was £5 per ton, a well-to-do farmer hid him 400 men are killed in a sally. How long will the provisions last ? self in a load, and his weight, of course, was added in that of 24. Find the expense of painting a room 23 feet 6 inches the hay. Before the hay was shipped, the trick was detected; long, 12 feet 7 inches high, and 17 feet 6 inches broad, at and after another weighing, 7s. 6d. was deducted from the price. 3s. 6 d. a square yard. Find the farmer's weight.

25. The gold procured from Australia in nine months in 1851 4. A room is 20 feet long, 16 broad, and 12 high. If pure amounted to 313644 ounces. In 1861, the New Zealand gold. gold be worth £4 5s. per oz. Troy, and a cubic foot of gold fields yielded 314438 ounces in the same time. What is the weigh 19260 oz. avoirdupois, what is the value of the gold excess in weight and value (at £3 175. 104d. per ounce) of the which will exactly fill the room ?

average monthly return from New Zealand over that from 5. A wine-merchant buys 12 dozen of port at 84s. per dozen, Australia ? and 60 dozen more at 48s. per dozen; he mixes them, and sells 26. Find the difference between the amount of £247 10s. for the mixture at 72s. per dozen : what profit per cent. does he two years, and the present worth of the same sum due after two realise on his original outlay?

years at 5 per cent. 6. How many cubes of which the sides are 27 inches can be 27. How many bricks, of which the length, breadth, and cut out of a cube of which the side is 22 inches ?

thickness are 9, 6,3 inches respectively, will be required to build 7. A young lady desires to paper her room with postage- a wall whereof the length, height, and thickness are 72, 8, and stamps, but being herself unable to calculate the number which 14 feet? will be required, she supplies the following data :-Her room is 28. Express as the fraction of £10 the difference between 14 feet 9 inches long, 9 feet 3 inches broad, and 10 feet 6 £8] and £8 x }; and find the value of į of a ton of sugar inches high ; it contains two windows, each 5, feet by 4 feet, when of a ton is worth £6 5s. and three doors, each 6 feet by 3 feet; a postage-stamp is li of 29. Find two numbers whose greatest common measure is an inch long, and of an inch broad. Make the calculation for 179, and least common multiple 56385. her.

30. In which way had one better buy sugar, at 3 guineas per 8. The daily issue of the Times is 60,000 copies. Three days cwt., or at £2 16s. 4d. per quintal of 100 lbs. ? and how much of the week it consists of 3 sheets, and for the remaining three is one buying when the gain by the more advantageous way is a of 4 sheets. If a sheet be 3 feet long and 2 feet broad, find the guinea ? number of acres which the weekly issue of the Times would 31. On what sum is the daily interest at 4 per cent. one cover.

penny ? 9. Express of 78. 6d. + 625 of 10s. --545 of 9s. 2d. as a 32. If 16 darics make 17 guineas, 19 guineas make 24 pistoles, decimal fraction of £10.

31 pistoles make 38 sequins, how many sequins are there in 1851 10. Among how many men must £73 be divided in order that darics ? the share of each may be £4 178. 4d. ? And among how many 33. Which way had one better buy coffee, at 6 guineas a cwt., must £79 178. 6d.' be divided in order that half of them may or at £5 123. 4d. per quintal of 100 lbs. ? And how much is ons have 10s. 7d. each, and the other half 7s. 2d. each ?

bnging, when the loss on the less advantageous way is £1?

[graphic]

34. If 2 guineas make 3 napoleons, and 15 rix-dollars make 4 50. How soon will a sum double itself at 12, per cent. comnapoleons, and 6 ducats make 7 rix-dollars, how many ducats pound interest ? are there in £490 ?

51. The external length, breadth, and height of a rectangular 35. Three per Cents. are offered at 901, Five per Cents. at wooden closed box are 18 inches, 10 inches, and 6 inches respec150$; in which should one invest? And how much is one in- tively, and the thickness of the wood is 4 inch. When the box vesting when the difference of income is £1?

is empty, it weighs 15 lbs.; and when filled with sand, 100 lbs. 36. How much ore must one raise that, on losing 13 in roast- Compare the weights of equal bulks of wood and sand. ing, and of the residue in smelting, there may result 506 tons 52. The sum of £177 is to be divided among 15 men, 20 women, of pure metal ?

and 30 children in such a manner that a man and a child may 37. An analysis of the Board of Trade returns for 1861 re- together receive as much as two women, and all the women specting shipwrecked lives gives the following results :-Saved together receive £60. What will they respectively receive ? by lifeboats, 13} per cent. ; by rocket and mortar apparatus, 8 per cent. ; by ships' boats, etc., 62 per cent. ; by individual exertion, per cent. ; lost, 16 per cent. Determine the number

READINGS IN FRENCH.—XII. of lives saved by the several means enumerated, corresponding

JACOPO. to a loss of 864 lives.

SECTION III. 38. A monolith of red granite in the Isle of Mall is said to be ÉLISA, un peu rassurée par la promesse de son oncle, commença, about 108 feet in length, and to have an average transverse d'une voix tremblante, son récit. Elle racontar comment elle section of 113 square feet. If shaped for an obelisk it would avait renversé la petite paysanne, et comment ses oeufs avaient probably lose one-third of its bulk, and then weigh about 600

été brisés. tons. Determine the number of cubic yards in such an obelisk,

“ Allons ! c'est très-bien, Élisa, tu as été franche;" comme ce and the weight in pounds of a cubic foot of granite. 39. A person invests £5187 10s. in the Three per Cents. at chargeant(b) de solliciter aussi ta mère en ta faveur.!"3

n'est pas trop ton habitude, je veux t'en(a) récompenser en me 83, and when the funds have risen to 85, he transfers three-fifths of his capital to the Four per Cents. at 96. Find the alteration demander.*' Vous me donnez dix sous par(e) semaine pour mes

“Maman," dit alors Napoléon, "j'ai encore un grâce à vous in his income. 40. Find the square root of 767376, and the length of the menus plaisirs. (d) Eh bien! achevez de payer les ceufs 5 de cette side of a square whose area is equal to that of a rectangle, the pauvre petite qui attend là ce que tout cela va devenir, (e) et vous

ne me donnerez plus rien jusqu'à ce que nous soyons quittes." sides of which are 47.14 yards and 210 yards.

“D'accord,") dit Madame Lætitia en faisant approcher la 41. A and B contract to execute a certain order for £1245. petite paysanne, et lui donnant un petit écu. “Napoléon, en A employs 100 children for 3 months, 80 women for 2 months, voilà pour six semaines.” and 40 men for 1 month ; B employs 120 children for 2 months,

L'enfant courut à Napoléon, et voulut lui remettro? les deux 60 women for 14 months, and 80 men for 24 months. If the pièces de monnaie qu'elle avait reçues de lui au moment où work done in the same time by a child, a woman, and a man be l'accident était arrivé; mais il refusa. in the ratio 1:2:3, find the sum of money which A and B must

Cette probité plut(g) à Madame Bonaparte, qui alors intereach receive.

rogea la petite paysanne.lo Elle apprit que c'était la fille d'un 42. The area of the coal-field of South Wales is 1000 square pauyre pêcheur, que sa mère était malade,12 qu'elle demeurait miles, and the average thickness of the coal is 60 feet. If a dans une chétive cabane, sur le bord de la mer, à quelque cubic yard of coal weigh 1 ton, and the annual consumption of distance 13 de l'endroit où son panier avait été renversé. coal in Great Britain be 70,000,000 tons, find the number of

“Ta mère est malade, dis-tu, mon enfant p 14 elle n'a pas de years for which this coal-field alone would supply Great Britain médecin qui la soigne, sans doute. J'irai la voir.” with coal at the present rate of consumption. 43. If the coal annually consumed in this country (70,000,000 tout de suite. 15 Nous reconduirons Charlotte."

“Oh! maman, je vous en prie,” s'écria Napoléon, "allons-y tons) were piled up into a pyramid, having for base the great court

“Volontiers,” répondit Madame Bonaparte. “Allons, 16 mes of Trinity College, Cambridge, the dimensions of which are 110 by enfants, partons.” 90 yards, find the height of the pyramid. (N.B. The volume of

Les enfants ne se le firent(h) pas répéter. Quelques instants a pyramid is nal to the area of the base multiplied into one après, ils arrivèrent au pied d'un rocher.17 third of the height.)

“C'est là," dit Charlotte, en désignant une misérable cabane.18 44. A man invests £4297 10s. in the Three per Cents. at 954.

Lorsqu'ils entrèrent, un jeune garçon de douze ans était He sells out one-third of his stock when the funds have fallen occupé à faire un filet ;19 une toute petite fille était assise à to 94, £1600 stock when they have risen to 964, and the re- terre(i) et mangeait une croûte de pain; une enfant, beaucoup mainder at par. What sum does he gain ? If he invest the proceeds in the French Three per Cents. at d'une vieille courtepointé presque en lambeaux.

plus jeune encore, dormait dans un berceau cassé,20 couvert 67.50, what is the difference in his income, 25 francs being taken as equivalent to £1 ?

COLLOQUIAL EXERCISE. 45. Gunter's Chain is taken along the line A D (920 links) in the 1, Que raconta la petite Elisa? 12. Od demeurait la famille du six-sided field ABCDEF; the distances of the points B, C, É, F 2. Que lui dit alors son oncle ? pêcheur ? from A D are 182, 250, 190, 136 links, meeting it at points 120,

3. Que promit encore l'archi- 13. Où cabane était-elle diacre ?

située ? 560, 750, 95 links from A. Find the acreage of the field.

4. Que dit Napoléon à sa mère ? 14. Que dit Madame Bonaparte à (N.B. The area of a triangle is half the rectangle contained by

5. Que proposa-t-il à l'égard des l'enfant ? its base and its height.)

15. Que dit alors Napoléon ? 46. A ring weighs 1 dwt. 4 gr., and is worth £1 2g. If 1050 6. Que lui répondit Madame Lee. 16. Madame Lætitia lui accordasuch rings be packed in a box weighing 3} lbs., what would it titia ?

t-elle sa prière ? cost to convey them 144 miles at the rate of 58. per ton per 7. Que fit alors la petite pay- 17. Où arriva-t-on quelque temps mile, insurance being demanded at the rate of } per cent. ?

après ? 47. If £1 exchanges for 24:8 francs, and the French Three

8. Napoléon accepta-t-il l'argent? 18. Que dit Charlotte et que

désigna-t-elle ? per Cents. are selling for 70-2 francs, what amount of the latter

9. Quel fut l'effet de cette action stock will £539 buy ?

de la petite fille ?

19. Que virent-ils en entrant dans

10. Que fit alors Madame Bona la maison du pêcheur ? 48. A contractor engaged to make 24 miles of road in 84

parte ?

20. Où dormait le plus jeune des days; but after employing 60 men for 54 days, he found they had 11. Qu'apprit-elle de la petite fille ? enfants ? only finished 880 yards. How many additional men must be

NOTES. employed to finish the work within the prescribed time? 49. The fall in the price of paper was 1ļd. per lb., and (a) En, for it.

(f) D'accord, agreed. the weight of a certain book 11 lbs. The paper manufacturer (b) En me chargeant, in taking (9) From plaire. realised 10 per cent. on his sale, and the publisher 20 per (c) Par, a.

upon myself.

(h) Ne se le firent pas répéter, did

not wait for a repetition of cent. on his outlay. What reduction might be made in the (a) Menus plaisirs, pocket-money. this. price of the book on the fall in the price of paper, allowing toe) Ce que tout cela va devenir, (i) À terre, on the ground. each tradesman the same rate of profit as before ?

what will be the result of all this.

ceufs cassés ?

sanne ?

[graphic]

SECTION IV.

20. Il n'est pas nécessaire d'y rester. 21. Que pensez-vous faire de La cabano contenait à peine quelques meubles' indispensables. votre livre? 22. Je pense le donner à mon fils. 23. Que voulez-vous L'enfant endormi, quoique ses joues fussent påles? et ses bras que je dise à ce monsieur ? 21. Je veux le prier do me faire un plaisir. maigres, était bien rangé(a) dans sa couchette. Sur un mauvais le lui envoyer, elle est malade. 27. Mlle. votre seur ne sait-elle pas

25. Voulez-vous envoyer ce faisan à Mme. votre mère ? 26. Je désire grabat, était étendue(b), malade et souffrante, une femme jeune jouer du violon? 23. Elle ne sait pas jouer du violon, mais elle sait encore, mais dont les traits Alétris faisaient peine à voir. La jouer de la guitare. 29. Mlle. votre seur désire-t-elle demeurer en misère de ces pauvres gens toucha profondément le cæur de haut? 30. Elle préfère demeurer en bus. 31. Ne voulez-vous pas me Madame Bonaparte; rien de pareil encore ne s'était offert à ses faire ce plaisir ? 32. Je le ferai volontiers. 33. M. votre frère ne regards.

peut-il pas rester à diner avec nous aujourd'hui ? 34. Il e promis à - Vous êtes malade, ma bonne femme,"5 dit Madame Lætitia mon père de venir diner avec lui. 35. Notre ami sait lire, écrire et en s'approchant; "un médecin vous donne-t-il des soins ?”

compter. “Ah! Madame, de pauvres gens comme nous ne doivent pas réclamer des soins qu'ils ne peuvent payer.”

LESSONS IN SHORTHAND.-IX. Pendant ce dialogue, Napoléon s'était approché? de l'enfant

METHOD OF PRACTICE. qui faisait du filet, et n'avait pas tardé à faire avec lui plus ample connaissance.

134. The learner should not attempt, at first, to bring into use a}} Depuis ce temps, la cabano était souvent le but des prome- practise, for two or three weeks, a rather lengthened style of Phono

the abbreviating principles here introduced. He sheuld be content to nades de Madame Lætitia et de ses enfants.

Jacope, tel est le nom du fils du pêcheur, s'était surtout graphy, making much use of the simple consonants, until he feels concilié les sonnes grâces 10 de Napoléon, qui, sur ses menus confidence in the use of the phonographic characters, and in the prioplaisirs, trouvait toujours le moyen de mettre quelque chose de ciple of phonetic spelling. He may then gradually adopt the double côté pour lui. Aussi était-il devenu pour Jacopo l'objet d'une and treble letters, and the prefixes and affixes, etc., as he requires sorte de culte" et d'adoration ; pour Napoléon, Jacopo aurait thom ; that is, as he feels that the style he is employing is not brief tout sacrifié,12 jusqu'à sa vie.

enough for the manual dexterity he has acquired. În selecting one Cependant, lorsque Napoléon eut atteint(e) l'âge de dix ans, 13

out of two or more possible forms for any word, the student must recolil dut(d) quitter Ajaccio. Avant de partir, l'enfant alla faire lect that great case in writing, and, consequently, the saving of time, ses adieux à la famille du pêcheur, et ce ne fut pas sans verser is not secured by using hooked and grouped, and especially half-sized, quelques larmes qu'il se sépara de Jacopo. Il avait une très- letters, on all possible occasions ; but he must learn to make a judicious jolie boîte en ébène, 15 de la grandeur à peu près d'une tabatière, selection, and employ those which are most readily made in any given à laquelle il(e) tenait beaucoup ; il y grava son nom avec la case, and not adopt those forms that merely take up the least room. pointe d'un canif, et 16 en fit cadeau à Jacopo, qui la reçut en

135. The pupil should spend as much time in reading as its sanglotant, et la plaça immédiatement sur son coeur. Jamais writing Phonography. Printed rather than manuscript Phonography ce souvenir ne devait le quitter.

should be selected for this purpose. To those who wish to excel in Nous ne suivrons point Napoléon dans les différentes phases Phonography as an Art, the perusal of some shorthand volumes de sa prodigieuse fortune.

is recommended before a rapid style of writing is acquired, in order Le deux décembre mil huit cent cinq, 19 l'armée française était that the style may be formed on a correct model. When learncampée dans les plaines d'Austerlitz. Le soleil se lève; entouré ing, the following method of practice will be found useful :- Take a de ses maréchaux, l'Empereur attend, 19 pour donner ses ordres, specimen of printed shorthand, and copy it out in longhand; then que l'horizon soit tout à fait éclairci.

transcribe the article into phonetic shorthand, from the longhand “Soldats,” s'écria-t-il, “il faut finir cette campagne par un 20 copy, and compare the shorthand exercise with the original : correct, coup de tonnerre!" Et le combat s'engage aux cris de Vive if necessary, and re-write. This course should be continued until l'Empereur!

a correct style is obtained. Much advantage will also be derived COLLOQUIAL EXERCISE.

from transcribing phonetic printing into shorthand. In this case 1. Que contenait la cabane ? 10. Avait-il obtenu l'amitié de he pupil has the phonetic spelling of each word provided to his 2. Que dit l'auteur à l'égard de Napoléon ?

hand. The “Phonctic Journal,” published weekly, may be used l'enfant endormi?

11. Qu'était devenu Napoléon pour for these purposes, as it contains both shorthand and phonetic priut3. Que voyait-on sur un mauvais Jacopo ?

ing. In a class, after an exercise has been written from the dictagrabat?

12. Qu'aurnit fait le petit garçon tion of the leader, let the books change hands, and each student read 4. Quel sentiment Madame Lee pour son bienfaiteur ?

and correct the writing of another. titia éprouva-t-elle ?

13. Quand Napoléon dut-il quitter 136. The pupil is now prepared to employ in his writing the full 5. Que dit-elle en s'approchant ? Ajaccio ? 6. Que répondit la pauvre ma- 14. Qu'alla:t-il faire avant de partir? graphy :

list of Grammalogues used in the Corresponding Style of Phonolade ?

15. Qu'avait-il alors ? 7. Qu'avait fait Napoléon pen. 16. Que fit-il de la boite ?

GRAMMALOGUES-ALPHABETICALLY ARRANGED. dant ce dialogue ?

17. ON Jacopo plaça-t-il le cadeau ? 8. Où Madame Lætitin et les en 18. Quel jour l'armée française

A, an

| Ве

| do fants allaient-ils souvent depuis était-elle campée dans les plaines d'Austerlitz ?

been cet instant ?

1 Doctor 9. Quel était le nom du fils du 19. Qu'attendait l'Empereur ?

according pêcheur ?

done 20. Que dit-il aux soldats?

beyond --- advantage

but (a) Bien rangé, neatly arrangod. (d) Dut, was obliged to; from devoir. (6) Etendue, lying; from étendre. (e) À laquelle il tenait beaucoup,

after

by
(c) From atteindre.
which he valued much.

ago
Call

Each
KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN FRENCH,

all

English EXERCISE 146 (Vol. II., page 386).

cannot

equal 1. M. votre beau-frère compte-t-il louer le rez-de-chaussée ? 2. Il compte louer deux appartements au second. 3. Combien de chambres

any

everM. votre fils compte-t-il louer ? 4. Il compte loner deux chambres au second. 5. Préfère-t-il demeurer au second ? 6. Il préfère demeurer

First au rez-de-chaussée. 7. M. votre père veut-il venir diner demain avec 8. Il compte venir demain à deux heures. 9. Préférez-vous

could
demeurer en haut ou en bas ? 10. Je préfère demeurer en haut.
Mlle, votre scur sait-elle toucher le piano ? 12. Elle sait jouer du

at
1 Dear

from
piano. 13. Où comptez-vous demeurer ? 14. Nous comptons demeurer
chez M. votre père. 15. Voulez-vous monter dans ma chambre ? 16.

away
different

General o descendrai chez votre père. 17. Désirez-vous demeurer au rez-dezussée ? 18. Je désire demeurer au second. 19. Faut-il rester ici ?

difficulty

gentleman

1 above

NOTES.

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GRAMMALOGUES-PHONETICALLY ARRANGED. gentlemen

not

( think give-a number

Words marked (*) are written above the line, (+) through the line, and 6 this

(1) under the line. Words unmarked are written on the line. go O! oh I owe

CONSONANTS.

V

have God of Р happy *, up; putt

over *, ever-y good

pr
principio +

very; however + to e great

pn

upon opinion

particular *, opportu. | TH

( thank, think hand opportunity Ը told

[nity

or 2 through + bappy

or
1 toward

B by *, be; to be + TH ( though *, them
have
C other -7 true

br remember-ed, mem

( dr

other
he
ๆ truth

[ber; number +
bn
been

dr 1 their, there him

two, too

above by

ths

6 those *, this; these obimself

Under

1 T

(

tht at *, it; out +

that *, without how

up

2 truth; true + tr

s ) so, us; sce+ Particular

upon

tid
r tola

is
1
Phonography

trd
1 1. toward

st

first
if
pleasure
Very

I had, do ; different
D

z )

was ; whose in principal

dr

1 Dr.", dear; during +|| SH shall, shalt o is

put

way

dn

J. done; down to shrt
I lite
Quite

df
difficult-y +

pleasure
importan
Read (pr.tense)

what
CH / which ; each +

M me *,my *, him, may ;

[wliom improve-d-ment » remember-ed

when

J large *; advantage + mr more *, Mr., mere , which

jn
general

myself *, himself e several

while
jnt gentleman *, gentle mp importante improve-
[men

[-d-ment May

who
shall, shalt

K
come

mt might me, my

whom
kl call *, equal

N in*, any*, no; own member should (up) whose

nor*, near )

why

kd
quite *, could

opinion
inight
spirit 6 will

krd according

nt

not *, nature
with

kat
cannot *

nd

under Mr

that
(without

G go *, ago *, gire-n NG English *, thing myself

.
word

God *, good

L

Lord Nature ) their, there would

great

wl while *, will
( them
Year

R or *, your; year
F

if
you

are; our +
fr
for

rd read* (pr.tense), word thing

your

for
from

W 137. Logograms that are written above the line (except horizontal

fn Phonography

why *, way, away and vowel logograms), or through the line, cannot be employed on unruled paper. These words should, in that case, have their remain.

ft

after * ing consonants or vowels inserted. They are employed in printed Phonography, although it is done on unruled paper, that it may serve In the preceding Tables, some words are printed with a hyphen, as a guide to the writer of the Corresponding Style, and the line un- thus, give-n ; or, with a double termination ; thus, importance; to intiderneath, or through, such words, is dotted in. In manuscript mate that the corresponding logograms represent both give and given, Phonography it is less trouble to vocalise snch words than to insert important and importance. The context will show which is meant. this dotted line. The additional grammalogues used in the Reporting Has, his may be written by placing the aspirate dot before the Style (from 500 to 1,000, according to the rapidity of the speaker) circle & which represents as, is, or by thickening the circle on one side. are mostly single-stroke words whose vowels arconitted, and the Theoretically, you is n (yoő), but the light sign n (yoő) may be nsed words are placed in position in accordance with the rule given in because the latter sound does not occur in English. In like manner paragraphs 139, 140.' The learner will now do well to study with the circle = is commonly written light, like s, and the heavy hook the utmost care the following table of grammalogues.

zhon (in vision) light, like shon (tion).

| Large

---- See

ms

r Lord

can

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( Thank

more

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