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34. If 2 guineas make 3 napoleons, and 15 rix-dollars make 4 50. How soon will a sum double itself at 12, per cent. comnapoleons, and 6 ducats make 7 rix-dollars, how many ducats pound interest ? are there in £490 ?

51. The external length, breadth, and height of a rectangular 35. Three per Cents. are offered at 901, Five per Cents. at wooden closed box are 18 inches, 10 inches, and 6 inches respec150$; in which should one invest? And how much is one in- tively, and the thickness of the wood is 4 inch. When the box vesting when the difference of income is £1?

is empty, it weighs 15 lbs.; and when filled with sand, 100 lbs. 36. How much ore must one raise that, on losing 13 in roast- Compare the weights of equal bulks of wood and sand. ing, and of the residue in smelting, there may result 506 tons 52. The sum of £177 is to be divided among 15 men, 20 women, of pure metal ?

and 30 children in such a manner that a man and a child may 37. An analysis of the Board of Trade returns for 1861 re- together receive as much as two women, and all the women specting shipwrecked lives gives the following results :-Saved together receive £60. What will they respectively receive ? by lifeboats, 13} per cent. ; by rocket and mortar apparatus, 8 per cent. ; by ships' boats, etc., 62 per cent. ; by individual exertion, per cent. ; lost, 16 per cent. Determine the number

READINGS IN FRENCH.—XII. of lives saved by the several means enumerated, corresponding

JACOPO. to a loss of 864 lives.

SECTION III. 38. A monolith of red granite in the Isle of Mall is said to be ÉLISA, un peu rassurée par la promesse de son oncle, commença, about 108 feet in length, and to have an average transverse d'une voix tremblante, son récit. Elle racontar comment elle section of 113 square feet. If shaped for an obelisk it would avait renversé la petite paysanne, et comment ses oeufs avaient probably lose one-third of its bulk, and then weigh about 600

été brisés. tons. Determine the number of cubic yards in such an obelisk,

“ Allons ! c'est très-bien, Élisa, tu as été franche;" comme ce and the weight in pounds of a cubic foot of granite. 39. A person invests £5187 10s. in the Three per Cents. at chargeant(b) de solliciter aussi ta mère en ta faveur.!"3

n'est pas trop ton habitude, je veux t'en(a) récompenser en me 83, and when the funds have risen to 85, he transfers three-fifths of his capital to the Four per Cents. at 96. Find the alteration demander.*' Vous me donnez dix sous par(e) semaine pour mes

“Maman," dit alors Napoléon, "j'ai encore un grâce à vous in his income. 40. Find the square root of 767376, and the length of the menus plaisirs. (d) Eh bien! achevez de payer les ceufs 5 de cette side of a square whose area is equal to that of a rectangle, the pauvre petite qui attend là ce que tout cela va devenir, (e) et vous

ne me donnerez plus rien jusqu'à ce que nous soyons quittes." sides of which are 47.14 yards and 210 yards.

“D'accord,") dit Madame Lætitia en faisant approcher la 41. A and B contract to execute a certain order for £1245. petite paysanne, et lui donnant un petit écu. “Napoléon, en A employs 100 children for 3 months, 80 women for 2 months, voilà pour six semaines.” and 40 men for 1 month ; B employs 120 children for 2 months,

L'enfant courut à Napoléon, et voulut lui remettro? les deux 60 women for 14 months, and 80 men for 24 months. If the pièces de monnaie qu'elle avait reçues de lui au moment où work done in the same time by a child, a woman, and a man be l'accident était arrivé; mais il refusa. in the ratio 1:2:3, find the sum of money which A and B must

Cette probité plut(g) à Madame Bonaparte, qui alors intereach receive.

rogea la petite paysanne.lo Elle apprit que c'était la fille d'un 42. The area of the coal-field of South Wales is 1000 square pauyre pêcheur, que sa mère était malade,12 qu'elle demeurait miles, and the average thickness of the coal is 60 feet. If a dans une chétive cabane, sur le bord de la mer, à quelque cubic yard of coal weigh 1 ton, and the annual consumption of distance 13 de l'endroit où son panier avait été renversé. coal in Great Britain be 70,000,000 tons, find the number of

“Ta mère est malade, dis-tu, mon enfant p 14 elle n'a pas de years for which this coal-field alone would supply Great Britain médecin qui la soigne, sans doute. J'irai la voir.” with coal at the present rate of consumption. 43. If the coal annually consumed in this country (70,000,000 tout de suite. 15 Nous reconduirons Charlotte."

“Oh! maman, je vous en prie,” s'écria Napoléon, "allons-y tons) were piled up into a pyramid, having for base the great court

“Volontiers,” répondit Madame Bonaparte. “Allons, 16 mes of Trinity College, Cambridge, the dimensions of which are 110 by enfants, partons.” 90 yards, find the height of the pyramid. (N.B. The volume of

Les enfants ne se le firent(h) pas répéter. Quelques instants a pyramid is nal to the area of the base multiplied into one après, ils arrivèrent au pied d'un rocher.17 third of the height.)

“C'est là," dit Charlotte, en désignant une misérable cabane.18 44. A man invests £4297 10s. in the Three per Cents. at 954.

Lorsqu'ils entrèrent, un jeune garçon de douze ans était He sells out one-third of his stock when the funds have fallen occupé à faire un filet ;19 une toute petite fille était assise à to 94, £1600 stock when they have risen to 964, and the re- terre(i) et mangeait une croûte de pain; une enfant, beaucoup mainder at par. What sum does he gain ? If he invest the proceeds in the French Three per Cents. at d'une vieille courtepointé presque en lambeaux.

plus jeune encore, dormait dans un berceau cassé,20 couvert 67.50, what is the difference in his income, 25 francs being taken as equivalent to £1 ?

COLLOQUIAL EXERCISE. 45. Gunter's Chain is taken along the line A D (920 links) in the 1, Que raconta la petite Elisa? 12. Od demeurait la famille du six-sided field ABCDEF; the distances of the points B, C, É, F 2. Que lui dit alors son oncle ? pêcheur ? from A D are 182, 250, 190, 136 links, meeting it at points 120,

3. Que promit encore l'archi- 13. Où cabane était-elle diacre ?

située ? 560, 750, 95 links from A. Find the acreage of the field.

4. Que dit Napoléon à sa mère ? 14. Que dit Madame Bonaparte à (N.B. The area of a triangle is half the rectangle contained by

5. Que proposa-t-il à l'égard des l'enfant ? its base and its height.)

15. Que dit alors Napoléon ? 46. A ring weighs 1 dwt. 4 gr., and is worth £1 2g. If 1050 6. Que lui répondit Madame Lee. 16. Madame Lætitia lui accordasuch rings be packed in a box weighing 3} lbs., what would it titia ?

t-elle sa prière ? cost to convey them 144 miles at the rate of 58. per ton per 7. Que fit alors la petite pay- 17. Où arriva-t-on quelque temps mile, insurance being demanded at the rate of } per cent. ?

après ? 47. If £1 exchanges for 24:8 francs, and the French Three

8. Napoléon accepta-t-il l'argent? 18. Que dit Charlotte et que

désigna-t-elle ? per Cents. are selling for 70-2 francs, what amount of the latter

9. Quel fut l'effet de cette action stock will £539 buy ?

de la petite fille ?

19. Que virent-ils en entrant dans

10. Que fit alors Madame Bona la maison du pêcheur ? 48. A contractor engaged to make 24 miles of road in 84

parte ?

20. Où dormait le plus jeune des days; but after employing 60 men for 54 days, he found they had 11. Qu'apprit-elle de la petite fille ? enfants ? only finished 880 yards. How many additional men must be

NOTES. employed to finish the work within the prescribed time? 49. The fall in the price of paper was 1ļd. per lb., and (a) En, for it.

(f) D'accord, agreed. the weight of a certain book 11 lbs. The paper manufacturer (b) En me chargeant, in taking (9) From plaire. realised 10 per cent. on his sale, and the publisher 20 per (c) Par, a.

upon myself.

(h) Ne se le firent pas répéter, did

not wait for a repetition of cent. on his outlay. What reduction might be made in the (a) Menus plaisirs, pocket-money. this. price of the book on the fall in the price of paper, allowing toe) Ce que tout cela va devenir, (i) À terre, on the ground. each tradesman the same rate of profit as before ?

what will be the result of all this.

ceufs cassés ?

sanne ?

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SECTION IV.

20. Il n'est pas nécessaire d'y rester. 21. Que pensez-vous faire de La cabano contenait à peine quelques meubles' indispensables. votre livre? 22. Je pense le donner à mon fils. 23. Que voulez-vous L'enfant endormi, quoique ses joues fussent påles? et ses bras que je dise à ce monsieur ? 21. Je veux le prier do me faire un plaisir. maigres, était bien rangé(a) dans sa couchette. Sur un mauvais le lui envoyer, elle est malade. 27. Mlle. votre seur ne sait-elle pas

25. Voulez-vous envoyer ce faisan à Mme. votre mère ? 26. Je désire grabat, était étendue(b), malade et souffrante, une femme jeune jouer du violon? 23. Elle ne sait pas jouer du violon, mais elle sait encore, mais dont les traits Alétris faisaient peine à voir. La jouer de la guitare. 29. Mlle. votre seur désire-t-elle demeurer en misère de ces pauvres gens toucha profondément le cæur de haut? 30. Elle préfère demeurer en bus. 31. Ne voulez-vous pas me Madame Bonaparte; rien de pareil encore ne s'était offert à ses faire ce plaisir ? 32. Je le ferai volontiers. 33. M. votre frère ne regards.

peut-il pas rester à diner avec nous aujourd'hui ? 34. Il e promis à - Vous êtes malade, ma bonne femme,"5 dit Madame Lætitia mon père de venir diner avec lui. 35. Notre ami sait lire, écrire et en s'approchant; "un médecin vous donne-t-il des soins ?”

compter. “Ah! Madame, de pauvres gens comme nous ne doivent pas réclamer des soins qu'ils ne peuvent payer.”

LESSONS IN SHORTHAND.-IX. Pendant ce dialogue, Napoléon s'était approché? de l'enfant

METHOD OF PRACTICE. qui faisait du filet, et n'avait pas tardé à faire avec lui plus ample connaissance.

134. The learner should not attempt, at first, to bring into use a}} Depuis ce temps, la cabano était souvent le but des prome- practise, for two or three weeks, a rather lengthened style of Phono

the abbreviating principles here introduced. He sheuld be content to nades de Madame Lætitia et de ses enfants.

Jacope, tel est le nom du fils du pêcheur, s'était surtout graphy, making much use of the simple consonants, until he feels concilié les sonnes grâces 10 de Napoléon, qui, sur ses menus confidence in the use of the phonographic characters, and in the prioplaisirs, trouvait toujours le moyen de mettre quelque chose de ciple of phonetic spelling. He may then gradually adopt the double côté pour lui. Aussi était-il devenu pour Jacopo l'objet d'une and treble letters, and the prefixes and affixes, etc., as he requires sorte de culte" et d'adoration ; pour Napoléon, Jacopo aurait thom ; that is, as he feels that the style he is employing is not brief tout sacrifié,12 jusqu'à sa vie.

enough for the manual dexterity he has acquired. În selecting one Cependant, lorsque Napoléon eut atteint(e) l'âge de dix ans, 13

out of two or more possible forms for any word, the student must recolil dut(d) quitter Ajaccio. Avant de partir, l'enfant alla faire lect that great case in writing, and, consequently, the saving of time, ses adieux à la famille du pêcheur, et ce ne fut pas sans verser is not secured by using hooked and grouped, and especially half-sized, quelques larmes qu'il se sépara de Jacopo. Il avait une très- letters, on all possible occasions ; but he must learn to make a judicious jolie boîte en ébène, 15 de la grandeur à peu près d'une tabatière, selection, and employ those which are most readily made in any given à laquelle il(e) tenait beaucoup ; il y grava son nom avec la case, and not adopt those forms that merely take up the least room. pointe d'un canif, et 16 en fit cadeau à Jacopo, qui la reçut en

135. The pupil should spend as much time in reading as its sanglotant, et la plaça immédiatement sur son coeur. Jamais writing Phonography. Printed rather than manuscript Phonography ce souvenir ne devait le quitter.

should be selected for this purpose. To those who wish to excel in Nous ne suivrons point Napoléon dans les différentes phases Phonography as an Art, the perusal of some shorthand volumes de sa prodigieuse fortune.

is recommended before a rapid style of writing is acquired, in order Le deux décembre mil huit cent cinq, 19 l'armée française était that the style may be formed on a correct model. When learncampée dans les plaines d'Austerlitz. Le soleil se lève; entouré ing, the following method of practice will be found useful :- Take a de ses maréchaux, l'Empereur attend, 19 pour donner ses ordres, specimen of printed shorthand, and copy it out in longhand; then que l'horizon soit tout à fait éclairci.

transcribe the article into phonetic shorthand, from the longhand “Soldats,” s'écria-t-il, “il faut finir cette campagne par un 20 copy, and compare the shorthand exercise with the original : correct, coup de tonnerre!" Et le combat s'engage aux cris de Vive if necessary, and re-write. This course should be continued until l'Empereur!

a correct style is obtained. Much advantage will also be derived COLLOQUIAL EXERCISE.

from transcribing phonetic printing into shorthand. In this case 1. Que contenait la cabane ? 10. Avait-il obtenu l'amitié de he pupil has the phonetic spelling of each word provided to his 2. Que dit l'auteur à l'égard de Napoléon ?

hand. The “Phonctic Journal,” published weekly, may be used l'enfant endormi?

11. Qu'était devenu Napoléon pour for these purposes, as it contains both shorthand and phonetic priut3. Que voyait-on sur un mauvais Jacopo ?

ing. In a class, after an exercise has been written from the dictagrabat?

12. Qu'aurnit fait le petit garçon tion of the leader, let the books change hands, and each student read 4. Quel sentiment Madame Lee pour son bienfaiteur ?

and correct the writing of another. titia éprouva-t-elle ?

13. Quand Napoléon dut-il quitter 136. The pupil is now prepared to employ in his writing the full 5. Que dit-elle en s'approchant ? Ajaccio ? 6. Que répondit la pauvre ma- 14. Qu'alla:t-il faire avant de partir? graphy :

list of Grammalogues used in the Corresponding Style of Phonolade ?

15. Qu'avait-il alors ? 7. Qu'avait fait Napoléon pen. 16. Que fit-il de la boite ?

GRAMMALOGUES-ALPHABETICALLY ARRANGED. dant ce dialogue ?

17. ON Jacopo plaça-t-il le cadeau ? 8. Où Madame Lætitin et les en 18. Quel jour l'armée française

A, an

| Ве

| do fants allaient-ils souvent depuis était-elle campée dans les plaines d'Austerlitz ?

been cet instant ?

1 Doctor 9. Quel était le nom du fils du 19. Qu'attendait l'Empereur ?

according pêcheur ?

done 20. Que dit-il aux soldats?

beyond --- advantage

but (a) Bien rangé, neatly arrangod. (d) Dut, was obliged to; from devoir. (6) Etendue, lying; from étendre. (e) À laquelle il tenait beaucoup,

after

by
(c) From atteindre.
which he valued much.

ago
Call

Each
KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN FRENCH,

all

English EXERCISE 146 (Vol. II., page 386).

cannot

equal 1. M. votre beau-frère compte-t-il louer le rez-de-chaussée ? 2. Il compte louer deux appartements au second. 3. Combien de chambres

any

everM. votre fils compte-t-il louer ? 4. Il compte loner deux chambres au second. 5. Préfère-t-il demeurer au second ? 6. Il préfère demeurer

First au rez-de-chaussée. 7. M. votre père veut-il venir diner demain avec 8. Il compte venir demain à deux heures. 9. Préférez-vous

could
demeurer en haut ou en bas ? 10. Je préfère demeurer en haut.
Mlle, votre scur sait-elle toucher le piano ? 12. Elle sait jouer du

at
1 Dear

from
piano. 13. Où comptez-vous demeurer ? 14. Nous comptons demeurer
chez M. votre père. 15. Voulez-vous monter dans ma chambre ? 16.

away
different

General o descendrai chez votre père. 17. Désirez-vous demeurer au rez-dezussée ? 18. Je désire demeurer au second. 19. Faut-il rester ici ?

difficulty

gentleman

1 above

NOTES.

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GRAMMALOGUES-PHONETICALLY ARRANGED. gentlemen

not

( think give-a number

Words marked (*) are written above the line, (+) through the line, and 6 this

(1) under the line. Words unmarked are written on the line. go O! oh I owe

CONSONANTS.

V

have God of Р happy *, up; putt

over *, ever-y good

pr
principio +

very; however + to e great

pn

upon opinion

particular *, opportu. | TH

( thank, think hand opportunity Ը told

[nity

or 2 through + bappy

or
1 toward

B by *, be; to be + TH ( though *, them
have
C other -7 true

br remember-ed, mem

( dr

other
he
ๆ truth

[ber; number +
bn
been

dr 1 their, there him

two, too

above by

ths

6 those *, this; these obimself

Under

1 T

(

tht at *, it; out +

that *, without how

up

2 truth; true + tr

s ) so, us; sce+ Particular

upon

tid
r tola

is
1
Phonography

trd
1 1. toward

st

first
if
pleasure
Very

I had, do ; different
D

z )

was ; whose in principal

dr

1 Dr.", dear; during +|| SH shall, shalt o is

put

way

dn

J. done; down to shrt
I lite
Quite

df
difficult-y +

pleasure
importan
Read (pr.tense)

what
CH / which ; each +

M me *,my *, him, may ;

[wliom improve-d-ment » remember-ed

when

J large *; advantage + mr more *, Mr., mere , which

jn
general

myself *, himself e several

while
jnt gentleman *, gentle mp importante improve-
[men

[-d-ment May

who
shall, shalt

K
come

mt might me, my

whom
kl call *, equal

N in*, any*, no; own member should (up) whose

nor*, near )

why

kd
quite *, could

opinion
inight
spirit 6 will

krd according

nt

not *, nature
with

kat
cannot *

nd

under Mr

that
(without

G go *, ago *, gire-n NG English *, thing myself

.
word

God *, good

L

Lord Nature ) their, there would

great

wl while *, will
( them
Year

R or *, your; year
F

if
you

are; our +
fr
for

rd read* (pr.tense), word thing

your

for
from

W 137. Logograms that are written above the line (except horizontal

fn Phonography

why *, way, away and vowel logograms), or through the line, cannot be employed on unruled paper. These words should, in that case, have their remain.

ft

after * ing consonants or vowels inserted. They are employed in printed Phonography, although it is done on unruled paper, that it may serve In the preceding Tables, some words are printed with a hyphen, as a guide to the writer of the Corresponding Style, and the line un- thus, give-n ; or, with a double termination ; thus, importance; to intiderneath, or through, such words, is dotted in. In manuscript mate that the corresponding logograms represent both give and given, Phonography it is less trouble to vocalise snch words than to insert important and importance. The context will show which is meant. this dotted line. The additional grammalogues used in the Reporting Has, his may be written by placing the aspirate dot before the Style (from 500 to 1,000, according to the rapidity of the speaker) circle & which represents as, is, or by thickening the circle on one side. are mostly single-stroke words whose vowels arconitted, and the Theoretically, you is n (yoő), but the light sign n (yoő) may be nsed words are placed in position in accordance with the rule given in because the latter sound does not occur in English. In like manner paragraphs 139, 140.' The learner will now do well to study with the circle = is commonly written light, like s, and the heavy hook the utmost care the following table of grammalogues.

zhon (in vision) light, like shon (tion).

| Large

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VOWELS.

should (up)

even in words ending in io and ia, and presenting no ambignity,

the acute sign is not unfrequently placed merely to indicate and

00
two, too

that the letter i does not make the two terminating vowels o

and a in conjunction with the i diphthongs, but that they are he

who

separate syllables. It is a characteristic of the acute sign that it can never be used in final letters, as the grave accent is used.

But the use of this accent is, generally speaking, not regulated ah ah!

DIPHTHONGS.

by invariable rules, and is frequently left to the discretion of

the writer. I need not say that the acute sign, which I have wě when

adopted in these grammatical instructions, exactly answers the

purpose for which it has been introduced by Italian writers, eh eh? aye (e, ever) w

with

with this difference only, that I shall use it throughout the ŏ of

wo
what

whole course of the grammar, while they place it merely on

some words to avoid ambiguity, woo would

I shall only give a list of words where it is more generally

used, some of which I have already quoted in the preceding all уй beyond

pronouncing tables :-Natio (nah-teé-o), natia (nah-teé-ah), natal,

native; restio (rai-steé-o), restive, stubborn ; stantio (stahnyoo you

tee-o), old, stale, fruitless ; leggio (led-jeé-o), reading-desk, й but

i
I

painter's easel ; ubbia (oob-beé-ah), bad presage ; malia (mah

leé-ah), sorcery, enchantment; bastla (ba-steé-ah), bastion; o O, oh! owe ay ay (broad ai, yes) strofinio (stro-fee-née-o), scouring, rubbing ; mormorío (morr.

mo-rée-o), buzzing, murmur; rovinio (ro-vee-née-o), great noise ; Ito

fiócine (feeô-tchee-nai), skin of raisin-stones; zúfolo (tsóo-fo-lo), 138. S may be added to a logogram to mark the plural number or a whistle ; márgine (máhrr-jee-nai), scar, edge, margin. the possessive case of a noun, or the third person singular of a verb; as With the Acute Sign.

Without the Acute Sigrt. - good, goods, Lord, Lord's, — come, _Ocomes.

Balía (bah-leé-ah), power.

Balia (báh-lee-ah), nurse, Gía (jeé-ah), he went.

Gid (jah), already, indeed. 139. In general, the positions of the grammalogues, ABOVE, ON, Nei (nê-ee), moles, patches. Nei núi-ee), in the (pl.). and THROUGH the line, are determined by their vowels; and in the Áncora (áhu-ko-rah), anchor. Ancora (ahn-kó-rah), again. case of a word of more than one syllable, by its accented vowel. Stropiccio (stro-pit-tchée-o), fric. Stropiccio, (stro-pít-tcho), I rub. The positions of words, as determined by their vowels, are:-For tion, rubbing. perpendicular and sloping strokes, 1st position, ah, aw, i, oi, wi,

3. THE CIRCUMFLEX ACCENT. ABOVE the line; 2nd position, a, 7, on the line; 3rd position,

The circumflex accent is of more recent use, particularly ē,00, ox, , THROUGH the line. The three positions for horizontals among poets, to distinguish words of the same form, but of are respectively above, upon, and under the line.

different signification; as, for example :140. Vowel logograms have but two positions: 1, ah, aw, i, oi, wi, ABOVE the line : 2, ā, 7, è,00, ow, ū, on the line. A third position, Torre (tór-rai), to take, seize (for Torre (tór-rai), tower.

With the Circumflex Sign. Without the Circumflex Sign. UNDER the line, for ē, 00, ow, ū, would not be distinguishable from

togliere). the second when writing on unruled paper.

Córre (kôr-rai), to gather (for Corre (kór-rai), he runs. 141. All grammalogues are written IN POSITION in accordance

cogliere). with the above rules, and are thus easily remembered, except Amaro (ah-máh-ro), they loved (for Amaro (ah-máh-ro), bitter.

IRREGULAR GRAMMALOGUES.-Class 1.-Words of frequent oc amctrono). currence are written ON THE LINE for the sake of convenience. Those Féro (fái-ro), they did.

Fero (f&-ro), fierce, wild. of the Corresponding Style are:-are, be, been, dear, do, equal, for,

ôra (ô-rah), breeze, zephyr. Ora (ó-rah), now. from, give, good, have, him, himself, if, improve-d-ment, it, Lord, Atør (ahl-lôr), laurel (for alloro or Alora (ahl-16-rah), then. mere, Mr, near, Phonography, shall, thing, think, upon, was, we, Udír (00-deór), they heard (for Udire (co-deé-rai), to hear. which, will, your.

udirono). CLASS 2.–Words which in their proper position would clash with some other grammalogue, namely, the one which is placed imme-above examples has the open sound; and thus this marking of

The reader will have remarked that the circumflex 6 in the diately under it, in the alternate lines given below. They are

those words on the part of modern Italian authors agrees with advantage®, any?, English", gol (and ago), in', me', more!, numbers, the sign that I have uniformly adopted to mark the open or joy (in reporting,) no, thing,

no, him, mere, member, second sound of o. O', overl, ouns, particularl, read", this", those', though', truth, with, I cannot begin my exposition of the grammar of the language he, ever, no, opportunity, word, these, this, they, true, when. without first offering some remarks on the use of the apostrophe 142. Phonography may be written on plain paper, or on paper present my lessons on pronunciation. Some supplementary and

in Italian, which, with the general table, will conclude for the ruled with either single or donble lines. Our own practice is to em- important pronouncing tables will be given at the end of the ploy either plain or single-line paper : we find the double lines perplexing. The three positions for logograms on double-line paper are

grammar.

VIII.-THE APOSTROPHE. distinguished thus :-1, If down or up strokes, through the top line ; but if horizontal or half-length sloping, under it; 2, on the bottom The apostrophe is essentially different from accent, and line; 3, if down or up strokes, through the bottom line, and if hori. indicates that the word on which it is placed has been deprived zontal or half-length, under it.

of a vowel or of a syllable. Where, therefore, for the sake of harmony, at the beginning or end of a word, a vowel is omitted

because the preceding word terminates with a vowel or the LESSONS IN ITALIAN.-IX.

subsequent word begins with one, the apostrophe must be placed. VII.—THE ACCENTS (continued).

It can never be used in the middle, and all omissions and con.

tractions in the middle of words must be written without this 2. THE ACUTE ACCENT.

sign. For example : l'amore (pronounced lah-mó-rai), love (for The acute accent has been adopted by modern authors as the lo amore); dell'anima (del-láh-nee-mah), of the soul (for della mark to show the difference of meaning in some words of the anima); dall' uomo (dahl-looô-mo), from man (for dalio uomo); same spelling, though differently pronounced, which words, capo d'opera (káh-po dô-pai-rah), a masterpiece, an odd man without the acute sign, might occasion confusion and ambiguity, (for capo di opera); s' io posso (sée-o-pôs-so), if I can (for se io particularly in the case where words of more than one syllable posso); pens' io (pen-sée-o), I think (for penso io); sopra 'l letto terminate in the diphthongs ia, ie, and io, and from the use of (só-prahllêt-to), upon the bed (for sopra il letto); sotto 'l cielo the acute sign over the i, and the necessary stress laid on the (sót-toltchê-lo), under the sky (for sotto il cielo); e'n questo, e 'n "yllable thus accented, acquire a different signification. But quello (en qwai-sto, en quél-lo), as well in the latter as the former

come,

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Schi,

skee.

Schia, (for e in questo, e in quello); tra 'l si e 'l no (trahl see el nð),

skeeah. Scia, shah.

Schie, between yes and no, that is, hesitating (for tra il si è il no).

skeeni or skeee. Soie, shai or she.

Schio, skeeo or skeeô. I may here remark, that the use of the apostrophe at the

Scio, sho or shồ.

Schiu, skeeoo. beginning of a word is more frequently found in poetry than in

Scort, shoo. prose.

It is necessary to bear in mind the distinction between the In my next lesson I shall enter on the grammar proper of the apostrophe as a sign of elision, and the abbreviation of words Italian language. In fulfilment of my promise to follow the where letters are omitted without the use of this sign. I con- natural method to teach, as it were, the language as it is formed sider it necessary to state some elementary rules with respect to in the mind, I shall first speak of nouns, and other kinds of the abbreviation of words.

words allied to nouns, and then proceed to explain the verbs 1. The final vowel of any Italian word may be, and always and their various inflections. Two methods are open to choice, without the use of the apostrophe, omitted, if it is immediately each of which has its zealous advocates in tuition. Some would preceded by one of these four consonants, l, m, n, and r, the so- confine themselves strictly to theory in grammatical teaching; called liquid consonants or liquids, and if, at the same time, the others as exclusively to practice in the earlier stages of the subsequent word should commence with a consonant, except the instruction. If we adhere strictly to the theoretical exposition, & impure, as the Italians call it; that is, s followed by another the progress of the pupil is sure, but slow; if we are merely consonant; as, spirito, spirit; scettro, sceptre. For example : il practical, the pace may be rapid, but the attainments are supercarneval passato (il kahrr-nai-váhl pahs-sáh-to), the last carnival ficial. I shall endeavour to blend the two, and while I, as con(for il carnevale passato); a man destra (ah mahn dê-strah), on cisely as I can, explain all the principles and rules of the the right hand (for a mano destra); ogni uom tacea (ón-nyee language, I shall constantly strive to impress them on the 000m tah-tchái-ah), every man was silent (for ogni uomo tacea); minds of my pupil-readers by practical exercises on each rule as vuol far questo (vooôl fahr kwái-sto), he wants to do this (for it occurs. I shall, in this part of my labour, endeavour to imvuole fare questo).

prove on a modern invention of Germany, the country, perhaps, 3. In words ending with llo, and having the accent of tone most distinguished for scientific method in education. It should on the syllable preceding lo, it is customary to omit the whole be the aim of every educator so to teach, that his pupils may of the syllable lo, if the subsequent word begins with a con- regard the instruction as relating to a living language to be sonant which is not the s impure. For example: bel for béllo, acquired by the tongue, and not merely as dead writing to be beantiful ; quel for quello, that, the former; val for valle, valley; comprehended only by the head. From the very outset of these cavil for cavallo, horse; uccel for uccello, bird; fratel for fratello, grammatical lessons my pupils will learn to form sentences, so brother ; tranquil for tranquillo, tranquil; cervel for cervello, that as the head acquires knowledge of its principles, the tongue brains; ruscel for ruscello, brook, etc.

will grow familiar in the practice of the language. In thus 3. The abbreviations or omissions of the final vowels men- uniting practice with theory, I shall, of course, be obliged in tioned in the two preceding rules can never take place in that one class of the exercises to anticipate the systematic exposition part of a sentence which requires a pause, that is, before a of principles, but I shall only do so with strict regard to the comma, colon, or period. It is, therefore, not allowable to say progressive knowledge of the student, and I shall specially Ella ha una bella man, she has a fine hand, but mano; not chi adapt the exercises to that end, and perhaps thereby succeed in à quel Signor? who is that gentleman ? but Signore, etc. more firmly impressing even the rules anticipated on the mind.

Other important rules with respect to abbreviation I shall The pupil must bear in mind that he is now about to learn to state and comment upon as examples occur in the course of the speak as well as to read the language of Italy. grammar, and I shall now content myself with this concluding With regard to the selection of exercises, I shall not scruple, remark, that all abbreviations in the Italian language, whether in addition to my own, to make a free use of examples which made with or without the apostrophe, are made merely for the have passed the test of years of experience in the best schools sake of harmony and to avoid hiatus, that is, a prolonged open- of Italy and Germany. I am more anxious to serve the interests ing of the mouth by the recurrence of vowels. But as per- of my pupils than gratify a literary vanity; and even were I to spicuity is of greater importance than harmony, this general make an effort at originality, by the preparation of exclusively rule may be safely laid down, that abbreviations should not be new exercises, one man could hardly hope to excel the united used without absolute necessity, and that those should be labours of many grammarians in this direction. specially avoided which would tend to ambiguity.

The exercises ought to be read over frequently, and always I will here give a general and concluding pronouncing table, aloud ; and if committed to memory, so much the better for the showing the most complicated combinations of vowels with con- knowledge of the student. sonants of the whole of the Italian language :

As I have so very fully explained the elementary principles of Italian. Pronounced.

Italian. Pronounced. pronunciation, even at a length which may have damped the Ca, kah.

Glo, glo or glo.

ardour of more impatient readers, it will not henceforth be ko or ko. Glut, gloo.

necessary to give the pronunciation of each Italian word used. C1, koo. Glia, llyah.

Should any doubt occur, the student can always refer to the Ce, tchai or tchê. Glie, llyai or llye.

pronouncing lessons or to the general table which precedes these tchee. Glio, lyo or llyó.

remarks. As it is, however, most desirable that the reader Che, kai or kê.

Gliu, llyoo.
kee.
Gna, nnyah.

should have as much assistance as possible, I shall aid him by a Cia, tchah.

Gne,
nnyai or pnye.

new, and, I believe, a most effective method, namely, by divid-
tchai or tchè.
Gni, nnyee.

ing each Italian word used into syllables, for the most part, as Dio, tcho or tchó.

Co,

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Gno,

nnyo or nnyô. the words are divided in Italian spelling and writing. I shall Сін, , tehoo.

not omit to mark the accent of tone with the acute sign or with Chia, keeah.

Guo,
gwah.

the circumflex sign over the e and o; signs, be it remembered, keeai or keel.

Gue,
gwai or gwe.

not used in Italian writing or printing, with the exception of the keeo or keeô.

words commented on in my remarks on the use of the accent. keeoo.

gwo or gwo. gah.

yah.

The grave accent will, henceforth, always be placed where the go or gô.

yai or ye.

usage of writing requires it, and in such cases it will serve, likegoo.

yo or yô.

wise, to denote the accent of tone. I am induced, by three jai or je. Ju, yoo.

reasons, to adopt this method of dividing words into syllables :Gi, jee. Qua, kwah.

First, to correct the great fault of Englishmen in pronouncing Ghe, ghai or ghê.

Que, kwai or kwê.

Italian by slurring over words, the component sounds of which ghee. Qui, kwee.

are unfamiliar to the ear. By this means, the learner will be in jah. Quo, kwo or kwô.

some measure compelled to do justice to each syllable.
jai or jê.

Sca,
skah.

Secondly, it will be a practical aid to the memory. This jo or jö.

sko or skô.
joo.
Scu, skoo.

dwelling on the ingredients of the word will impress the word glah.

Sce,
shai or she.

itself better on the memory.
gli or gle.

shee.

Thirdly, it will be useful in the case of compound words, in Gli, gli or llyee.

Sche,

skai or skê. indicating at once the elementary constitution of the words.

Gnu,

ninyoo.

gwee.

Chie,
Chio,
Chiu,
Ga,
Go,
Gu,
Ge,

Gui,
Guo,
Ja,

Je,

Jo,

Ghi, Gia, Gie, Gio,

Sco,

Git,

Gla, Gle,

Sci,

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