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PNEUMATICS.-III.

that they should be well washed, and the more frequently the CUP OF TANTALUS—INTERMITTENT SPRINGS-SABBATIC RIVER therefore made with a small depression at the bottom separated

water is changed the better will this be done. A vessel is -BAROMETER-WHEEL BAROMETER.

from it by a grating. From this a syphon rises about threeAn ingenious scientific toy, known as the Cup of Tantalus, has fourths of the height of the vessel, and then passes through the been constructed, and acts on the same plan as the common side. The water is allowed to enter in a constant stream by a syphon. It is, in fact, an intermittent syphon, and is useful as pipe about half the size of the syphon, and so placed that the serving to explain the action of intermittent springs. A syphon water enters in such a direction as to keep the contents in is inserted in a cup so that its longer limb may pass through an constant state of motion. As soon as the vessel is filled to the aperture at the bottom, and the highest point of the bend may level of the bend, the syphon commences to work, and in a be rather lower than the brim. If water be now allowed to run short time empties the vessel, the false bottom causing the into the vessel, it will fill as usual until the water reaches the photographs to be left quite dry, a thing of great importance, level of the bend. The syphon will then begin

as, thereby, the last traces of the chemicals emto act, and if its size be the same as that of the

ployed are more easily removed. The vessel supply-pipe, the water will remain at that level;

then fills again, to be once more emptied in the if, however, the syphon carry it off more rapidly,

same way. the vessel will be emptied ; the syphon will then

We have now noticed several important results cease to flow, and the vessel will again be filled.

of the pressure of the air, and the construction An intermittent flow will thus be produced.

of machines which act by means of it; but we Various modifications may be made in the con

have not yet seen the mode of determining how struction of this vessel. Sometimes the handle

great this pressure really is. We have, however, is made hollow, and thus serves as a syphon, and,

stated it to amount to about 14 lbs. per square when thus made, the reason of the cup emptying

inch, and must now show a proof of the fact. is not so easily seen. Sometimes, too, an open

We might take a surface of known area, and tube is inserted in the vessel, and another, closed

having, by means of an air-pump, removed the at the upper end, is inverted over it: all, how.

Fig. 7.

air from under it, ascertain the pressure by & ever, act on the same principle.

spring balance. This plan would, however, be We shall now be able to understand better the action of very difficult and uncertain, as it is impossible perfeetly to reintermittent springs, many of which exist in different parts of move the air, and it would be very difficult to ascertain the the world. In England there is one known as Weeding Well, in pressure exerted on the balance. There is, however, another the Peak of Derbyshire ; others exist at Giggleswick, in York- mode of ascertaining this, which depends on the fact that a liquid shire, and near Torbay ; but the most noted of all are found in transmits pressure equally in all directions. If we take a glass Palestine.

tube about a yard long, sealed at one end, and, having filled it Josephus speaks of a stream called the Sabbatic river, which with mercury, place the thumb over the open end, and invert it flows one day, and then is dry for the next six days. Pliny into a cup of mercury, we shall find that a small part of the refers to the same; but he makes it flow for six days, and rest fluid will run out, but that the tube will remain filled to a height on the seventh. The existence of such a river was long of about 30 inches above the level of the mercury in the cnp. doubted; but modern travellers say that they have discovered a This experiment was first performed about the middle of the small stream which seems to be that referred to. Now, however, seventeenth century by Torricelli, after whom the empty space it is dry for two days, and flows on a portion of the third ; left at the top of the tube is known as the Torricellian vacuum. but this alteration may be easily accounted for. The annexed Now, if we consider the forces at work, we shall see that the diagram will serve to explain the action of the spring. A large air presses on the surface of the mercury in the cup, and its reservoir is supposed to exist in the

pressure is transmitted through this hill from which the stream issues.

to the mercury in the tube. The This is supplied by the rain, which

upper part of the column is, however, percolates through the sides of the

shielded from this pressure by the mountain and, by various inlets, finds

closed tube, and, since the whole is in its way into the cavity.

equilibrium, the pressure produced by A syphon-shaped channel is also

the air must be exactly equal to that supposed to exist, of such a capacity

produced by the weight of a column that it can carry off the water more

of mercury 30 inches high. Let us rapidly than it enters by the different

suppose the tube to have an area of feeders. Now it is clear that the

one square inch: the pressure then on water will go on accumulating, but

this area, and accordingly on every none will flow till the cavity is filled

equal area, will be equal to the weight to the level of the bend in the chan

of 30 cubic inches of mercury. Now nel. As soon, however, as it attains

a cubic inch of water weighs 252-5 this level, the syphon will begin to

grains, and the specifie gravity of act, and the stream will flow until the

Fig. 8.

mercury is 13:59; a cubic inch of it reservoir is empty, when air will enter

weighs, therefore, about 3441 grains, the syphon, and it will cease to act until the cistern shall again and 30 cubic inches weigh about 14şlbs. This, therefore, is the be filled, when the same effects will be repeated.

pressure exerted by the air on every square inch of surface when The smaller the cistern, the more frequently will the water the mercury stands at a height of 30 inches. In this climate flow. Hence it is quite possible that the statement of Josephus the mean height is rather under this, being about 29-9, and the about the Sabbatic river may have been true, but that the pressure, therefore, is a little over 14ļlbs. cistern has been gradually filling up, so that now it flows once This simple instrument is one of the most important in the in three days instead of once in seven. An enlargement of the science of Pneumatics; we must, therefore, give a little atten. channel by which the water issues, or an increase in the supply tion to its mode of construction and action. It is called the brought by the feeders, would produce the same change. Barometer or “ Weight-measurer," though, in reality, it is the

The Pool of Siloam is another instance of a spring of this pressure and not the weight of the air which it records. kind. Dr. Robinson states that, when he was there, he observed That it is the pressure of the air which supports the column the water rise nearly a foot in five minutes, and that he was of mercury is easily seen, by the fact that if we make an openinformed that such rises occurred frequently, sometimes two or ing so as to allow the air to press on the surface of the mercury three times in the course of a single day, but at other periods in the tube, it will immediately fall to the level of that outside. only two or three times a week.

A more conclusive experiment as to this point was devised by Ăn ingenious application has been made of this principle in Pascal. He said that if it was the weight of the air which supan apparatus constructed for the purpose of washing photo- ported the column, then, if the barometer were taken to any graphs. In order to ensure permanency in prints it is requisite elevation so as to leave a part of the atmosphere below it, the

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mercury ought to stand at a less height. The experiment was Now in many barometers this is altogether neglected, and accordingly made. The instrument was conveyed up a moun their readings are inaccurate on that account. In some the tain, and the height noted at intervals, when it was found, as scale is graduated to allow for this, an inch, according to the he had predicted, to diminish gradually as the elevation in marks on it, being only liths of an inch. Sometimes, too, the creased. This experiment was rightly deemed conclusive. scale is made movable, the lower end being adjusted by means

The barometer is of very great use in all meteorological of a rack and pinion, so that it just touches the surface of the observations, and therefore great precautions have to be taken mercury in the cistern. A better plan, however, is that repreto ensure its accurate action. In the first place, the mercury sented in the figure. A second bottom is fixed in the cistern, used in its construction must be absolutely pure, for if, as is which can be raised or lowered by a screw s. A pointer, i, is usually the case, zinc or some other metal be present in the fixed to the side of the cistern at such a height that the graduamercury, they will render it lighter, and the column will there- tions are measured from its lowest point. By means of the fore stand at too great a height.

screw the level is then adjusted till this point appears exactly Then, too, mercury often absorbs a small quantity of air, to meet its own reflection in the mercury, which is then said to small bubbles also creep up along the side of the tube, and these be at its neutral point. Whenever, then, a reading has to be depress the column and cause the reading to be less than it taken, this adjustment is first made, and then the true height is should be. The utmost care is therefore required, in instruments shown. For ordinary purposes, however, if the area of the intended for very accurate observation, to guard against these cistern is very large as compared with that of the tube, this causes of error.

correction need not be made. The usual way of filling the tube of the best barometers is to It may at first be thought that if the tube were made pour in a small quantity of the mercury so as to fill the tube for smaller, or if the upper part were of a smaller bore than the a few inches, and then boil it to drive

lower part, the mercury would rise to a off the air; after it has cooled, a second

greater height, and thus more accurate portion is introduced and boiled, and

readings could be taken. This, how

31 so on till the whole is filled. The main

ever, is not the case, for, as we saw in objection to this mode is, that the heat

our lessons on Hydrostatics, the pressometimes renders the glass much more

sure depends solely upon the depth of liable to crack. A plan was accord.

the liquid, and is quite independent of ingly devised, and is used at the Kew

the shape or size of the vessel. Observatory, which seems superior and

If a lighter liquid be used, the column avoids this risk. The tube is drawn

will be longer, and the variations more out to a small diameter at each end;

easily and quickly seen. Various liquids these ends are turned up, and one of

have, therefore, been tried, and water them sealed. The air is then removed

30

was one of the first. Now, as mercury by a very good air-pump, the tube being

is 13 times heavier than water, a meanwhile heated by a spirit-lamp to

column of the latter, to produce the prevent the air adhering to the glass.

Fig. 9.

same pressure, must be 13 times as When exhausted, this end is sealed, and

high. The tube in the water barometer the other end broken under the sur

must, therefore, be about 35 feet long, face of boiled mercury. The pressure

and is, on this account, very unwieldy. at once forces it up the tube, which is

Several such have been constructed; held in an inclined position, and the

but they are found to get out of repair small amount of air left in it is driven

29

in a very short time. Water dissolves into a bulb blown in the fine part of it.

a considerable amount of air, and thus, The tube is then sealed by a spirit

even though the water has been boiled lamp at a point a little below this, and

to remove it, some will enter, and, passall air is thus excluded. The other end

5

ing up the tube, cause the level to fall. is then bent slightly upwards, so that

Water also evaporates to a small dethe air would have to travel down the

gree at ordinary temperatures, especibend before it could pass up the tube

ally in a vacuum, and hence vapour to impair the vacuum. A contrivance,

accumulates at the top of the tube and known as an air-trap, is also placed in

28

produces a similar effect. some barometers for the same purpose

Many very skilful arrangements (Fig. 9). The part a of the tube is

have been made to guard against drawn out so as to leave only a small

Fig. 12. Fig. 10.

Fig. 11.

these errors ; and a barometer was aperture, and is inserted into an en

constructed some time since by a genlarged portion blown on the other part, as shown in the figure. tleman in Birmingham, which embraced nearly all these. The In this way a cavity is formed, in which any air that may enter surface of the water in the reservoir was covered with oil the tube will accumulate, and it can be removed when neces- to the depth of an inch or two, so as completely to exsary. The total absence of air is easily told by the ringing clude the air; the upper part of the tube was prolonged into sound which is caused when the tube is inclined so as to cause a spiral coil, which could be cooled so as to condense the the mercury to strike against the top.

vapour ; the utmost care was also taken in filling the It will be well now to note the modes in which this barometric tube. It was then found to be very much more sensitive than tube is arranged so as to show the variations in the pressure. the common mercurial barometer. During a storm, while the It is frequently made to dip into a vessel of mercury, v (Fig. latter only showed a slight variation, this showed extensivo 10), and a scale, CD, graduated accurately, is engraved on oscillations rapidly succeeding each other. It was found, too, the tube itself or else on the case containing it

. These gradua- that changes in the air were shown by this a full hour sooner tions usually extend from 27 or 28 inches to 31, the variations than by the ordinary instruments ; but, despite these facts, the in the height being always, in this country, 'confined within common barometer is the more to be depended on, in the long these limits. When it is required for ascertaining the height of run, as the mercury only evaporates in a very slight degree, and mountains, as will presently be seen, the graduations extend is easily obtained perfectly pure. By means, too, of a sliding nearly the whole length of the tube. The readings by this scale scale called a vernier (Fig. 11), the height can with ease bo will not

, however, be accurate, for when the mercury in the read to within ths of an inch, and this is sufficient for most tube has fallen one inch, the level of it in the cistern, if that purposes

. The vernier consists of a pointer attached to a scale, have ten times the area of the tube, will be raised bth of an which can be moved up and down so as to adjust it exactly to inch by the additional quantity of mercury now contained in it. the level of the mercury. The ordinary scale is divided into The total effect, therefore, will be that the mercury has fallen inches and tenths of an inch; the vernier, however, is exactly inth.inch, that is, it stands 1 inches less above the surface of 14 inches long, and is divided into ten equal parts. Each that in the cistern than it did.

division is therefore th of an inch. If any division of this be

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made to correspond with one on the ordinary scale, the adjacent | Bell's article on the voice in the Philosophical Transactions" divisions on each will be to of an inch apart, the next to, and for the year 1832; and Dr. Rush's great work (American) on the so on. The divisions on it are marked downward, 1 being at the Philosophy of the Human Voice." top. Now we will suppose the mercury to stand as shown in The CHIEF INSTRUMENT of voice is the larynx, which we may the figure; the pointer is adjusted to the level, and we imme- feel with the hand outside, as a little lump, in the upper part diately see that the height is somewhere between 29.8 ard 29.9. of our throats, moving with almost every utterance of voice. It We now run our eye down the vernier till we find the division is a small box placed at the top of the trachea or windpipe. Its which is most nearly even with one in the other scale; this is walls are of cartilage or gristle. Its upper opening is protected the one marked 6. The level is therefore 18 above 29.8, or by a little valve, called the epiglottis, which falls back upon it 29-86.

in every act of swallowing. At the lower opening are two elastic In a barometer the mercury always clings, to a certain extent, membranes, one depending from each side, which can be stretched to the side of the tube, and thus seldom presents an even sur to any degree of tension required, and can be made to meet each face; the readings ought, therefore, to be taken from the height other (closing the lower opening) through their whole length, or of the centre of the column. There is one great advantage through any part of it. Various muscles, attached to the walls derived from this, viz., that we can see at a glance whether it of the larnyx, in obedience to nervous action and the mind's is rising or falling. If it is rising, the surface is convex, or will, regulate these movements. higher in the middle, that at the sides being kept back by its These elastic membranes, sometimes called the vocal chords, adhesion to the tube; while if it is falling, the surface is are the source of voice. During ordinary breathing they rest, concave.

relaxed, against the walls of the larynx, but in the production The cistern barometer which we have been considering is the of voice they are brought into such a position as to vibrate more common form of the instrument. The wheel barometer is, freely in the air, as it ascends from the lungs (much like the however, often used, and we must therefore give a description of tongue of any reed-instrument), and this vibration makes the it (Fig. 12). It consists of a large dial-plate fixed near the lower breath vocal. end of an oblong case, and round it are graduations from 28 to The voice of one individual differs from that of others in 31 inches, and also the words Stormy, Much Rain, Rain, Change, PITCH, in quality of TIMBRE, as the French call it, and in Fine, Set-fair, and Very Dry. A hand, turning on an axle, power or STRENGTH. points to different parts of the face, and thus gives the read The PITCH of a sound depends on the degree of tension given ings. If we open the case behind, we shall see that the main to the vocal membranes, and on the length of the parts which difference is that the end, instead of opening into a cistern, is are left free to vibrate-just as in the harp, violin, and guitar. turned up to a height of 6 or 7 inches, and a float G rests upon In females and boys, whose voices are naturally higher than the surface of the mercury in this limb. This float is attached those of men, the larynx is placed higher in the throat, and is to a cord, which passes over the wheel , and has a small also smaller, so as to make the vibrating membranes shorter

. counterpoise, w, fastened to the other end. The hand seen on When a boy's voice breaks,” the larynx gradually takes a lower the dial-plate is attached to this wheel. When the mercury falls place in the throat, and also enlarges in size, so that the voice in the limb AB, it rises in the shorter limb Bc to an equal extent; necessarily becomes about an octave deeper. Müller states that the float is therefore raised, and the weight w turns the hand, the vocal membrane in the male is half as long again as in the which thus shows the height. On the mercury falling again, female—as three to two. To produce a given note (say D below the weight of g more than balances w, and brings the hand the staff), the male voice, especially if a bass, wonld require back again. In this form of barometer the surface of the mer strong tension of the vocal membranes, but the female voice cury cannot be seen so as to tell whether it is rising or falling ; would produce the same note with very little tension, because its an additional hand, worked by a small handle below, is, however, vocal membranes are shorter. placed on the dial, and registers the position at any time, and The TIMBRE, or quality of a note (which is so different in difthus shows at once whether it has risen or fallen since it was ferent individuals), is much affected by the form of the airlast set.

passages above the larynx. Thus we are sometimes able to The upturned end of the barometer is sometimes enlarged, imitate the voice of others, not only in reference to its peculiariand a stop-cock inserted just under the enlargement, so that by ties of pitch and inflection by movements of the larynx, but inclining the tube it becomes filled up to the top; the tap may even in its “timbre” by certain conformations of the mouth. It then be closed, and the superfluous mercury poured away. In is this difference of shape in the resonating tube which makes this way it may be carried about with safety, as the tube the difference between well-known bass instruments of the same is completely filled, and all vibration thus prevented. On length, and yielding sounds of the same pitch, as between the turning the tap, and placing the tube in a vertical position, the thick euphonium and the thin baritone, and between the thiek pressure will at once be shown. Care must, however, be sax-horn and the thin trumpet. The discoveries of Professor taken that the tube is vertical, as otherwise the mercury Helmholtz have thrown much light on this subject of timbre or will appear to stand at a greater height than it really does. quality of tone. By altering the shape of the mouth you can The mode in which the barometer is used as a means of fore- produce the sombre and clear resonances of which Garcia telling the weather we must defer to our next lesson.

speaks. A brief allusion has been made to the "water barometer," The general STRENGTH of a voice appears to depend upon the by which the variations of the weather may be more readily vibrating power of the vocal membranes, the size of the organ, detected, but which is inconvenient on account of its great and the capacity of the chest. We know how easily a slight inlength, and consequent unwieldiness. Among curious construc- flammation, or other affection of the mucous membrane lining tions on this principle may be mentioned the "water barometer” the larynx, weakens the voice. The voices of old persons are of Otto Guericke, which was attached to a wall with a toy in the made tremulous by the loss of nervous and muscular power. form of a man floating on the water. The entire tube was hidden The special FORCE or loudness given to an accented note may behind some wainscoting, so that the little figure was only seen, be occasioned, Müller thinks, by relaxing the tension of the appearing and disappearing, as the weather was fine or the vocal membranes while we increase the force of the air-current. reverse.

Sir Charles Bell speaks of the back of the mouth and the veil of the palate (the soft palate) as playing a most important part in

giving the delicate impulses of accent. LESSONS IN MUSIC.—XXI.

Correct tune requires a mental effort. “Man," says Müller, ORGANS OF THE HUMAN VOICE-PITCH-QUALITY

“ like the singing bird, learns unconsciously the different internal STRENGTH-FORCE, ETC.

changes in the state of the larynx, and the different muscular

actions necessary for each note. Sounds accidentally uttered, We propose to collect together in this lesson a large amount of and the muscular actions which accompany them, become assoinformation on the subjects of the different kinds of voices, ciated in the sensorium, and afterwards readily excite each other singing in “parts," and good enunciation. We must refer our when a melody is to be imitated.” Correct tane, therefore, readers for fuller information on these topics to Müller's " Phy- depends upon the skill with which the sound is perceived and siology," Book IV., Section 3; the articles " Larynx,” “Voice,” its "idea" retained, and upon the accuracy with which the mind and "Stammering,” in the "Penny Cyclopædia ;" Sir Charles can command and combine the various muscular movements

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B

F

STANDARD SCALE. Decessary for its production. Hence it may be easily understood

COMPASS OF VOICES, how the voice will flatten when, from inattention or weariness,

o'x'x'd'c'BA GF EDC BLA, the singer does not give prompt and firm tension to the proper muscles of the larynx or chest. The loud singer is especially lisble to this, because, as noticed above, his notes are made to depend less upon the easily-governed tension of the vocal chords,

9 and more upon the regulated force of air from the chest—the muscles of which are less easily commanded with accuracy. Hence the importance of cultivating a medium force of voice, The statement of the extreme compass of voices, and the such as is consistent with the easy action of the lungs.

remarks included between inverted commas, are either condensed The VOICES OF WOMEN AND CHILDREN are, on an average, or extracted from the "Art of Singing,” by D. Crevelli, a work about eight notes higher than those of men. They are very which is the result of study and experience for nearly thirty various in character, but may be conveniently classified accord- years" of a gentleman, who was spoken of by the Athenarum as ing to their "compass," or the extent of notes which they can "the most successful vocal teacher in England." reach on the standard scale.

It should be noticed that boys' voices, especially for some a. The First Soprano Voice has its extremest time before they begin to break, are of a different timbre from compass from E (above the staff) down to B, those of girls—they are heavier and less flexible.

(below the staff). Its easy compass is from The term REGISTER is used to denote "a certain number of B1

Al down to c. * It is weak in the lower sounds in a voice, which differ in quality or timbre from another sounds, but light and brilliant (if well de- number of sounds in the same voice." We follow Dr. Bennati,

veloped) in the higher ones above B. The as kindly quoted to us by Mr. Graham. “This change of Gi

organ has not much muscular strength, and register is probably occasioned by some difference in the manner cannot easily give effect to sustained sounds,” in which the notes are produced. It may be that the lower notes but is very flexible.

are successively produced by somewhat relaxed membranes, b. The Second Soprano Voice reaches, in its which are shortened as the notes rise, and that notes of the extreme compass, from c down to G. Its higher register are produced mainly by the tension of the memeasy compass is from Fl down to Az. "It is branes without any shortening of the chords. If so, there will generally full and round in its quality, and be a note or two, at the junction of the registers, which may be flexible. The organ is of a stronger muscular produced on either principle, and an uncultivated voice may not construction."

decide with sufficient promptitude which principle is to be used, c. The Contra-Alto Voice sometimes reaches or on which note the new register should begin. This would from Bl Alat down to Ey. Its easy compass account for the great difficulty, which many have, in making the

is from Dl to F,. “Its organ is " large, and notes of one register follow smoothly with those of the other. G

“of a very strong muscular construction. It 'Such persons require considerable practice and care to blend'
is not very flexible. The upper sounds are the registers. They should be instructed to keep the notes of
harsh or weak. It is, however, sometimes the lower register down in strength or force, while they seek to
full from pl down to G. It is most powerful strengthen those of the higher one.”
from G to G,."

All the tones of the voice are really produced in the larynx, The VoicES OF MEN are classified as fol. or “ Adam's apple,” but in producing the strong vibrating lower lows :

tones of the voice, the singer feels as though his chest were called с

a. The Tenor Voice is of two sorts. “ The to a special effort. In producing other more weak and soft tones, B first is that very delicate, light, and rare he feels that the back part of the throat is exerting its muscles;

voice for which the alto' part is written in and in producing certain clear, ringing tones, beyond the range A, some of our tune-books. Like the first soprano of his ordinary voice, he is conscious of vibration in the head.

voice, among females, it is not adapted to Hence the names of the three registers—the chest register, the G

sustained sounds. Its compass is about a throat (sometimes called the medium, sometimes the falsetto) F.

tone higher than that of the common tenor register, and the head (also sometimes called the falsetto)

voice." The stronger tenor voice has for its register. Each register has its peculiar quality of tone, and is E, extreme compass from B flat down to B, flat produced by a peculiar management of the vocal organs. On

(in the bass cleff). Its easy compass is from this last point, recent discoveries have confirmed the conjectures D

A down to C, " It is full, round, and capable of the Italian, Bennati. Müller shows that the throat register of sustaining and expanding sounds with of tones is produced by the vibration of the thin borders only of

firmness. Great care should be taken not to the vocal membranes, while for the chest register those memB,

force the higher sounds. They should be branes vibrate in their whole breadth. For the head tones it is

sustained firmly though lightly, and without believed that the membranes fall down unused, and the larynx A,

making use of falsetto or head-voice-a quality becomes an instrument of the flute kind. More recently still, G,

of voice dissonant and unpleasant, and which the invention of the laryngoscope, and its skilful use by the

ought never to exist in a well-cultivated younger Garcia, and others, have given us many details of the F, voice."

manner in which tones are produced. From these it appears b. The Baritone Voice has its extreme com- that above a certain place in absolute pitch, the capabilities of pass from G to F, sharp (below the bass tension in the material called flesh and muscle require that tones

cleff). Its easy compass is from F down to should be most easily produced in the manner above ascribed to Ag"It partakes in some degree of the quality of both bass the throat register, and below that pitch in the manner of the and tenor. It is more soft and flexible than the former. chest register. The place in pitch thus referred to lies between From the ease with which it takes the notes D E F (treble D below the treble staff

, and G on its second line-a point only cleff), it may sometimes taken for the tenor. But from the just reached by the basses, and very little exceeded by the different position of the organ in the throat, these sounds, baritones ; having above it one-third of the tenor voice, half the instead of being full

, will be of a hollow quality-being the ex contralto, two-thirds of the second soprano, and nearly all the treme sounds of the baritone, whilst they are in the middle and first soprano. fullest part of the tenor. If the voice is at all strained on this Many of the tones of the chest register could also be produced part, instead of gaining the soft and full baritone quality, it will in the throat register, and vice versa. But the head register of become an imperfect mixture of the baritone and tenor.” tones never coincides—is never changeable--with the tones of

e. The Bass Voice reaches its extreme sounds in E (on the the other registers. Where the throat tones cease, the head lowest line of the treble cleff) and E, (below the bass cleff). Its tones begin. The chest tones are naturally preferred by the easy, compass is from p down to Fg." It is naturally of a hard lower voices (bass and contralto), and fill nearly the whole of and inflexible quality, but very ful and powerful in sustaining the bass compass. They are less used by tenors and baritones, sounds." Those who understand the old notation will like and still less by the first and second sopranos. The throat tones to see the following diagram :

are preferred by the sopranos, and form the chief part of their

D

E,

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mass.

voices. The tenors and baritones use them in the higher parts soprano, contra-alto, tenor, and bass, etc. (like most psalm tunes); of their voices. A baritone wishing to sing a tenor "part," also music in five, six, and eight parts. must necessarily have recourse to his softer throat voice, else he There is no harmony more perfect than the "concord of sweet will produce hard, wiry tones, very unpleasant when contrasted voices.” “ All musicians knew,” says General Thompson, " that with the soft, round chest tones of the tenor voice. The same by practising together, and, as it were, mutually rubbing down remark applies to second sopranos singing the air or soprano each other's asperities and defects, a quartett of performers on "part.” Conductors of choirs should be exceedingly careful in instruments of the viol kind arrived at a perfection of execution this matter, if they would secure a good blending of the vocal in point of harmony, or what is popularly called being in tune,

which nothing eould excel, and no known thing, except a quartett The head tones are exelusively used by the sopranos. In men of singers, equal. In short, there was no doubt that by follow-all authorities agree—these head tones are effeminate and ing the directions of the ear as to what was most harmonions, disagreeable. Garcia says that the head register is not improved and each labouring to accommodate the other with this common by much exercise. Nearly all men and some women speak in the object in view, they did practically break in upon the thing so chest voice. Nearly all women, including the contraltos, speak much sought for under the title of correct harmony. in the throat voice; and the cries of women and children are But nobody could tell what it was they did.” The General then in the head voice. Teachers should be warned against allowing shows that the thing they did was—to sing or play notes which boys' voices to be forced upwards in the chest register. Garcia were mathematically correct according to the scale which the says that this often occasions the loss of voice in chorus children. human ear requires--to free themselves from the temperament of At "the change of voice” in boys, their voices should have keyed instruments--and to observe the double form of RAY entire rest, often for a full year. Many voices, says Bassini, which he calls its “duplicity." Let the singer make full use are “irretrievably ruined” by the neglect of this precaution. of the advantage he thus possesses. Bassini recommends the following test exercise to tenors, bari The “balancing” of parts is important. For a congregation tones, and contraltos, for the discovery of the throat register. containing every kind of voice, music in four parts-soprano, The third tone, sung piano, is almost sure to be delivered with contra-alto, tenor, and bass-is most appropriate. The second the throat voice. Then, having once found that register, it is soprano and the baritone voices, in such music, would have to join easy to keep it in the desconding phrase.

with the parts above or below according to convenience. Bat mp.

in the Sabbath-school, where the immense preponderance of voice is that of females and children, to divide the voice of the male teachers into bass and tenor would make them out of all

proportion weak. A far better distribution and more equal KLY C. THROAT

CHEST.

volume of voice is obtained by using music written in three

parts-two for the voices of females and children, and one of PP. | m:-18:- | s:f|m:r|d:- | d: - IH proportion is desirable for boys' schools with a master, but the

medium compass) for the united voices of the men. A similar {ld:

Use of the Registers.--As the registers produce different parts should be so written that the two upper melodies may be qualities of tone, it is better, when you have commenced a musical harmonious when the bass is absent. In girls' schools music in phrase in one register, to conclude it in the same. If this is not two parts is desirable. If, for Sabbath-schools, the two men's possible, then care should be taken, in passing from one register parts are retained, they should be very simple and "steady," to the other, to maintain regularity in volume of tone. Bassini's sounding rather like an accompaniment than like "parts." rule is : in ascending phrases, when you have begun with the After these explanations, it is scarcely necessary to warn the chest register, keep it; in descending phrases, keep the throat pupil against the too common but absurd practice of females register.

attempting to sing the tenor, or that of males sullying, with The voices of women and children are commonly called their tenor or baritone voices, the purity and brightness of the “ treble voices." The highest female voice is often called simply "air.” If men are obliged to pitch the air of a tune, let then "soprano," and the second voice is then called the “mezzo do so; but let them leave the females " to sing it, while they soprano.' The “part” adapted to the second soprano or return to the part which is proper to their own voices." contra-alto is sometimes called the “seconds," but that term is In "leading " a tune, it is advisable first to let all the school occasionally used in reference to the tenor. The “alto" is a or congregation distinctly hear the key-note. If necessary, the very high man's voice, reaching very nearly to the lowest of first note or two (not more) may be sung by the leader in the women's voices, which is called, on that account, the contra-alto. “air.” The leader should then take his own part. He will find But the two voices differ greatly in character—the one being himself able to keep up the pitch or the rate of movement much light and flexible, the other not so.

better by means of a firm bass or a clear tenor, both well accented, Every pupil should mark the extent of his own voice on the than by singing the air, however loudly or however angrily. Gcale above given at the side of the page.

When a "clerk" or "precentor" will sing the "air," it takes The pupils need scarcely be warned against the common fool- the spirit from the female voices; but if, perchance, for a line, ishness of boasting “how high they can sing." Let them he leaves them to themselves, they seem to rise with new vigour, remember that God has made their voices differently; that it is sweetness, and brilliancy. the honour of some to sing the lower parts for which their A good enunciation of words is most important to the singer. voices were made, as it is of others to sing the higher parts; He cannot use that accent and inflection on each word which so and that the medium sounds of every voice are not only its much help us to distinguish the words of the speaker, however easiest, but its very best.

badly uttered. It is therefore the more necessary for the singer, Vocal music is commonly so written that several melodies if he would be “intelligible and edifying,” to use an articulation may be sung together—each melody being adapted, in its com- strong, distinct, and correct. Care should be taken to make pass, to one particular voice. The leading (or most striking) the vowel sounds most clear and accurate, and to deliver the melody is almost invariably, and very properly, that which is consonants both quickly and forcibly. sung by the highest voice. Each of these concurring melodies For this purpose, the words should be read aloud by the is called a "part;" the highest is commonly called the "air." teacher, so as to show the feeling and proper expression belong.

Those who sing in parts should seek to attune their voices ing to them, and to exhibit a "pattern” of good utterance. one to the other, and to maintain the several parts with an equal This the class should imitate, in one voice, taking the teacher's volume of voice, so that one part may not overpower the others. pattern line by line. The practice of reading together in a loud Each singer should also take care to sing the part proper to his whisper will be found very conducive to the end sought. own voice.

It will sometimes be convenient to shorten a note when it We have music " in two parts," written for soprano and falls on an ill-sounding syllable, and sometimes to throw the contra-alto voices, or for tenor and bass (like the exercises in sound of a final consonant on to the following word. this work), or for soprano and bass; music " in three parts," If we were to pursue this important subject further, we should written "for three equal voices" (that is, for three female or be tempted into a course of lessons on elocution, which would be three male voices), or for soprano, contra-alto, and baritone, or beyond our province here. for soprano, tenor, and bass, etc.; music " in four parts," for (The Exercises attached to this Lesson will be givon in our next.)

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