RECREATIVE NATURAL HISTORY. up its head when running, so as to throw the heavy mass back

wards over the neck. The great length of the legs, the height THE DEER FAMILY.

of the shoulders, the heavy, shambling trot, huge size of the A HISTORY of field sports would be as instructivo as amusing. animal, sometimes seven feet high, and the odd snapping sound It must inevitably develop both the evil and the good of human of the joints, give to the motions of this deer a peculiar awk. nature, showing much courage and daring associated with no wardness. The moose spreads far over the northern regions little selfishness and cruelty. Hunting would, beyond doubt, of America, pushing its journeys, at some points, within the take up the greater portion of such a work, from the chase of Arctic circle, and offering, in the depth of winter, a splendid the lion or tiger to the rather inglorious pursuit of a hare. The prize to the Indian hunter. The elks of Norway and Sweden chapter devoted to the various field sports of the United King. differ but little, if at all, from the moose ; but they are rapidly dom would first treat of the stag-hunt before condescending to diminishing in number before the rifles of enterprising sportsnotice the bold fox-hunter or the skilful managor of harriers. men. Even deer-stalking in the Scottish Highlands must yield Our present object

to stalking the elk in is not, however, to

the grand solitudes of write a treatise on

the Norwegian mounhunting, but to give

tains. some account of an

It may be supposed important family of

that fable has left animals which have

these deer alone. Not in all ages been the

so: the men of old special objects of the

times were too fond hanter's craft.

of the marvellous for This being our third

that. It was believed paper on the Rumi.

that the legs of the elk rants, no special re

were without joints; marks on this order

that antlers grew from of mammalia are re

the eyelids; and that quired. It may be

the animal was forced sufficient to call at

to walk baokwards as tention to the fact

it fed. The very pethat all the Cervida,

digree of the creaor deer family, have

ture was involved in solid horns, a marked

mystery. It was said distinction between

to be desconded from them and the ox,

the camel and the sheep, and antelopes.

deer; thus being, in The deer alone, of all

fact, a most wonderthe Ruminants, shed

ful mule. Such an their horns yearly, a

animal could not be physiological change

allowed to live a very of sufficient import

happy life; it was ance to give the ani

therefore made submals a prominence in

jeot to severe epileptic natural history.

fits, which were conSome brief descrip

stantly bringing its tions of the more re

tall form to the markable species are

ground. No wonder, necessary before we

then, that the old examine into the

Germans named the growth and structure

animal "Elend," or of the horns and other

the wretched one! peculiar organs.

Amidst all these calaThe species of the

mities, one comfort 80-called Irish elk is

remained; the elk now extinct, though

always had its medisome writers assert

cine at hand. When that individuals ex

prostrated by a fit, isted up to the middle

the patient had only of the sixteenth cen

to smell or lick its tury. The bones of

hoofs to ensure this gigantic deer are frequently found in THE RED DEER, OR TRUE STAG (Cervus Elaphus).

speedy recovery.

The Rein-deer canthe bogs of Ireland

not be entirely passed and in the Isle of Man. A perfect skeleton is in the Museum over by us, though it has been so often described that we shall of the Royal Dublin Society, and the spread of the vast antlers, be pardoned for not entering largely into minute details. We no less than six feet, may give some notion of the magnificent must also be excused for declining to discuss the much-disputed power of this stag when living. Mr. Mantell possessed a pair mode of spelling this deer's name, whether Rhen-deer, Rainof borns which extended " thirteen feet from tip to tip." Can deer, or Rein-deer, leaving that important matter to the taste the reader picture to himself a deer, six feet high and nine feet of each reader. The various Indian and Esquimaux names are in length, carrying aloft such a forest of spreading antlers ? too many for enumeration, amounting to a dozen at least. It The animal is improperly called an elk, the form of the horns is also a question whether the rein-deer, or Caribou, of North proving it to be closely allied to our elegant fallow-deer. America is not a different species from that of the Laplanders.

The best living example the true elks is the moose-deer The two are, probably, only varieties of the same species. No (Alces Americanus) of North America. The noble horns of inference can be justly drawn from the diversities in the horns, this species expand towards the summit in a manner somewhat for in no animals are these variations so numerous as among resembling those of the fallow.deer,

but without antlers at the the rein-deer ; indeed, it has been said that it is difficult to find base or in the middle of the stem. The great weight of these two individuals with horns exactly alike. The American reinhead-weapons, often about fifty pounds, compels the elk to hold deer was probably called Caribou (Carré-bæuf) by the early


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French settlers in Canada, from the resemblance which the Let us now give a little attention to our native species, tho massive body bears to that of the ox.

Red Deer, the Roebuck, and the Fallow Deer of our parks. The size of the animal varies much; the Norwegian are the The Red Deer, or true stags (Cervus elaphus), are still wild smallest, and those of Lapland are far inferior to the deer which in Scotland, where they give the "stalker ” many an opporfrequent the polar regions of America and Asia. This quadru. tunity for testing the strength of his muscles and the steadiness ped is indeed well fitted to flourish in the lands of snow and of his nerves. The horns of this species are conical, with tempests. The thick hair defends the body from the most antlers springing from the bottom and middle of the "beam." piercing cold, while the hard end of the muzzle and the iron. They have none of those expanded surfaces which characterisa like hoofs are admirably adapted for removing the frozen snow the elks, rein-deer, and fallow-deer. Every part of these forwhich covers the white lichens, the favourite food of the animal. midable weapons has its appropriate name: the main stem is These cryptogamous vegetables, which in England rank with the beam ; the great branches springing from this are the the smallest forms of botanical life, and only serve to give a antlers; the projections near the top are the branches ; and rich tinting to old walls and the trunks of ancient trees, grow those at the tip of the beam are called the sub-royal, or crown. luxuriantly on the mountains of Lapland, and cover the The antlers themselves have distinct names: the first being barren-ground regions of North America. Among them is the called the brow antler, the second the bez-antler, and the third well-known, though wrongly named, Iceland moss, so frequently the royal. The bony ring at the bottom of the beam is known used by consumptive invalids in England. This is really a as the burr, of which we shall have something to say. The lichen, the Citraria Icelandica. The rein-deer sometimes perish whole of this horn-system is not produced in the first, second, from inability to obtain a supply of this food, and terrible or even third year of the red deer's life. In the first year the then is the condition of the Esquimaux and Laplander. These horns are but small bumps on the head; in the second they famines occur when, instead of snow, an impenetrable pavement assume a pointed shape, and are then called dags; the third of thick ice covers the lichen districts, defying all the attempts year developes the brow antler ; in the next the bez-antler is of the deer to remove the fatal covering.

produced; and the fifth year sees the royal antler bnd forth, and In the American regions where these animals abound, they then the animal becomes a stag. But the horns are not perfect form the chief support of the Indians and Esquimaux, who piti. until the sixth and following years form the successive branches lessly and recklessly slaughter vast multitudes in autumn, when of the crown. The number of antlers increases with the age of the fat herds are migrating from their summer homes. Many the stag; ten or twelve is, in general, the extreme, but some readers may know what pemmican is, others may never have heads have borne horns of thirty antlers. even heard the word. It is simply deer's flesh cut small, packed These stags, in the wild state, are almost extinct in the south tightly into a skin, and an abundance of melted fat poured into of England; for those turned out to be hunted by the Royal and over the whole, to keep the food from the air, and to give a hounds at Windsor are really half-domesticated. A hundred due richness and flavour to the preserved meat.

years ago they were numerous in the southern forests; but These destructive huntings of the rein-deer only happen these were only the relics of the stately herds for which Wilamong the wild and wandering Indian tribes of America. The liam I. made the New Forest, and for whose protection the Laplander knows too well the value of the animals, and pre- ferocious forest laws were enacted. For them, chiefly, nearly serves the providers of his food and clothing with all care. With seventy forests, and about seven hundred royal parks, were two or three hundred deer, and a well-situated lichen tract, he jealously kept, until the irritated baronage, gentry, and comcares little for the rise and fall of the foreign food markets, and moners of England insisted upon having their share also in the still less, if that be possible, for the rise and fall of kingdoms. hunting of the deer. This animal must, indeed, have a place He wants neither railways nor thorough-bred horses; his in the national records, if only for his former importance. Partrained deer can bear him, if necessary, over the glistening liament no longer passes acts for his protection; rebellions snow-tracts at a rate equal to the speed of the swiftest horse. are not organised under colour of a stag-hunt; noblemen have His daughters' marriage portions and the estates of his sons ceased to glory in the privilege of killing a deer on their way are to be found in his antlered flock. If he wants a winter coat, to and from Parliament. But we cannot even yet forget that the rein-deer skin will defy a frost capable of freezing the “Chevy Chase” was fought in the stag's honour, and that the mercury in the barometer. Is the Laplander an epicure, he has stark” William of Normandy " loved the red deer as if he but to order a dish of deer's tongue, properly cooked by his had been their father." wife or eldest daughter, when he will have a dinner which is The Roebuck (Cervus capreolus), the smallest of our native both savoury and nutritious.

deer, has but two antlers on the short horns, lives in small herds The horns are five or six feet long, flattened at the upper of five or six, frequents mountain districts, and must now be parts, and having antlers projecting from the base of each horn sought in Scotland, where their watchfulness will tax all the in front, and also antlers springing from the middle of the hunter's skill. “beam or horn-shaft, and directed backwards. Thus the The Fallow Deer (Cervus dama) is the best known English whole mass may be divided into four parts: the beam, the base species, being that usually kept in parks, where their beauty or lower antlers, the middle antlers, and the wide-spreading and gentleness are in harmony with the quietude of sylvan palmated summit. We must not forget that the female of this scenery. The horns have two antlers directed forwards ; but species is horned.

the upper parts expand into what is called the “palmated" The Musk-deer demands a few words, before proceeding to form, which is not fully developed till the animal is six years notice our native species. We admit that this animal can old. scarcely be ranked with the deer family; but as popular The spotted variety is said to have been brought from the zoology places them here, and scientific naturalists are unable South of Europe or North Africa ; but the brown kind were to class the Moschidæ (musk animals) satisfactorily, we shall introduced by James I. from Denmark. The name falio is here regard them as a peculiar species of hornless, but tusked, descriptive of the light reddish-brown colour

of the most ancient deer. The true musk animal is found in the high and bleak variety, and is derived from a Saxon word signifying a light red

. regions of Thibet; it is about three feet high, and of a pale A few words on the growth and shedding of the horns are yellow tint. The musk is a thick brownish fluid, contained

in now requisite, as the production

of such masses of bony matter a fleshy bag about the size of a hen's egg, situated on the ab- every year must have a great influence on the vital functions domen of the animal. The dried musk in each bag averages of the animal. The new

horn is at first but

a soft and highlyabout one-third of an ounce, and is worth a sovereign in sensitive knob, protected by a fine skin covered with hair, the market. As 5,000 are sometimes imported in a single called the "velvet." If the " knob" be gently touched with year, this involves the destruction of 15,000 animals. The the finger, it will be found to possess all the heat of inflammaodour of the new musk is so powerful that the dealers are tory action. As the horn grows, the skin or "* velvet" dries forced to cover their nostrils with thick cloths while inspecting up, and is gradually rubbed off by friction against trees. The the bags or “ pods." This extraordinary perfume is said to whole system of blood-vessels, which nourished the tender retain all its energetic pungency after exposure to the air for growing horn, cease to act, and, finally, leave nothing but the a hundred years. It has proved a puzzle to the analytical faint marks of their presence on the solid horn. The burr, or chemists, who, after detecting ten elements in its composition, bony ring at the base of the horn, has been the last formed

, are unable to explain the nature of the perfume.

and we must now consider the influence of this on the shedding



of the horns. The continued pressure of the burr on the blood

VOCABULARY. Fessels tends to obliterate these, and therefore to stop the flow Accubo, 1, to lie up to, Et-et, both. Perdomo, 1, to tamo of blood to the antlers. In time this failure of nourishment to lie (sit) at table. Evolvo, evolvi, evolu thoroughly. leads to the weakening of the horns at the frontal joint, and Aduro, adussi, adurere, tum, 3, to roll out, Ploratus, -as, a com. ultimately to their falling off. A few blood-vessels are even adustum, 3, to set on unfold.

plaint, a weeping. then torn asunder, as the part where the horn separates from

fire, burn.

Excubo, 1, to kdop Reperio, 4, to find.


Age, come. the skull generally bleeds for a short time.

Replico, 1, to usfold,

reply. The lachrymal sinus (tear-channel) is an opening under each Applico, 1, to lean Gemitus, -ās, m., a

Scaturigo,-inis,a spring eye in most species of deer, the use of which is yet unknown. Complicatus, compli- Increpo, 1, to scold. Se applicare, to bring They are not "tear-channels," notwithstanding the name; nor cated, dark.

Nutus, -as, m., a nod, neur, approach, apply are they “breathing places,” as Gilbert White supposed, for Complico, 1, to fold to command.

to some one, to turn Hunter has shown they have no connection with the nostrils or gether.


to some thing. lungs. These organs are, therefore, at present a mystery. Cremo, 1, to burn. thither, everywhere. Verecundia, -, f., mb

mbThose of our readers who wish to know something of the Discedo, 3, to depart, go. Percrepo, 1, to resound. desty. numerous deer parks still kept up in England, and the modes

EXERCISE 129.-LATIN-ENGLISH. of managing the animals in such enclosures, will do well to 1. Quis venit? 2. Fores crepuerunt. 3. Dux milites vehementer read Mr. Shirley's book on the deer parks of England.

increpuit. 4. Tota urbs vocibus civium de victoria ex hostibus reThe necessary limits of this paper have prevented us from portatâ exsultantium percrepuit. 5. Age, cubitum discedamus. referring to several foreign species, from entering into the Romani multas gentes ac nationes armis perdomuerunt. 7. Docemur details of "hunting science,” and from describing the various auctoritate nutuque legum, domitas habere libidines, coercere omnes modes in which the horns and skin of the deer are made cupiditates. 8. Ex hoc fonte ingentes scaturigines aquæ emicuerunt. * useful ” to men.

9. Indorum sapientes ad flammam se applicant. 10. Indorum sapientes If deer have had little direct influence on human civilisation, sine gemitu aduruntur. 11. Indorum sapientes, quum ad flammam se they, nevertheless, have contributed in all ages to the support applicaverunt, sine gemitu aduruntur. 12. Cicero ad Molonem philo

13. Sapiens studet animi sui complicatam of numerous rude tribes, and have offered, in feudal times, the notionem evolvere. 14. Quum memoriam tempðrum replicaveris, et temptations of the chase as a more innocent amusement than virtutum et vitiorum multa exempla reperies. 15. Quum urbs expagthe battle-field. Does the man of the nineteenth century ask nata esset, omnia passim muliérum puerorumque ploratibus sonuerunt. which is better, the hunting-field or the music-hall? An English. 16. Terremur quum serenâ tempestate (weather) tonuit. 17. Nitimur man has but one answer.

in vetitum. 18. Augustus carmina Virgilii cremari vetuit. 19. Augustus
carmina Virgilii cremari contra testamenti ejus verecundiam vetuit.


1. The hinges of the door creaked. 2. The mother scolded her DEVIATIONS IN THE FIRST CONJUGATION. iunocent son. 3. The soldiers kept watch all night. 4. The sailors 2. Perfect, -UI; Supine, ITUM.

will subdue the enemy's fleet. 5. I shall apply myself to Cicero (study

under him). 6. I forbid you to study under Aristotle. 7. We shall i. Crepo, crepui, crepare, crepitum, 1, to croak.

strive for what is forbidden (vetitum). 8. The whole house sounded ü. Cubo, cubui, cubare, cubitum, 1, to lie down.

with the groaning of the sick men. 9. The city sounds with arms. ii. Domo, domni, domare, domitum, 1, to tame, subdue. 10. Jupiter subdues the other gods by his nod. 11. Everywhere groaniv. Mico, micui, micare (no supine), to glitter; so emico, ings and weepings sound. 12. I have thoroughly tamed the lion. and emieni, emicare, emicatum, to dart forth; but dimico, I fight,

DEVIATIONS IN THE FIRST CONJUGATION. has dimicavi, dimicare, dimicatum.

3. Perfect -UI; Supine, -TUM. v. Plico, plicui, plicare, plicatum, and plicitum, to fold; i. Frico, fricui, fricare, fricatum, to rub; refrico, refricui, implico has implicui, implicatus (Cicero), and implicitus; ex refricare, refrictum, to rub up, revive (p. f. refricaturus). plico and applico, in Cicero, have always -avi, -atum; replico, ii. Neco, necui, necare, necatum, to kill; eněco, enecui, enealso, is regular.

care, enectum, to torture in killing. vi. Sono, sonui, sonare, sonitum, to sound; part. fut. sona iii. Seco, secui, secare, sectum, to cut, flog (p. f. secaturus). turus. vi. Tono, tonui, tonare (no supine), to thunder.

4. Perfect, -I; Supine, -TUM. viii. Veto, vetui, vetare, vetitum, to forbid.

i. Juvo, juvi, juvare, jutum (juvaturus), to help; adjivo, Let me impress on the student the necessity of committing adjūvi, adjuvare, adjutum, adjuturus. these forms to memory. Only by committing them to memory

ü. Lavo, lāvi, lavare, lautum, to wash. -only by retaining them in your memory-can you become

VOCABULARY. thoroughly master of them, and so have them in your possession Adjuvare (acc.), to sup-| Frustra, in vain (E. R. petitum, 3, to ask, seek, for all necessary purposes. Be not deluded by any representa port, assist.


fetch. tions which may aim to make you think that you can become Allygare, 1, to bind to, Garrio, 4, 1 chatter, Principio, at the first. familiar with the Latin or any other language, unless at the

Garrulitas, -ātis, talk- Principium, i, n., a expense of very considerable and very close labour. Again

Attingo, attingere, at ativeness,

beginning. and again, twice or thrice over, must you acquire and repeat to

tigi, attactum, 3, to Garrulus, -a, -um, chat- Quantopěre, how much.

touch. yourself or to a friend all the forms I give ; nor be satisfied Coeno, i, to sup, dine.


Refricare, to rub back,

Horreum,-i, n., a barn, rub again. that they are yours until, by repeated examinations and trials, Congero, 3, I carry. Oleum, i, n., oil. Reporto, 1, I bring back, you learn that you have them in your mind. You will act Desecare, to cut down. Perfricare, rub gain. wisely to call in to your aid the principle of mutual stimulus Desiderium, -i, n., sense greatly.

Resecare, to cut off. and mutual instruction. Go over these forms alond, several of loss, regret for. Peto, petěre, petivi, Solutus, -a, -um, free. persons reciting them at once. For this purpose, it would be

EXERCISE 131.-LATIN-ENGLISH. well to have a leader or drill-sergeant, to give the word, and keep the recital correct. When you have repeated a form or a 2. Tuis sceleribus reipublicæ præterita fata refricaturus es. 3. Du

1. Vereor ne literis meis refricuerim desiderium ac dolorem tuum, vocabulary sufficiently, then proceed to examine each other. bium non est quin tuis sceleribus reipublicae præterita fata refricaturus You would do well to call into play the same impulse and aid sis. 4. Tantalus summam aqunm attingens, enectus siti fingitur a in writing and correcting the examples and exercises. If you poetis. 5. Nescisne quantopere garrulus iste homo me garriendo are unable to get several to join you in the task, undertake to enecuerit? 6. Caius Marius, quum secaretur, principio vetuit se alliteach Latin to some poor boy who cannot afford to purchase gari

, nec quisquam ante Marium solutus dicitur esse sectus, 7. Agrithe POPULAR EDUCATOR, or who may be neglected by his colæ frumenta desecta in horrea congèrunt. 8. Nisi libidines resecueris, proper guardians. If two persons, with equal time and equal frustra studebis beate vivere. 9. Quis nescit quantopere Cicero patriam talents, began together to study Latin, the one teaching juverit? 10. Non solum fortuna,

sed etiam industria tua te in negotio another, the other confining all his attention to himself, the bitamus quin splendidam de hostibus reportaturi simus victoriam. 12. former would ontstrip the latter very easily, and make such Exercitus maximis itineribus profectus est cives obsidione cinctos progress as in a few months to defy competition. Docendo adjutum. 13. Ne prius cæna quam manus lavēris. 14. Corpus laudisce.

turus aquam puram e vivo (running) flumine pete!

or on.









1 3












verb of the third conjugation, in the perfect tense, indicativo 1. Boys, rise, wash, and when you have washed (2nd fut.), apply to mood, third person singular, to agree with its subject ille. your business. 2. These women have tortured me with their chatter. Annuit is made up of ad and nuo; nuo is connected with tha 3. I do not doubt that these women have tortured thee with their noun nutus, a nod; so that the exact meaning of ille annus. chatter. 4. These talkative girls will kill me with their tongues. 5. is he nodded assent. I shall forbid my son to chatter. 6. Hast thou washed thy hands? 7. Come! wash thy hands well before you sit to table (accumbo). 8.

If we view the first sentence logically, it will stand thus:They will not (nolo) wash their feet. 9. The father's word assists the

PREDICATE. son. 10. Ships are coming to assist the besieged city. 11. There is

Verb. Object. no doubt but the army cf our general will speedily assist the city. 12.


rogaverunt accipitrem. Hast thou cut thy thumb? 13. I have cut my leg. 14. Thou hast revived my grief. 15. Not willingly (willing) have I revived thy grief. You thus see that milvii metu are accidental terms, terms no 16. Fortune aids the brave. 17. The slave is bound. 18. The father necessary to the sentence. Ut eas defenderet is equivalent to ea forbids his son to be bound.

defendere, to defend them. Accordingly, rogo has two objects : You ought now to be able to translate, at least with the aid first object, accipitrem ; second object, ut eas defenderet. In th: of a dictionary, an easy Latin sentence. Make the trial. Here grammars it is said that rogo, with other verbs of asking, govern: is a fable by Æsop. I have marked the order in which the two accusatives, the one of the person, the other of the thing. words should be taken. Can you translate it ?

Now in the parts thus parsed nothing occurs but what yor

ought to know and be able to explain. Nay, more than this, Accipiter et Columbæ.

you ought to be able to give the stems of the nouns and verbs. Columbæ, milvii metu accipitrem rogaverunt, ut eas defenderet. At any rate, I must enjoin it on you, in the attempts which!

now recommend you to make in parsing, to go through every Ille annuit. At in columbare receptus uno die majorem stragem edidit, noun, every tense, etc., according to the models already supquam milvius longo tempore potuisset edere. Fabula docet, malorum plied—to go through all the parts carefully in every instance.

Remember, "practice makes perfect.” patrocinium vitandum esse.

Two verbs in the fable may give you some trouble, namely, Have you read the whole carefully through? There are words edidit and potuisset. Edidi, from edo, edere, edidi, 3, in t. you do not know the meaning of? Well, there are several perfect tense, third person singular, is, like dedit, from do, forme! with which you ought to be familiar. I will supply you with by reduplication from the present edo. Potuisset, from th: the signification of such as I suppose you do not know.

irregular verb possum, potui, posse, to be able, is in the sub

junctive mood, pluperfect tense, third person singular, English, VOCABULARY.

might have been able, or could have done. Accipiter, -tris, m., a Milvius, -i, m., a kite. Possum, posse, potui, hawk. Patrocinium, i, m., I am ablo.

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN LATIN.-XXXIII. Edo,3, I put forth,cause. patronage. Strages,-is, f., slaughter.

(Continued.) With this aid you ought to be able to make out the whole.

EXERCISE 124.-ENGLISH-LATIN. Here, then, you have a test of your progress. If you cannot, after sufficient study, make it out, you may feel assured that turus sit. 3. Ne largitor malis pueris. 4. Deus piis largietur. 5

1. Heri amicus meus mortuus est. 2. Metuo ne amicus tuus moriyou have not attended to my instructions as you should have Aditus in coelum semper bonis patet. 6. Metuo ut aditus in cæluza done. However, I will supply you with a nearly literal trans- Alexandro pateat. 7. Quamdiu patria tua pace fruebatur ? 8. Quamlation, as another means of assisting you.

diu regis exercitus in patriâ nostrå erit, pace fruēmur. 9. Esne muner

functus? 10. Ne abutere patris gratiâ. 11. Loquar tecum, sed no.. The Hawk and the Wood Pigeons.

tibi blandiar. 12. Regi blanditus, laudem adeptus est. 13. Filius D. The wood pigeons, through fear of the kite, entreated the hawk to laudem adipiscētur? 14. Filius meus gloriam maximam adeptus est. defend them. He assented. But, being received into the dovecote, 15. Gloria virtutem eximiam sequitur. 16. Se rediturum esse, mih he committed more slaughter in one day than the kite could have pollicitus est. 17. Ille rediit. 18. Non, cras redibit. 19. Pueri : done in a long time. The fable teaches you that the patronage of the ipsi tuentur. 20. Pueri se ipsi tueri debent. 21. Misereor et miserebo? wicked should be shunned.

miserorum. 22. Ne obliviscere vitiorum tuorum. 23. Intra paucoi I will also show you the grammatical connection of some of dies proficiscar. 24. Quando revertes ? 25. Veremini senes, o pueri. the words, and the reason of the condition in which they severally

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN LATIN.-XXXIV. are; that is, I will give you in it a specimen of what is called Parsing.


1. God has given us a mind than which nothing is more excellent. Columbo, from columba, columbæ, a wood-pigeon or dove; a 2. The victory cost us much blood. 3. The mother of all good art,

noun feminine of the first declension, in the nominative case, is wisdom, than which nothing more productive, nothing more excellen:

plural number, being the subject to the verb rogaverunt. has been bestowed by the everlasting God on the life of men. 4. Go Milvii, from milvius, milvii; a noun masculine of the second has placed the body as a garment round the soul (God has surroundi. declension, governed in the genitive case by metu.

the soul with the body as with a garment), and has clothed it outwardly Metu, from metus, metūs; a noun masculine of the fourth de. 5. Those whose fathers or forefathers were distinguished by any glor

clension, in the ablative case, the cause, manner, or instru- (glorious deeds), endeavour for the most part to excel in the same sor: ment being put in the ablative.

of praise (praiseworthy deeds). 6. We ought to hold our parents very

dear, because by them life has been given to us. 7. He has not conAccipitrem, from accipiter, accipitris; a noun masculine of the ferred a benefit who unwilling has done good (who has done good ul

third declension, in the accusative case, being the object of willingly). 8. Who are more yours than those to whom you have the verb rogaverunt, which requires its object to be in the restored safety, when they were destitute of hope ? 9. The citize: accusative.

showed themselves most energetic defenders of liberty. 10. A great Rogaverunt, from rogo, rogare, rogavi, rogatum, to ask; a transi- multitude surrounded the orator in the market-place. 11. Eloquenca

tive verb of the first conjugation, in the perfect tense, third has been given by nature for the safety of men. 12. Eloquence has person plural, to agree with its subject columbæ.

been given by nature for the preservation of men.

13. A wicked Ut, a conjunction, which, when, as here, it signifies a contem. What is so inhuman as to turn eloquence, given by nature for the

orator turns eloquence to the ruin and destruction of the good. 14. plated result, requires its verb to be in the subjunctive mood. safety and preservation of men, to the ruin and destruction of the Eas, a demonstrative pronoun, referring to columbæ, from is, good? 15. Pay had not been given to the soldiers for a long time.

ea, id; the accusative plural feminine gender to agree with 16. Sedition arose among the soldiers. 17. Because pay had not been: its noun, and governed by defenderet.

given for a long time, sedition arose among the soldiers. 18. You, Defenderet, a transitive verb, from defendo, defendere, defendi, my friend, will evince fidelity to me. 19. I know for certain that you,

defensum, of the third conjugation, subjunctive mood, imperfect my friend, will evince fidelity to me. 20. Nothing hinders us. 91 tense, third person singular number, agreeing with its subject that nothing will stand in our way so that we may not obtain the vic,

22. We may obtain a victory. 23. I belier, ille understood, and governed by the conjunction ut. Ille, from ille, illa illud ; a demonstrative pronoun referring to death of many brave men. 25. We did not doubt that the victor,

tory (to prevent our obtaining the victory). 24. The victory cost thu accipiter, the subject to the verb annuit.

would cost the death of many brave men. 26. Will you persist in your Annuit, from annuo, annuere, annui, annutum; an intransitive opinion? 27. I know not whether you will persist in your opinion.



which is the essence of true gentlemanliness. Manifestly there 1. Classem duci dedit. 2. Tibi classem dabit. 3. Censesne se fratre are dangers in this, as in every other aspect of life and duty. meo classem daturum esse? 4. Nihil pluris hominibus constitit quam We can easily understand in physics how too much of sweets avaritia. 5. Deus mihi dedit sororem, quâ nibil mihi est carius. 6. nauseato instead of pleasing the palate, and so in morals we Soror mea mihi se amantem per totam vitam præstabit. 7. Milites fortis. can quite well understand that there is a danger lest courtesy imos se præstiterunt, sed victoria morte multorum virorum fortium con- should merge into a ridiculous and empty excess of mannerism. stitit. 8. Nihil obstat quominus victoriam adipiscamur. 9. Victoriam, There are rocks on either hand here as elsewhere, but there credo, adipiscemur. 10. Socrates omnibus philosophis præstitit. 11. Quis nescit Socratem omnibus pluilosophis præstitisse ? 12. Credis

are wide seas between in wkich we may safely steer our vessels ; Le filium tuum omnibus sociis præstaturum esse ? 13. Ingens hominum and if we are to be affrighted from one position because of its multitudo oratorem circumstat. 14. Stipendium militibus non est possible excesses, we had better confess at once our inability to htum. 15. Stipendium militibus dabo. 16. Cave ne seditio inter steer between extremes. The danger of excess in this respect milites oriatur. 17. Perstaturusno es in sententiâ tuâ ? 18. Nescio is not one-hundredth part so great as the danger of neglect. erstaturns ne sim in sententiâ meâ.

We are liable each day to be "put out" by so many things—to EXERCISE 127.-LATIN-ENGLISH.

have the angry spirit, the grumbling spirit, the discontented 1. Nothing hinders to prevent our doing that which pleases us most. spirit awakened in us—that it requires a marvellous amount of 2. I will not oppose to prevent his reading everything. 3. Death energy not to put this essence of unpleasantness into our does not deter a good man from consulting the welfare of the republic. mannerism towards others. Who has not felt it to be a great 4. They may interrupt me to prevent my being honoured, provided wrong that he should suffer Smith's snappishness, because in "hey do not interrupt to prevent the republic from being well managed the morning Brown happened to be cross with Smith ? It is y me. 5. No pretext appeared sufficient to excuse any citizen from difficult indeed to rid ourselves of the feelings of the hour; but being present. 6. He surrounded the bed with a broad ditch. 7. He if we all tried to be civil and courteous to each other, in urrounds the enemies' camp with his army. 8. He surrounds himself court, and camp, and shop, in street, at home, and abroad, we vith soldiers. 9. He will put his arms round your neck. 10. He should cure the evil at a stroke ; and just in proportion as we surrounded the city with a mound. 11. I will endeavour to go beyond these limits with which I have surrounded myself. 12. He gave a personally cultivate a courteous spirit, do we diminish the disistinguished character to the peace. 13. Patrons have invested him comfort of the world. with this fame.

Civility to all is our duty, but to the aged it is especially so. EXERCISE 128.-ENGLISH-LATIN.

Their nerves are more worn with life's long duty, their natures 1. Nihil impedit quominus puer bonus esse possis. 2. Famam tibi are less easily borne up with earth's future prospects, and they circumdabo. 3. Circumdabit mihi vestem. 4. Honorem sorori suæ feel most deeply all incivilities and discourtesies. It has been ircumdedit. 5. Circumdate urbi ignes, quominus cives egredi non the honourable and distinguishing mark of some nations that possint. 6. Quominus adsis, nulla excusatio justa est.

they have paid especial attention to age; and nothing is more

distressing than to be dealt with discourteously when life's ESSAYS ON LIFE AND DUTY.—XVIII.

evening comes. It is like roughly hinting, “You are in the

way; you are not wanted here !” Civility to all is, of course, CIVILITY.

our common duty, but there is one more specialty, and that is CIVILITY and courtesy, it is commonly said, are inexpensive, to the gentler sex. Nothing marks a man as a selfish and illthey cost nothing; and yet they are admitted on all hands to bred man more than inattentiveness and discourtesy to women. liare very much to do with life's success. No observer of men Whether it be in a house, a church, a train, or a public assemcan fail to see that these graces of manner exercise a charm blage, their wants should be first consulted, and he writes himover all, and that, when not carried into excess, so as to be self down a boor who shows to them none of that deference

ulsome and fawning, they are greatly appreciated by mankind which all civilised nations have long felt it to be their honour to ia general. We seldom care to come much into contact with pay to women. any one "surly as a bear,” however efficient he may be in his Incivility has not only often lost many a customer, but has, profession, or however well supplied his department of trade through that one loss, suffered the further injury, that others. may be. Nor, indeed, does the sincerity of a man's character have been kept by the reported discourtesy from the establishinake amends for the incivility of his speech. That, indeed, ment. In the end, like crime, all incivility is its own Nemesis. onght he to have done, but not to let the other remain undone. Nor should it be forgotten that a foolish pride is often at the "There is on some hands a foolish estimate of honesty which bottom of discourtesy. It arises, perchance, from some “ Who Associates it with bluffness and hardness, as though these were are you?" sort of feeling, and thus working its way into the it's necessary attendants ; but it is not so. The right discharge speech, he becomes discourteous who at first was at heart selfof some duties does not exonerate us from the fulfilment of conceited and proud. In every act of courtesy there is an others, and the duty is laid upon us all of being courteous, as acknowledgment of the claims of others—their claims on our well as of being honest and just.

attention and respect-and so far there is virtue in the thing Some nations teach us great lessons in this respect, and itself. It is very easy to speak of it as a dancing-master notably the French have obtained good repute as the most accomplishment, and to sneer at it as though it belonged only courteous nation upon earth. It were well if we possessed to pseudo-refinement. Any study of the essence of words more, in the general mass of our countrymen, of that spirit of shows us that courtesy and civility comprehend in themselves courtesy which seems to be so sadly lacking sometimes in our the relations we sustain to others; and those relations are not public conveyances and in our public life.

only those of buying and selling, with all other commercial Civility is a beautiful word, coming from the old Latin aspects of the case-they are social and moral as well, and civilis

, which means, relating to the community, or to the policy include the general happiness and the common weal. Thus it and government of the citizens and subjects of a state ; thus is that civility relates to our acting well the part assigned us as reminding us in its root-idea of the fact, that we are members citizens—living

rot as isolated beings, indulging selfish tastes, one of another, that mere individual care and selfishness is not and looking only at ourselves, but as those who feel themselves civil, and that we are related to those around us in multitudes to be part of the great commonwealth of human interests and

ways. An uncivil man by his conduct says, " Your pleasure, hopes, and as such desirous to minister, by courtesy and civility, your comfort of mind, is nothing to me. What care I whether to the peace and joy of those around us in the world. Fou are happy or not?” But a civil man desires by his very conduct to see those around him in the enjoyment of the pleasant sense of satisfaction and good-will.

LESSONS IN ALGEBRA.-XIII. Thus it happens that civil comes, in its secondary sense, to mean gentle, obliging, well-bred, affable, kind; and—let this

DIVISION OF FRACTIONS. le a satisfaction to citizens—it means, having the habits of a 147. TO DIVIDE a fraction by a fraction. cily. This surely is one of the greatest compliments that can Invert the divisor, and then proceed as in multiplication of be paid to those who have to endure a city's smoke and fractions. noise, that they are supposed to be especially civil. Certainly To invert a fraction, is to turn it upside down, or to make

is a sign of good breeding to bo civil. It manifests that the numerator the denominator, and the denominator the delicate and instinctive appreciation of the feelings of others numerator.


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