1 3












verb of the third conjugation, in the perfect tense, indicativo 1. Boys, rise, wash, and when you have washed (2nd fut.), apply to mood, third person singular, to agree with its subject ille. your business. 2. These women have tortured me with their chatter. Annuit is made up of ad and nuo; nuo is connected with tha 3. I do not doubt that these women have tortured thee with their noun nutus, a nod; so that the exact meaning of ille annus. chatter. 4. These talkative girls will kill me with their tongues. 5. is he nodded assent. I shall forbid my son to chatter. 6. Hast thou washed thy hands? 7. Come! wash thy hands well before you sit to table (accumbo). 8.

If we view the first sentence logically, it will stand thus:They will not (nolo) wash their feet. 9. The father's word assists the

PREDICATE. son. 10. Ships are coming to assist the besieged city. 11. There is

Verb. Object. no doubt but the army cf our general will speedily assist the city. 12.


rogaverunt accipitrem. Hast thou cut thy thumb? 13. I have cut my leg. 14. Thou hast revived my grief. 15. Not willingly (willing) have I revived thy grief. You thus see that milvii metu are accidental terms, terms no 16. Fortune aids the brave. 17. The slave is bound. 18. The father necessary to the sentence. Ut eas defenderet is equivalent to ea forbids his son to be bound.

defendere, to defend them. Accordingly, rogo has two objects : You ought now to be able to translate, at least with the aid first object, accipitrem ; second object, ut eas defenderet. In th: of a dictionary, an easy Latin sentence. Make the trial. Here grammars it is said that rogo, with other verbs of asking, govern: is a fable by Æsop. I have marked the order in which the two accusatives, the one of the person, the other of the thing. words should be taken. Can you translate it ?

Now in the parts thus parsed nothing occurs but what yor

ought to know and be able to explain. Nay, more than this, Accipiter et Columbæ.

you ought to be able to give the stems of the nouns and verbs. Columbæ, milvii metu accipitrem rogaverunt, ut eas defenderet. At any rate, I must enjoin it on you, in the attempts which!

now recommend you to make in parsing, to go through every Ille annuit. At in columbare receptus uno die majorem stragem edidit, noun, every tense, etc., according to the models already supquam milvius longo tempore potuisset edere. Fabula docet, malorum plied—to go through all the parts carefully in every instance.

Remember, "practice makes perfect.” patrocinium vitandum esse.

Two verbs in the fable may give you some trouble, namely, Have you read the whole carefully through? There are words edidit and potuisset. Edidi, from edo, edere, edidi, 3, in t. you do not know the meaning of? Well, there are several perfect tense, third person singular, is, like dedit, from do, forme! with which you ought to be familiar. I will supply you with by reduplication from the present edo. Potuisset, from th: the signification of such as I suppose you do not know.

irregular verb possum, potui, posse, to be able, is in the sub

junctive mood, pluperfect tense, third person singular, English, VOCABULARY.

might have been able, or could have done. Accipiter, -tris, m., a Milvius, -i, m., a kite. Possum, posse, potui, hawk. Patrocinium, i, m., I am ablo.

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN LATIN.-XXXIII. Edo,3, I put forth,cause. patronage. Strages,-is, f., slaughter.

(Continued.) With this aid you ought to be able to make out the whole.

EXERCISE 124.-ENGLISH-LATIN. Here, then, you have a test of your progress. If you cannot, after sufficient study, make it out, you may feel assured that turus sit. 3. Ne largitor malis pueris. 4. Deus piis largietur. 5

1. Heri amicus meus mortuus est. 2. Metuo ne amicus tuus moriyou have not attended to my instructions as you should have Aditus in coelum semper bonis patet. 6. Metuo ut aditus in cæluza done. However, I will supply you with a nearly literal trans- Alexandro pateat. 7. Quamdiu patria tua pace fruebatur ? 8. Quamlation, as another means of assisting you.

diu regis exercitus in patriâ nostrå erit, pace fruēmur. 9. Esne muner

functus? 10. Ne abutere patris gratiâ. 11. Loquar tecum, sed no.. The Hawk and the Wood Pigeons.

tibi blandiar. 12. Regi blanditus, laudem adeptus est. 13. Filius D. The wood pigeons, through fear of the kite, entreated the hawk to laudem adipiscētur? 14. Filius meus gloriam maximam adeptus est. defend them. He assented. But, being received into the dovecote, 15. Gloria virtutem eximiam sequitur. 16. Se rediturum esse, mih he committed more slaughter in one day than the kite could have pollicitus est. 17. Ille rediit. 18. Non, cras redibit. 19. Pueri : done in a long time. The fable teaches you that the patronage of the ipsi tuentur. 20. Pueri se ipsi tueri debent. 21. Misereor et miserebo? wicked should be shunned.

miserorum. 22. Ne obliviscere vitiorum tuorum. 23. Intra paucoi I will also show you the grammatical connection of some of dies proficiscar. 24. Quando revertes ? 25. Veremini senes, o pueri. the words, and the reason of the condition in which they severally

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN LATIN.-XXXIV. are; that is, I will give you in it a specimen of what is called Parsing.


1. God has given us a mind than which nothing is more excellent. Columbo, from columba, columbæ, a wood-pigeon or dove; a 2. The victory cost us much blood. 3. The mother of all good art,

noun feminine of the first declension, in the nominative case, is wisdom, than which nothing more productive, nothing more excellen:

plural number, being the subject to the verb rogaverunt. has been bestowed by the everlasting God on the life of men. 4. Go Milvii, from milvius, milvii; a noun masculine of the second has placed the body as a garment round the soul (God has surroundi. declension, governed in the genitive case by metu.

the soul with the body as with a garment), and has clothed it outwardly Metu, from metus, metūs; a noun masculine of the fourth de. 5. Those whose fathers or forefathers were distinguished by any glor

clension, in the ablative case, the cause, manner, or instru- (glorious deeds), endeavour for the most part to excel in the same sor: ment being put in the ablative.

of praise (praiseworthy deeds). 6. We ought to hold our parents very

dear, because by them life has been given to us. 7. He has not conAccipitrem, from accipiter, accipitris; a noun masculine of the ferred a benefit who unwilling has done good (who has done good ul

third declension, in the accusative case, being the object of willingly). 8. Who are more yours than those to whom you have the verb rogaverunt, which requires its object to be in the restored safety, when they were destitute of hope ? 9. The citize: accusative.

showed themselves most energetic defenders of liberty. 10. A great Rogaverunt, from rogo, rogare, rogavi, rogatum, to ask; a transi- multitude surrounded the orator in the market-place. 11. Eloquenca

tive verb of the first conjugation, in the perfect tense, third has been given by nature for the safety of men. 12. Eloquence has person plural, to agree with its subject columbæ.

been given by nature for the preservation of men.

13. A wicked Ut, a conjunction, which, when, as here, it signifies a contem. What is so inhuman as to turn eloquence, given by nature for the

orator turns eloquence to the ruin and destruction of the good. 14. plated result, requires its verb to be in the subjunctive mood. safety and preservation of men, to the ruin and destruction of the Eas, a demonstrative pronoun, referring to columbæ, from is, good? 15. Pay had not been given to the soldiers for a long time.

ea, id; the accusative plural feminine gender to agree with 16. Sedition arose among the soldiers. 17. Because pay had not been: its noun, and governed by defenderet.

given for a long time, sedition arose among the soldiers. 18. You, Defenderet, a transitive verb, from defendo, defendere, defendi, my friend, will evince fidelity to me. 19. I know for certain that you,

defensum, of the third conjugation, subjunctive mood, imperfect my friend, will evince fidelity to me. 20. Nothing hinders us. 91 tense, third person singular number, agreeing with its subject that nothing will stand in our way so that we may not obtain the vic,

22. We may obtain a victory. 23. I belier, ille understood, and governed by the conjunction ut. Ille, from ille, illa illud ; a demonstrative pronoun referring to death of many brave men. 25. We did not doubt that the victor,

tory (to prevent our obtaining the victory). 24. The victory cost thu accipiter, the subject to the verb annuit.

would cost the death of many brave men. 26. Will you persist in your Annuit, from annuo, annuere, annui, annutum; an intransitive opinion? 27. I know not whether you will persist in your opinion.



which is the essence of true gentlemanliness. Manifestly there 1. Classem duci dedit. 2. Tibi classem dabit. 3. Censesne se fratre are dangers in this, as in every other aspect of life and duty. meo classem daturum esse? 4. Nihil pluris hominibus constitit quam We can easily understand in physics how too much of sweets avaritia. 5. Deus mihi dedit sororem, quâ nibil mihi est carius. 6. nauseato instead of pleasing the palate, and so in morals we Soror mea mihi se amantem per totam vitam præstabit. 7. Milites fortis. can quite well understand that there is a danger lest courtesy imos se præstiterunt, sed victoria morte multorum virorum fortium con- should merge into a ridiculous and empty excess of mannerism. stitit. 8. Nihil obstat quominus victoriam adipiscamur. 9. Victoriam, There are rocks on either hand here as elsewhere, but there credo, adipiscemur. 10. Socrates omnibus philosophis præstitit. 11. Quis nescit Socratem omnibus pluilosophis præstitisse ? 12. Credis

are wide seas between in wkich we may safely steer our vessels ; Le filium tuum omnibus sociis præstaturum esse ? 13. Ingens hominum and if we are to be affrighted from one position because of its multitudo oratorem circumstat. 14. Stipendium militibus non est possible excesses, we had better confess at once our inability to htum. 15. Stipendium militibus dabo. 16. Cave ne seditio inter steer between extremes. The danger of excess in this respect milites oriatur. 17. Perstaturusno es in sententiâ tuâ ? 18. Nescio is not one-hundredth part so great as the danger of neglect. erstaturns ne sim in sententiâ meâ.

We are liable each day to be "put out" by so many things—to EXERCISE 127.-LATIN-ENGLISH.

have the angry spirit, the grumbling spirit, the discontented 1. Nothing hinders to prevent our doing that which pleases us most. spirit awakened in us—that it requires a marvellous amount of 2. I will not oppose to prevent his reading everything. 3. Death energy not to put this essence of unpleasantness into our does not deter a good man from consulting the welfare of the republic. mannerism towards others. Who has not felt it to be a great 4. They may interrupt me to prevent my being honoured, provided wrong that he should suffer Smith's snappishness, because in "hey do not interrupt to prevent the republic from being well managed the morning Brown happened to be cross with Smith ? It is y me. 5. No pretext appeared sufficient to excuse any citizen from difficult indeed to rid ourselves of the feelings of the hour; but being present. 6. He surrounded the bed with a broad ditch. 7. He if we all tried to be civil and courteous to each other, in urrounds the enemies' camp with his army. 8. He surrounds himself court, and camp, and shop, in street, at home, and abroad, we vith soldiers. 9. He will put his arms round your neck. 10. He should cure the evil at a stroke ; and just in proportion as we surrounded the city with a mound. 11. I will endeavour to go beyond these limits with which I have surrounded myself. 12. He gave a personally cultivate a courteous spirit, do we diminish the disistinguished character to the peace. 13. Patrons have invested him comfort of the world. with this fame.

Civility to all is our duty, but to the aged it is especially so. EXERCISE 128.-ENGLISH-LATIN.

Their nerves are more worn with life's long duty, their natures 1. Nihil impedit quominus puer bonus esse possis. 2. Famam tibi are less easily borne up with earth's future prospects, and they circumdabo. 3. Circumdabit mihi vestem. 4. Honorem sorori suæ feel most deeply all incivilities and discourtesies. It has been ircumdedit. 5. Circumdate urbi ignes, quominus cives egredi non the honourable and distinguishing mark of some nations that possint. 6. Quominus adsis, nulla excusatio justa est.

they have paid especial attention to age; and nothing is more

distressing than to be dealt with discourteously when life's ESSAYS ON LIFE AND DUTY.—XVIII.

evening comes. It is like roughly hinting, “You are in the

way; you are not wanted here !” Civility to all is, of course, CIVILITY.

our common duty, but there is one more specialty, and that is CIVILITY and courtesy, it is commonly said, are inexpensive, to the gentler sex. Nothing marks a man as a selfish and illthey cost nothing; and yet they are admitted on all hands to bred man more than inattentiveness and discourtesy to women. liare very much to do with life's success. No observer of men Whether it be in a house, a church, a train, or a public assemcan fail to see that these graces of manner exercise a charm blage, their wants should be first consulted, and he writes himover all, and that, when not carried into excess, so as to be self down a boor who shows to them none of that deference

ulsome and fawning, they are greatly appreciated by mankind which all civilised nations have long felt it to be their honour to ia general. We seldom care to come much into contact with pay to women. any one "surly as a bear,” however efficient he may be in his Incivility has not only often lost many a customer, but has, profession, or however well supplied his department of trade through that one loss, suffered the further injury, that others. may be. Nor, indeed, does the sincerity of a man's character have been kept by the reported discourtesy from the establishinake amends for the incivility of his speech. That, indeed, ment. In the end, like crime, all incivility is its own Nemesis. onght he to have done, but not to let the other remain undone. Nor should it be forgotten that a foolish pride is often at the "There is on some hands a foolish estimate of honesty which bottom of discourtesy. It arises, perchance, from some “ Who Associates it with bluffness and hardness, as though these were are you?" sort of feeling, and thus working its way into the it's necessary attendants ; but it is not so. The right discharge speech, he becomes discourteous who at first was at heart selfof some duties does not exonerate us from the fulfilment of conceited and proud. In every act of courtesy there is an others, and the duty is laid upon us all of being courteous, as acknowledgment of the claims of others—their claims on our well as of being honest and just.

attention and respect-and so far there is virtue in the thing Some nations teach us great lessons in this respect, and itself. It is very easy to speak of it as a dancing-master notably the French have obtained good repute as the most accomplishment, and to sneer at it as though it belonged only courteous nation upon earth. It were well if we possessed to pseudo-refinement. Any study of the essence of words more, in the general mass of our countrymen, of that spirit of shows us that courtesy and civility comprehend in themselves courtesy which seems to be so sadly lacking sometimes in our the relations we sustain to others; and those relations are not public conveyances and in our public life.

only those of buying and selling, with all other commercial Civility is a beautiful word, coming from the old Latin aspects of the case-they are social and moral as well, and civilis

, which means, relating to the community, or to the policy include the general happiness and the common weal. Thus it and government of the citizens and subjects of a state ; thus is that civility relates to our acting well the part assigned us as reminding us in its root-idea of the fact, that we are members citizens—living

rot as isolated beings, indulging selfish tastes, one of another, that mere individual care and selfishness is not and looking only at ourselves, but as those who feel themselves civil, and that we are related to those around us in multitudes to be part of the great commonwealth of human interests and

ways. An uncivil man by his conduct says, " Your pleasure, hopes, and as such desirous to minister, by courtesy and civility, your comfort of mind, is nothing to me. What care I whether to the peace and joy of those around us in the world. Fou are happy or not?” But a civil man desires by his very conduct to see those around him in the enjoyment of the pleasant sense of satisfaction and good-will.

LESSONS IN ALGEBRA.-XIII. Thus it happens that civil comes, in its secondary sense, to mean gentle, obliging, well-bred, affable, kind; and—let this

DIVISION OF FRACTIONS. le a satisfaction to citizens—it means, having the habits of a 147. TO DIVIDE a fraction by a fraction. cily. This surely is one of the greatest compliments that can Invert the divisor, and then proceed as in multiplication of be paid to those who have to endure a city's smoke and fractions. noise, that they are supposed to be especially civil. Certainly To invert a fraction, is to turn it upside down, or to make

is a sign of good breeding to bo civil. It manifests that the numerator the denominator, and the denominator the delicate and instinctive appreciation of the feelings of others numerator.


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om EXAMPLES.—(1.) Divide

11. Divide 8æy by

20. Divide ã

by с

d ad
Here, we have

12. Divide 18ax by (2a x — y).

21. Divide 1 + by 1


a To understand the reason of the rule, let it be premised that 13. Divide

18 (a + x) 2a (a - y)

2 +6

22. Divide by the product of any fraction by the same fraction inverted is

2m 3c +

ar + ab always a unit.

14. Divide 2a + I by x +

23. Divide

6 ab

- bez hty Thus X

= 1. And

- 1.


15. Divide by

24. Divide 1 by 1 + But a quantity is not altered by multiplying it by a unit. 16. Divide

2x - 1
@ - 3

15a Therefore, if the product of the dividend by the divisor inverted

25. Divide * + 4.2 + by

x + 2 3x + 1 be multiplied by the divisor itself, the last product will be equal 17. Divide

30% by

* + 2a + to the dividend. Now, by the definition, "division is finding a

y - 2
ya + 2

# - 2a quotient, which, multiplied into the divisor, will produce the 18. Divide


26. Divide 9, 28 dividend." And as the dividerd multiplied by the divisor in

a +o verted is such a quantity, the quotient is truly found by the rule. 19. Divide


by 3x - 43h (2.) Divide by


Here we have





my 3h
the dividend.



am + dm


ah 148. To divide a fraction by an integer.

4ah t. 40h
Zabh - 2abd

Samr + 387

2. Divide the numerator by the given integer, when it can be done


my - 2y
cmry - cmy

5am without a remainder; but when this cannot be done, multiply the 4ah + 4hm

3d + bd 3.

13. 3m.

8. denominator by the integer.

3a - 3n

hnr + 2hn

14. h + 30. 4a + 4h-am-hm 3a2d 18ad

4. Thus the quotient of



3c + cd + 3y + dy 7dhy + Thy

ah 149. To divide an integer by a fraction.

5. Reduce the integer to the form of a fraction, and proceed as

sa + 24r before. Or, multiply the integer by the denominator, and divide

EXERCISE 22. the product by the numerator.


4a 1.

11. 2abe.

6. EXAMPLE.—Divide a by



ax + 2?

7. 1.
Here, a =

13.23 - 03-982-203. 1 1 1



Or, a =
Ans. as before.

(x - a)

3x + y

3a + 4C

1 + 639
a + 6

a? -

4xy x + d 5d

16. 1. Divide by 6. Divide by h.

4 + 5y


1876 + 1974 - 93x2 + 36
4dh 4hr

2. Divide by
7. Divide

3646 52..* + 962 43° + 12

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360 3. Divide

5 10y
ab +1
ab -

Зат 4. Divide


9. Divide ab + cx by


3 5. Divide

| 10. Divide Sac - by

a +1

The participle past is INVARIABLE150. By a former definition " the reciprocal of a quantity is the quotient arising from dividing a unit by that quantity.”

1. In active verbs, when the direct regimen follows the par.

ticiple :B

Mes nièces ont étudié leurs leçons, My nieces have studied their lessons. b 6

Elles ont négligé leurs études, They have neglected their studies. Hence, the reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction inverted. For

b instance : the reciprocal of

2. In neuter verbs conjugated with avoir :-
+y; the reciprocal of

Mes cousines ont disparu,

My cousins have disappeared. 1 is

or 3y; the reciprocal of is 4. Hence the reciprocal Les cinq heures qu'elles ont dormi, The five hours which they have slept. 3y 1 of a fraction whose numerator is 1, is the denominator of the heures :

In the latter sentence, the word pendant is understood after

1 fraction. Thus, the reciprocal of is a; of is a +b, etc. Les cinq heures pendant lesquelles The five hours during «kich they

a + b'
elles ont dormi,


3. In unipersonal verbs, whether conjugated with être or with

avoir :-
1. Divide
by 3ab.

6. Divide by

Les chaleurs qu'il a fait cette The heat there has been this year. 10axx + 15abx 2. Divide by 5ax,

année, 6

Il est arrivé bien des malheurs, Many misfortunes have happened. by 3a. 8. Divide

4. In reflective or pronominal verbs, of which the second pro

noun is an indirect regimen, when no direct regimen precedes :3ab 6xy

2xy 9. Divide

Elle s'est proposé de partir, She proposed to herself to leave. 6

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7ab 5. Divide by 10. Divide 21abc by

5. When the participle precedes an infinitive, and is preceded by a direct regimen, and this direct regimen is not the acter,

4. Divide

2cd a + b




bat the object acted upon. In this case the infinitive is gene- favour (en faveur) of the architect. 11. The ten miles which rally rendered in English by the passive voice:

he has run have fatigued him. 12. Have your sisters injured Les chansons que j'ai entendu The songs whish I heard (boing) each other? 13. They have flattered themselves. 14. Did my chanter, 8ưng.

friends present themselves ? 15. There came three of your 6. When the direct regimen preceding a participle is not the idea of reading Tasso (Le Tasse). 18. Have you seen them (m.)

sisters. 16. What did they imagine ? 17. She conceived the object of this participle, but of a verb following:

steal my apples? 19. I saw them steal your peaches. 20. Have La règle que je vous ai conseillé The rule which I advised you to you heard them (f.) sing? 21. I have heard them sing. 22. d'étudier, study.

The songs which I heard sung are not new. 23. I found in your 7. The participle of faire, fait, followed by an infinitive, is room the books which I had forbidden you to take. 24. The always invariable:

peaches which I have forbidden you to eat are not ripe (mûres). Jo les ai fait raccommoder, I have had them mended.

25. Have you seen those soldiers ? 26. I saw them pass last 8. After the pronoun en, when no direct regimen precedes :-week: 27. I saw them carried to the hospital (a l'hôpital) this

morning. 28. Have you brought oranges from France ? 29. Vous a-t-on donné des fleurs ? Have they given you flowers ? I brought some. 30. The oranges which I brought from it (en) On m'en a donné,

Thoy have given mo (some) of thom. are good. 31. Have you brought silk goods ? 32. I have RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

brought some. 33. I have brought none. Elles nous ont donné de bons con. They have given us good advice.

seils. Elles nous en ont donné. They have given us some.

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN FRENCH. Les trois lieues qu'il a couru. The three leagues which he ran.

EXERCISE 147 (Vol. II., page 387). Les années que ces édifices ont The years that those edifices have duré. lasted,

1. Why do you not cease reading ? 2. I should be wrong to cease La belle journée qu'il a fait hier! What a beautiful day it was yester- gardener to water those powers ? 4. On the contrary, I had ordered

reading before knowing my lesson. 3. Have you forbidden your

day! C'est la plus belle fête qu'il y ait it is the finest feast that there has

him to water them. 5. Why has he neglected doing it? 6. Because

he has forgotten to bring the watering-pot. 7. What does Mr. F. wisk Il s'est présenté deux de vos amis. There came two of your friends.

to do? 8. He longs to continue the study of medicine. 9. Are you Ces demoiselles se sont nui. Those young ladies have injured one it. 11. Have you not refused to render that service to your enemy?

not wrong to visit that gentleman? 10. I should be wrong to neglect

another. Les Asiatiques se sont fait une The Asiatics have made the education 12. I should have been wrong to refuse rendering it to him. 13, What espèce d'art de l'éducation de of the elephant a kind of art.

conveyance have you advised us to take? 14. I have advised you to l'éléphant.

take the steamboat. 15. Have you threatened to strike that child ? Elle s'est imaginé l'idée de pouvoir She conceived the idea that she might 16. I have threatened to correct him. 17. Have you refused to sell

goods to my brother ? 18. I have refused to sell them to him on réussir. succeed.

credit. 19. Have you told my son to repair to my house ? 20. I Les fruits que j'ai va voler. The fruits which I saw being stolen.

begged him to go straight there. 21. Do you propose coming ChristLes soldats blessés que j'ai vu por- The wounded soldiers whom I saw ter. (being) carried.

mas Eve ? 22. We propose to come the next day. 23. Does your

companion propose to keep silent ? 24. He proposes to impart it to La chanson que j'ai entendu chan. The song which I heard sung.

every one. ter, Les pommes que je vous ai défendu The apples which I forbade you to de manger. eat.

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY.-XVI. Je les ai fait partir.

I obliged them to leave.
Elles m'ont apporté des oranges. They have brought me oranges.

Elles m'en ont apporté.

They have brought me (some) of them. The classes of the Mollusca hitherto described have been pasVOCABULARY.

sive in their habits and methods of feeding. We have seen Auberge, 1., inn. Enterr-er, 1, to bury. Pièce, f., picce. that, for the most part, they are fixed or moved about at the Bien, m., good.

Habill-er, 1, to dress, Racont-er, 1, to relate. mercy of the waves. Even when locomotive, locomotion is Dernier, -e, last. Jou-er, 1, to play. Reven-ir, 2, ir., to re- with them rather for the purpose of change of place than for Disparait-re, 4, ir., to Lion d'Or, m., Golden turn.

definite progression. They are not pursuers of other animals, disappear.

Soieries, silk goods.

por do they graze on the copious vegetation of the ocean, but Dorm-ir, 2, to sleep. Mort, -e, dead.

they are dependent on what the current, which their cilia create, EXERCISE 191.

brings them for nutriment. With them the obtaining of fresh 1. Quelle auberge vous a-t-on recommandée ? 2. On m'a water for breathing and food for nutriment is one and the recommandé l'auberge du Lion-d'Or. 3. Quelles nouvelles same act. In conformity with their habits they are almost avez-vous apportées ? 4. J'ai apporté des nouvelles agréables. devoid of organs of sense, and wholly without instruments for 3. Vos voisines sont-elles habillées ? 6. Elles ne sont pas en seizing prey. They have, it is true, a double nerve-knot above core habillées. 7. Ont-elles bien dormi la nuit dernière ? 8. the mouth, but this, though in the position of a brain, can Elles n'ont pas bien dormi. 9. Quand sont-elles arrivées ? hardly be said to have the function of perception which we 10. Elles sont arrivées à quatre heures et demie. 11. Ont-elles usually associate with the brain. Two other pairs of nervedormi plus de cinq heures ? 12. Les six heures qu'elles ont knots generally communicate with this, and they are often dormi leur ont fait beaucoup de bien. 13. Vos seurs se sont much larger than it. One of them has the two halves which elles amusées ? 14. En jouant, elles se sont fait mal au bras. compose the pair more or less removed from one another, each 15. Se sont-elles raconté notre conversation ? 16. Elles se la lying at the point of junction of the mantle and gills on its sont racontée. 17. Vos amies ont-elles dispara ?

18. Elles own side, and sending nerves to these organs. The other n'ont pas disparu ; elles sont revenues chez elles. 19. Les double knot lies in the foot, and is more or less developed soldats que vous avez vus partir, sont-ils revenus ? 20. Ils according as the foot is large, small, or rudimentary. These sont morts; je les ai vu enterrer. 21. Ne les avez-vous pas fait | three double nerve-knots are called respectively the cephalic étudier ? 22. Je les ai fait lire. 23. Avez-vous apporté des (head), parieto-splanchnic (mantle and visceral), and pedal Boieries ? 24. Je n'en ai pas apporté. 25. Les soieries que j'en (foot) ganglia. In the case of the pecten, fringes of feelers ai apportées sont superbes.

and of eye-spots run round the mantle, and these imperfect and

perhaps questionable organs of sense are supplied from the EXERCISE 192.

parieto-splanohnio ganglia ; and this pair of ganglia no doubt 1. Have you not recommended my nieces ? 2. I have re- represent the only nerve-knot which exists in the Tunicata and commended them. 3. Have you brought me good oranges ? Polyzon. In their case, also, it supplies nerves to the tentacles 4. I have brought you some. 5. Have you given any to my and other organs of sense which they possess. This pair of two daughters ? 6. I have given them some. 7. I would have ganglia may therefore be considered to be the seat of perception given them some, if I had had many. 8. Have you not neglected rather than the cephalic

. Another of the functions of the brain, your studies ? 9. I have not neglected them; I never neglcct | however, may be assumed to belong to the cephalic pair of them. 10. The years which that church has lasted speak in ganglia, and that is the function of volition. All the other



ganglia of the body are in direct communication with the teropods; but in function, of course, the foot of the gasteropods cephalic pair, but not with the other two pairs. We may there is much more like a foot than the same organ in the lower class. fore consider that the cephalic pair is the originator of the Usually the foot is a muscular, elongated sheet, broader and voluntary actions, or is concerned in all those actions which longer than the body of the animal, and acts at the same the creature performs as a whole and individual. This pair is, time as the wall of the body and the means of propelling it so to speak, the central telegraph-station, and therefore may be along. The whole rim of the foot all the way round is usually considered to be

thickened, and in direct commu

can be closely apnication with the

plied to a smooth manager.

surface, while the We have dwelt


central parts can so long on the

be thrown in nervous system

wrinkles. Thus of the conchifer,

the whole acts as partly because we

a kind of sucker had not space for

or holdfast, while it in our last les


all the middle son, and partly

parts, being alto indicate the

ternately applied contrast which it

to the ground presents to that

and dragged over of the gastero

it, effect a movepods or headed

ment in which molluscs. In

the whole animal these, though the

participates. If nervous system

the reader allows no doubt consists

a slug to crawl of the same ele

up a pane of ments, they are 8

glass, and looks more closely as 9

at it through the sociated; and the

transparent meganglia, situated

dium, he will see over the throat,

successive waves behind the cavity

moving all along of the mouth, are

the foot, showin direct commu

ing that, while & nication with the

series of points organs of sense ;

are fixed, the and this is the

parts in between same arrange

are moring, and ment as is found

the moving parts both in verte

then become brates and artiIII.

fixed, allowing culates.

the previously The Gastero

fixed parts to be poda derive their

pushed or pulled name from the

along by the conusual form of the

traction of the locomotive or

muscles embedgan, which is so

ded in the skin. constantly found,

Such a mode though so vari


of progression, ously developed,

which may be in the different

called piecemeal, members of this

is, of course, class. We found

very slow, but the foot in the

it is sure; and Conchifera to be



animal without in some, secreted ELEGANS. IV. DIAGRAM OF THE CIRCULATION IN A SNAIL.

limbs move over the byssus or Refs. to Nos. in Figs.-I. 1, orifice of lung-chamber; 2, anus. II. 1, throat; 2, stomach ; 3, a solid surface anchor-cable, in intestines ; 4, anus ; 5, liver ; 6, 6, pulmonary diaphragm ; 7, main vein ; 8, chamber surrounding otherwise ? As. others bored the heart ; 9, auricle (receiver) ; 10, ventricle (distributor); 11, kidney ; 12, generative organs. sociated with this holes, and yet

(N.B. In this diagram the shell has been removed and the skin cut along the back and opened; power of definite in others accom

the floor of the lung also is thrown aside.) III. 1, operculum. IV. 1, lung rein; 2, auricle; locomotion, slow plished jerky

3, ventricle ; 4, main artery ; 5, liver artery ; 6, foot artery; 7, stomach artery; 8, buccal
cavity ; 9, salivary gland.

as it is, the whole movements of

organism is modi the body. In the

fied. swan-müssel of our rivers this instrument is applied to more Let us suppose that a Lamellibranch had the under part of regular and definite locomotion, and with the foot they may be its foot flattened into a broad muscular sheet, capable, not of seen ploughing their way through the soft mud which falls to pushing through soft mud, but of gliding over smooth rock: the bottom of the stream. In their case, however, the foot is how could it make use of its new power of locomotion ? It a rounded organ, and at its end is something like the human would, in the first place, be hampered with two immense shields, tongue, both in shape and structure. In the gasteropods, or which, being ample enough to close upon its whole body, would belly-walkers, the foot is a flat broad surface placed along the certainly have their edges dragged over and ground upon the under side of the body, by means of which the animal can crawl rock over which it passed, and thus wrenched about in relation over solid bodies. In some of the conchifers the shape of the foot to one another and to the soft parts of the animal united to them.

much more like that of the human foot than in any of the gas. Then its large sheets of unprotected membrane, called gills,

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