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be seen and spoken about, there was agitation and trouble, as Bohemia, when the emperor died (1619), and to the distress when John Huss raised his voice in Bohemia against spiritual of the whole Protestant party, Ferdinand was chosen to succeed wrongdoing, and having brought down the wrath of ignorant him. The Bohemians elected Count Frederick, Elector Palatine rulers upon him, perished a witness for truth ; as when John of the Rhine, to be their king, as he was also head of the Wycliffe, in our own country, undertook to withstand the tra-" Evangelical Union," and in an evil hour for him he accepted ditions of tho elders, where those conflicted with the revela- the dignity. The Thirty Years' War now began in earnest. tions written for man's instruction in God's Bible; as when Frederick's dominions were quickly invaded by a host of Savonarola, in 1497, proached to the people of Florence, and Imperialists, whom he was quite unable to withstand; and, unwas, for their sins or his own, put to death in the market-place. assisted by those from whom he had every natural right to

But it was not till the year 1517, when Martin Luther trod expect help, the unfortunate elector had to put up not only with under foot and barned the Pope's Ball of Indulgences at Wit- the loss of Bohemia, but of the Rhenish palatinate also, a protenberg, that Christendom saw the fulfilment, on a large scale, vince which was his by hereditary descent. of the words which the Redeemer had addressed to his Shocked, but not stunned, by this blow, the Protestants of apostles. In the flame that burned the Papal Ball to ashes Germany saw that they must at once make a stand, or be for was kindled the scorching fire of a so-called religious war, which ever kept under the yoke. A new union was formed, and King raged furiously for the space of thirty years, involved nearly Christian of Denmark was placed at the head of it. Under every European nation in its toils, and at its finish left Europe him were the Dukes of Mecklenburg, Count Mansfeldt, an able purified, though exhausted; purged from many sins and many commander though an adventurer, the Marquis of Brandenburg, follies which perhaps actually required so great a remedy for and some of the lesser princes on the western side of the their removal.

empire. War burst forth instantly. The Danish king was all The Thirty Years' War was in effect the war between Roman unready to embark in such a war, and those who relied upon Catholicism and Protestantism, between the old order which him for loadership and for material help as well, were unable was changing, and the new which forced change upon it. It to bring much to the advancement of the cause, except themsprang from a number of causes, but the immediate outburst selves, their swords, and enormous appetites. On the Imperial was on this wise.

side were wealth, the best soldiers in Europe, leaders of Since the Reformation till the year 1612, the German Pro-consummate ability, and with a belief in the righteousness testants had enjoyed the free exercise of their religion. Their of their cause, which was worth half an army to them. aumbers and tho importance of their leaders, including as they counts Tilly and Wallenstein—the latter was in the course did some of the more powerful among the lesser princes, had of this campaign made Dake of Friedland-commanded for won this for them, and they lived peaceably enough with their the emperor, and against their skill and the discipline of the Roman Catholic countrymen. The rights of the Protestants troops all Mansfeldt's bravery was in vain. The Protestant were under the protection of the emperor, as head of the empire. provinces were overrun, fire and sword laid waste the whole All went smoothly enough, in spite of the efforts of the men of of that part of the empire, King Christian was beaten again the older Church, till the advent of Rudolph II. to the throne. and again, and finally made peace with the emperor on condiHo neglected many of his duties for pleasures harmless enough tion of renouncing for ever all right to interfere in the affairs of in themselves, such as clock-making, chemistry, and mechanics, Germany, and of leaving his allies in the war to their fate. The but not only useless but pernicious in a king. Whatever Dukes of Mecklenburg were dispossessed, Wallenstein obtained statesmanship he had in him led him to join the princes of the a grant of the duchies for himself, and the Protestant cause in empire in a leaguo against the Turks, who were at that time 1629 looked blank indeed. threatening seriously the western nations of Europe. The Help came from a very unexpected quarter. Louis XIII. of Jesuits, who abounded at his court, managed to work the France came to the throne a minor, and Cardinal Richelieu was eraperor's organisation to their own ends, and the Protestants appointed to govern in his name. The cardinal had two grand getting wind of this, banded themselves together into what they ideas of State policy: one was to humble the nobility of France called " The Evangelical Union,” at the head of which they to a minimum of power, so that the king might be all in all in placed the Elector Palatine of the Rhine, son-in-law to James I. his kingdom; the other was not to allow any foreign State to of England. When Rudolph died, in 1612, the election fell, to become so powerful as to make it impossible or even dangerous the great horror of the Protestants, upon Matthias, the ap- for France to cope with it. With his home policy, which he proved pupil and close ally of the Jesuits and extremists in carried out bloodily and mercilessly, we have not now any conthe Roman Church.

cern, but his foreign policy led him to see, in what was going Matthias wilfully failed to protect his Protestant subjects in on in Germany, the certainty of Austria becoming, if not the enjoyment of their simple right to worship God according to checked, an overmatch for any other European nation whatthe dictates of their own consciences; the Romanists understood ever. The cardinal disliked heretics, not so much as such, but that a nod was as good as a wink from an emperor whose eyes because they were necessarily troublesome people to the Governwere intentionally fast shut, and the result was that the ment. In France, he crushed the Huguenots with a relentless Protestants of Germany were evil intreated in many places. hand, but he did not object to Huguenots in other people's doChurches in which the Protestants worshipped were pulled down, minions, especially if, as in the present case, they helped on his and a large amount of social persecution went on, though, as policy. If he hated Protestants at all, he hated the Imperial yet, the law professed to protect equally all who were under it. power still more, and he did not scruple to employ and to support Then the League arose, a combination of Roman Catholic princes the former when they promised to come in conflict with the throughout Europe, not in Germany only, of which the avowed latter. object was to root out the hated Protestant faith wherever it A decroe of the Emperor Ferdinand published in 1630, and might be. The League had the special blessing of the Pope, requiring the Protestants to give up all church property of any and included among its members many of the most powerful kind in their use or possession, was entrusted to Wallenstein to persons in Christendom, lay princes as well as ecclesiastical dig- carry out, and that despot did his work so cruelly and shamenitaries; it was rich in wealth and influence, and in bitter fully, that even the Roman Catholics cried out. The deadly rage hatred for all who were opposed to it.

of the Protestants was once more excited, and, fed by the agents When the Bohemian nobles complained to the Imperial Coun- of Richelieu, looked for the “still strong man" with "heart, cil at Prague that their churches had been pulled down, and head, hand," who should concentrate their anger, and then distheir rites and those who administered them had been in charge it like a shell upon the Imperialists. sulted, their complaints were received with so much contempt Such a man was Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, the and so little consideration, that the heady Bohemians treated most important, both for position and resources, among all the the matter as a personal affront to themselves, hot words fol- Protestant princes of Europe. When asked to take the place lowed, and some of the contemptuous councillors got thrown to which Christian of Denmark had shown himself unequal, and out of window for their pains. To make the situation more from which many a bold man might have shrunk, he hesitated; difficult, Matthias procured that his cousin Ferdinand, a bigot but having accepted the post, he knew no shirking or shrinking of bigots on the Roman side, should be King of Bohemia, from the work. He devoted himself and all his resources to and his acts and government speedily drove his subjects into the undertaking, and having captured the important island of revolt. Anarchy was prevailing, civil war was going on in | Rugen, landed in Pomerania, June 24th, 1630.

Jealousy kept asunder those who should have hurried to meet | III., weary of continuous defeat, exhausted as to his resources, him. The Saxon princes even refused him permission to march and unable to cope with the powers against him, sued for peace, his army through their territories—a foolish, even criminal act, and the Peace of Westphalia, whick secured civil and religious which caused the strong city of Magdeburg to fall into the liberty to the Protestant subjects of the empire, was signed hands of Count Tilly, who knew not the meaning of the word at Munster, and brought the long succession of years of war mercy, but caused 30,000 of the inhabitants to perish mise- to a close. rably, and the entire city, excepting the cathedral, to be razed to the ground. This awful cruelty of the Imperialists taught German Protestants what they had to expect, and the

LESSONS IN DRAWING.-XXIII. immediate result was to bind the wavering Protestant princes The second use of the oval is when the axis is horizontal ; and in a firm bond with Gustavus. The rulers of Pomerania, Bran- here we cannot do better than quote the observations of Prodenburg (now the kingdom of Prussia), Hesse, and after some fessor Camper, who, after saying he had attentively examined delay, Saxony, united to support the King of Sweden, who the structure of the skulls of both adults and infants, proceeds brought men and ability to fight their battles. At Wittenberg thus :-“ An idea suggested itself that in drawing the head, they joined their armies with his, and at Leipsic, on the 7th of the best method would be to imitate the process of nature: first September, 1631, battle was joined with the Imperial army under to form the cranium or skull, then mark the facial line in the Count Tilly, who was defeated with tremendous loss. The direction required, and afterwards arrange the other parts acghosts of Magdeburg sat heavily on his sword, and diverted his cording to given proportions." talents from their usual successful channel. Never since the “ The skull is a horizontal oval, of which the hindermost parts dreadful day when he looked on unmoved at Croats burning are the largest, and the fore part like the section of a globe. I the houses of non-combatants at Magdeburg, and taking little first draw this oval by means of two circles; the one is L VEW babies up on the points of their lances to toast them in the fire- (Fig. 140), which contains about three parts of the head; the never since Magdeburg women were with his leave and license other, K U Z, which is in size eight-ninths of the other circle. shamefully abused and then barbarously murdered, did the Draw the horizontal line s t, which extends from the centre of soul of this man find peace. His valour and his counsel were the large circle s, to T, the centre of the smaller, and is onealike set at nought, and at length, in the early part of 1632, fourth of the larger circle. From the centre s, I let fall the perwhen trying to stop the progress of the victorious Swedes into pendicular line sq; this marks the seat of the orifice of the ear, Bavaria, he was killed by a cannon-shot, from which all the and its lobe E." Upon examining the drawing the Professor relics he carried about with him, all the saints to whom he paid gives (Fig. 140) to illustrate his remarks, we find a discrepancy his homage, could not save him. The Protestant allies occupied which we think it right to notice. The diameter of the smaller the whole country between tho Elbe and the Rhine, and after circle is eight-ninths of the diameter of the larger circle; also the Tilly's death, overran Bavaria.

distance between the two centres T and s is one-fourth of the Wallenstein, whose boundless ambition, enormous wealth, and diameter of the larger circle; as it is written, the areas of the intolerable insolence had fixed a great gulf between him and circles might be supposed to be intended. The Professor conthe emperor, was the only man who could save the empire. Antinues—“ I draw PG, the facial line, in the degree of the inclinaappeal was made to him, and he took command of the Imperial tion required; K marks the place of the forehead; F, the line of armies, unshackled by a single condition. At Nuremberg, the eye; 1, the nose ; H, and a third of 1 B or 1G, the mouth ; where he was entrenched, he had the satisfaction of beating off through the centre of 1 Q I draw the horizontal line F; I also make the army of Gustavus, who, burning under the desire to wipe off an equal to the nose, and from a commence the line of the throat." the disgrace of even partial defeat, attacked him at Lutzen, on This idea of Professor Camper is worth considering ; it may be the 16th November, 1632. The battle was one of the most useful, as the principle it involves is in accordance with that of bloody on record. For nine hours it was fought with obstinate nature, and after a little practice of drawing the oval by hand, the fary on both sides, Gustavus Adolphus fell mortally wounded features and other parts may very easily be put together. But in the middle of it, and the Swedes fought for revenge as well we must observe that this method is applicable only to profiles; as for victory. Prince Bernhard of Saxe Weimar took the where the first method so far fails in not giving the horizontal command after the king's death, and the result was that the projection of the hinder part, although in all other positions it Imperialists were totally routed, while the field was literally may be useful. Consequently, it is well to know both, so that one covered with their slain.

may be used in the one case, and the other in the remainder. Happily, there remained, in spite of the grievous loss sustained After all, the great advantage connected with these two methods in the death of Gustavus, good men and true among the Swedes, of employing the oval is the certainty of securing the general who resolved to carry out the policy of their beloved king. Chan- form of the head, the proportions of the parts, and the positions cellor Oxenstiern, Gustavus' friend and counsellor, was chosen of the features in connection with each other. Beyond these, to manage the war, and he gathered up in his strong hand the as regards the details, we cannot venture; the draughtsman reins which threatened to float loosely and disordered. H. must not be controlled by them; he must make them subservient linked the German Protestants in a new union, gave Prince to his purpose according to the character of the head he is Bernhard, and Gustavus' trusted generals, Banier, Horn, and drawing. Torstensohn, the chief commands of the armies, and with The next portion of our subject will be the method of shading. Richelieu's help prosecuted the war vigorously. At the end of A very great deal is included in this. In the first place, the 1634 another event conspired to help him. The Emperor Fer- pupil must have acquired confidence in drawing an outline, as dinand, jealous of his mighty subject, the Duke of Friedland, he will soon find that the difficulties of shading do not exist so and suspicious of his intentions to snatch the crown for him much in the manipulation—that is, in the manner of doing it—as self, procured his assassination, and the loss of Gustavus was in the application of the work. In the second place, nothing conmore than counterbalanced. But the King of Hungary, son to tributes more effectively in describing the form of an object the emperor, took Wallenstein's place, and at Nordlingen de- than the proper treatment of the shades and the semitones; and sented the confederates with so severe a loss, that all but the especially with respect to the human figure, where on the French and Swedes and the Landgraf of Hesse were fain to surface, between the extreme boundary lines, is always found an make peace with the emperor. This was done by the Treaty amount of form which it would be impossible to represent faith. of Prague, in 1635.

fully by outline only. For example, the form of the nose in a During the whole of Richelieu's life the war went on, bring- side face is very easily given by the outline; but when the same ing out generals like the Great Condé, Turenne, and Torsten- face is turned to a front view, then we have to depend upon our sohn, and winning, on the whole, fresh laurels for the French capability of representing the form by light and shade. The and Swedish arms; and when Richelieu and his master died in same remarks are applicable to the treatment of the surfaces of 1643, it was found that Cardinal Mazarin, who governed for the the body and limbs; for as they are constantly subject to minor Louis XIV., was prepared to carry out their plan for change, in consequence of the variety of motion of which they humbling the House of Austria.

are capable, there will always be a considerable demand upon Under the conduct of Condé and Turenne, and the Swedish our anatomical knowledge, if we hope to deal faithfully with generals, the Thirty Years' War continued to ruin and deso- the ever-varying surface as it approaches the eye, or recedes to late the face of Germany, till in 1648, the Emperor Ferdinand the boundary represented by line only. Therefore the know.

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Fig. 144.

Fig. 143.

Fig. 142.

ledge we speak of must help us to use the shade tints in such a sheet from the blackened paper; this traced outline will then be way that the muscles and bones which give the variety of sur. ready for shading. face may be exactly represented in accordance with the action Until the pupil has had some considerable practice, he will and strength the parts exhibit.

find that his greatest difficulty does not consist in making an The manner of using the pencil in shading has been already even tint, as all defects can be remedied by stippling—that is, explained in Lesson XII. (Vol. I., page 359). The pupil must by carefully filling up the lighter or uneven parts with the refer to this again, and continue the practice. It would be point only; but it consists in uniting the extreme lights with advisable to procure a ball about the size of a cricket-ball (this the decided shadows by semitones, which are liable to appear kind of ball, indeed, would answer the purpose), whitewash it, and dirty, and require a very careful and delicate hand to treat when dry it will form an excellent model from which the prac- them properly. tice of shading may be studied with advantage ; for the ball To sum up, we have in these lessons taken up the three exhibits every degree of light and shade, from the highest light leading divisions of art-still life, landscape, and figure—and have to the darkest shadow, including the cast shadow upon the table endeavoured to give the necessary instructions which are geneor stand upon which it is placed. Figs. 141, 142, and 143 are rally applicable to all, at the same time paying due regard to given to illustrate the course to be pursued. After the outline particulars which belong to and sustain the individual character has been made, if it should be black or heavy, faint it. A light of each subject as it comes before us. Our pupils will have ontline is the best to proceed with in the shading. A black out- discovered that the leading principles of art are universal, line upon the edges of the shadow injures them very much; it that they are not confined to one particular branch to the exdestroys the harmony of tone, and, what is very objectionable, clusion of others; but from the moment we take up the pencil the eye is attracted by it. We are obliged to make use of a to commence the outline, the essential beginning of every subline to determine the extent of the part, and its subdivisions ject, we start upon principles which are absolute, and which which contain the extent of tone or colour, and we must have must have their influence in directing us. This refers to the no mean consideration of its importance, but as we proceed with drawing or outline preparatory to filling it in with light and the work, the line must be absorbed in the shadows. Nature shade or colour. There is no necessity to repeat the cautions showa no black outline but a limit; we draw the limits by clear we have given, or the necessary process of execution, when en. faint lines, and complete the effect by shading. It must be gaged in this most difficult and most important part of the borne in mind that we have only two means of distinguishing work. Our efforts should be to acquire a bold and unhesitaobjects from one another-by light and shade, and by colour; con- ting manner of drawing; this can only be done by a thorough sequently, when Nature begins to use black lines to mark her knowledge of the subject and close observation, combined with boundaries, we may. Mark in slightly, but with great care, the patience and perseverance. A bold, free style is frequently extent of the broad and cast shadows. In order to understand understood to be a rapid dashing manner, a fatal mistake clearly the extent of these shadows, and to decide where the in hundreds of cases where study and experience have had half-tint commences, and the depth and proportion of all other but little influence. Bold drawing is done with few lines and minor tones, the pupil must look at his copy or model for a seemingly little effort, in a quiet, deliberate, and steady manner, moment or two with half-closed eyes; he will very soon see the producing a resemblance which is recognised, felt, and admired advantage of doing so, as he will thereby be able to say which by all who are interested in it. Success of this kind is not is decided shadow and which are the half-tints, and thus at altogether the result of manual practice, the mind has the most once determine the proportion of tone he is to employ in repre- to do with it; the knowledge of things in general, of facts senting them. The first stage will be to fill in the whole of the relating to natural history, manners and customs, and the broad and cast shadows with one flat even tint, equal in tone to character and construction of the object we are representing, the reflections, as in Fig. 141 ; afterwards darken the greatest are the greatest means of help we can obtain. A mind thus depth by crossing lines, lifting up the pencil as explained by thoroughly instructed will have much less difficulty in guiding Fig. 83, Lesson XII. (Vol. I., page 360); then lastly will be the the hand than when it is dependent upon manual practice only; setitones connecting the high lights and broad shadows, with all because, if the mind can fully comprehend that which has to be those minor tones found within the limits of the broad light, and done, and can within itself see the result, the hand well praccaused by the varied surface of the object (Fig. 142). The stump tised in the manner of wielding the pencil will at once be guided mentioned in Lesson X. (Vol. I., page 295) may be used to lay on by its influence, doubts and speculations will be few, and the a fat and moderate tint over the parts intended for the broad result satisfactory. It is not at all uncommon to meet with the and cast shadowg; afterwards work over the shadows with the case of a draughtsman or artist satisfied with a picture, at point in the line manner. The use of the stump must be restricted which a man with an accomplished mind only smiles. Why is to the shadows named until the pupil has acquired confidence in it? Simply because the painter has depended more upon his handling it, and then he will find himself capable of employing hand than his judgment, or that his mind is incapable of reit for the darkest of the minor tones, but in this he must be ceiving those more important lessons from Nature which elevate guided by his own judgment, resulting from experience. Per- art and make it valuable. Of course we feel we are addressing haps some of our pupils may be unable readily to procure a those who cannot remain satisfied with bare imitation, whose stamp; we will show them how to make one. Cut some thick desire is to do something more, and picture the life as well as course grey packing-paper to the shape of Fig. 144, according the form. The instructions necessary for imitation only are to the dimensions there given ; and then roll it closely up, be very simple, and can soon be explained, and we trust we have gimning at the broader end, and terminating with ab. If the not failed to do so; but beyond that point the sources of instamp be well made it will be very hard and tight, ending in a struction are infinite, as every object has something to reveal point at both ends. Put a little gum on the end a b, and press it concerning

itself, and the artist must not fail to listen to it. down upon the body of the stump; it will then be fit for use, We will conclude with a passage from one of the lectures of az follows :- Take a piece of hard strong paper, and cover a por- Sir Joshua Reynolds, delivered to the students at the

Royal tion of it with a BB pencil until it is quite black; then rub the end Academy :-“ T'here is one precept,” he observes, “ in which I of the stump on the blackened paper, and tone down the shadows shall be opposed only by the vain, the ignorant, and the

idle. with it as evenly as possible. Another hint with regard to the I am not afraid that I shall repeat it too often. You must have outline. It frequently happens that, by repeated alterations, the no dependence on your own genius. If you have talents, insurface of the paper loses its firmness and becomes dirty, so dustry will improve them; if you have moderate abilities, that, when shading upon it, it is very difficult to make a clean industry will supply their deficiency. Nothing is denied to and bright drawing; therefore finish the outline regardless of well-directed labour; nothing is to be obtained without it. Not the paper, and trace it upon a clean piece to receive the to enter into metaphysical discussions on the nature or essence shading. The tracing-paper may be made by rubbing a dark of genius, I will venture to assert that assiduity, unabated by and soft pencil upon half a sheet of foolscap. Place the clean difficulties, and a disposition eagerly directed to the object of raper to receive the shaded drawing upon a drawing-board; its pursuit, will produce effects similar to those which some call upon this place the tracing-paper laid upon its face down the result of natural powers. Though a man cannot at all wards; and lastly, the finished outline upon that; pin them times, and in all places, paint or draw, yet the mind can predown at one end, and then, with a hard point, firmly pare itself by laying in proper materials, at all times and in all press over the outline, which will be printed upon the clean places."

ma.

son.

LESSONS IN GERMAN.-XXXVII.

ich dafür, das Carthago zerstört werden muß. 21. Man vermuthet, tie SECTION LXXII.-PASSIVE VERBS IN THE SUBJUNCTIVE. begnadigt worden sein. 22. Der Jüngling sagte

, es werde noch vieles von Festung sei von den Feinden eingenommen worden, allein die Besaßung werde ($ 85.)

ihm gethan werden. 23. Der betrübte Vater glaubt, sein Sohn werde von VOCABULARY.

bem erbitterten Feinde erschossen worden sein. 24. Die Freundin behauptete, Ab’brechen, tobreak off, Dafür halten, to be of Klagen, to complain, bas bas Unglück durch die Schuld des Nachbars herbeigeführt worden wäre. crop, pluck. opinion, to deem.

lament.

25. Der Arme Flagte, daß er gewaltsam fortgeschleppt worden tväre. Auf'fallend, startling, Dar'bieten, to present, Lösen, to solve, un

EXERCISE 139. striking, remark- offer.

riddle.

1. It was said that everybody would love those children. It able. Ghren, to honour, re- Dra'fel, n. oracle.

was said those children would be loved by everybody. 2. The Aut'rufen, to call out. spect, esteem. Rāthsel,n.riddle, enig- teacher believes that the scholars could have learned their exerAeu'ßere, n. counte-Ein'nehmen, to occupy,

cise. = The teacher believes that the exercise could have been nance, exterior. take possession of. Spiel

, n. game, play. learned by the scholars. 3. The gardener said he would dig toBefürch'ten, to fear, ap. Fort'schleppen, to drag, Troja, n. Troy.

morrow in the garden. = The gardener said it would be dug by prehend.

pull along Ue'bermak, n. excess, him to-morrow in the garden. 4. We wish that you may love and Begnadigen, to par. Oraben, to dig, grub, superfluity.

esteem your friends.=We wish that your friends may be loved don, favour.

ditch.

lle brigens, as for the and esteemed by you. 5. We believed not that we should ever Beißen, to bite. Griechisch, Greek, Hel. rest, besides.

have been praised by our teachers, and that we should have Besa'sung, f garri. lenic.

Verkūn'digen, to. an- satisfied them in everything. 6. It is impossible that you could Hintergehen, to de- nounce, predict.

have received the intelligence before us, except it might have Beste'chung, f. corrup

ceive, delude.

Vermu'then, to sup. been communicated to you by telegraph. 7. How is it possible tion, bribery. Hirsch, m. stag, hart, pose, presume, that this undertaking could have been finished by you? 8. We Cartha'go, n.Carthage. deer.

think.

doubt very much that we can ever be rewarded for our troubles, RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

and that the promises can ever be fulfilled. 9. How could it be Er wollte nicht erlau'ben, daß jener He would not allow that that possible that that people was governed badly, when it had so

wise and good a prince? 10. The poor slave complained that Mann gerufen werde.

man should be called. Sie hatten vergebens gehofft'

, tak They had vainly hoped that the he had been forcibly dragged along, and in the excess of his tie vielen kleinen Herʻzegthümer in many little dukedoms would

grief he cried out, "Oh, that I had never been born!” Provin'zen ein'getheilt würden. be divided into provinces.

SECTION LXXIII.-IDIOMS OF PREPOSITIONS. Man glaubt, taß bei diesem leßten It is supposed that, by this late

The preposition wegen is often compounded with the genitive Sturme viele Schiffe verschlagen (last) storm, many vessels of personal pronouns ($ 57. (2)], which in this connection subworden seien.

have been cast away.

stitute t or et for the final r; as:-Meinetwegen (instead of meiner Er erzähl'te mir, daß meine Abóbant- He told (Sect. LXXXII. 1) me wegen), on my account, for my sake (literally, on account of me).

lungen über diesen Sefgenstand that my dissertations con- Seinetwegen nur bin ich gefommen, on his account only have I come. sehr gelobt worden wären. cerning this affair had been

1. The preposition zu is often used after certain verbs (as, very much lauded.

machen, werten, wählen, etc.) to mark the result of an action, or Da die fürftfliche Familie ge'gen- Since the princely family is the end or destination of a thing; as :—Sie haben ihn zum Feind

wärtig ist, so vermu'thet man, daß present, it is conjectured gemacht, you have made him (to) an enemy, or, you made an enemy tiesen Abend ein großes Concert' that a great concert will be of him. Das Eis wird zu Wasser, the ice becomes (to) water. Sie trerbe gegeben werden.

given this evening.

wählten ihn zum Kaiser, they elected him (to the) emperor. Ich hoffe, daß in furzer Zeit alle I hope that in (a) short time

2. Verdacht auf Zemand haben, or, Jemand im Berdachte haben (liteHindernisse von ihm werten über. all hindrances will have been rally, to have suspicion upon one, or, to hold one in suspicion) wun'den worden sein.

surmounted by him.

answers to our " to suspect;" as :--Ich habe Verdacht auf ihn, or, EXERCISE 138.

ich habe ihn im Verdachte, I suspect him, or, I have suspicion of 1. Es wird gesagt, das der Schauspieler eine Vorstellung gebe. = 68 (upon) him. wird gesagt, tas eine Vorstellung von dem Schauspieler gegeben werde. 2.

VOCABULARY. Der Nachbar glaubt, daß der Sinabe seine Eltern täusche. = Der Nachbar An‘fleiden, to dress, Krankheit, f. sickness, Verbaot', m. suspiglaubt, daß die Eltern von dem Knaben getäuscht werden. 3. Die Kinder attire.

illness, malady, cion. fagten, der Zäger schösse ben Hirsch. = Die Kinder sagten, der Hirsch warte Auf'wärterin, f. female disease.

Weiter, farther, more von dem Zäger geschossen. 4. Man befürchtet, der und beiße die Leute.= servant, waiting. Mittag, m, noon, mid- distant. Man befürchtet, die Leute würden von dem Hunde gebissen. 5. Man ver- woman.

day.

Werfen, to throw, muthet, der Freund habe den Freund hintergangen. = Man vermuthet, der Aus-zehrung, f. con- Mitternacht, f. mid- cast. Freund sei vom Freunde hintergangen worden. 6. Der Vater meinte, sumption.

night.

Worauf', whereupon, daß die Kinder das Stück gesvielt hätten. = Der Vater meinte, daß das Baben, to bathe. Speisen, to eat; zu on which. Stück von ten Kindern gespielt worden wäre. 7. Er erzählte mir, das Früb“stücken, to break- Mittag speisen, to Zuerst', at first, for die Mädchen die Blumen in seinem Garten abgebrochen hätten. = Er er. fast.

dine.

the first. zählte mir, daß die Blumen in seinem Garten von den Mädchen wären abgebrochen worden. 8. Der alte Solbat rief aus, daß er seinen felt:

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES, herrn nie vergessen werde. =Der alte Soldat rief aus, daß sein Haben Sie gehört', an was für einer Have you heard what disease Feldherr nie von ihm werde vergessen werden, 9. Die Mutter sagte, Krankheit der Rei'sende gestor'ben the traveller (has) died of ? sie werde diesen Nachmittag im Garten graben. = Die Mutter sagte, 18 werde diesen Nachmittag im Garten von ihr gegraben werden. So viel (Sect. XXXIV. 4) ich As far as I know, he (has) died 10. Ich möchte wissen, ob Sie ihn würden geehrt haben. = 3ch möchte weiß, ist er an der Cho'lcra ge of the cholera. wissen, ob er von Ihnen würde geehrt worden sein. 11. 3ch dachte stor'ben. nicht anders, als daß er das Spiel werde gewonnen haben. = Ich vachte Aleran'der ter Große starb an einer Alexander the Great died of (a) nicht anders, als daß das Spiel von ihm werde gewonnen worden sein. 12. Krankheit zu Babylon in trei sickness at Babylon in tho Das Orakel verkündigte ihm, er werbe siegen. 13. Er sagte mir, er werde und brei'figsten Jahre seines de thirty-third year of his life. von Zevermann geliebt und geachtet. 14. Er behauptet, das Rathfel sei bens burch ihn gelöst worden. 15. Die Geschichte meldet, daß Troja von den Auf wen haben Sie Verdacht'? Whom do you suspect? (Upon gricchischen Fürsten zerstört worden sei. 16. &r fagte ihm, er würde seinets

whom have you suspicion?) wegen (Sect. LXXIII. 1) Alles zu thun bereit sein. 17. Der Freund be. Ich habe ihn im Verbach'te, mich I suspect him of having robbed tlagte sid, taf er so wenig von mir besucht würde. 18. Man sagt, Ungarn beraubt zu haben.

me. (I have him in suspicion sei durch Bestechung, nicht durch Gewalt der Waffen besiegt worden. 19.

to have robbed me.) Mein Nachbar sagte mir, das Acußere dieses Mannes böte nicht& Auffallendes Nachdem ich zu Nacht gespeist' haben After I shall have supped I shall -- -- Peine Seele wäre geziert durch eine Menge trefflicher Gigenschaften. werde, gehe ich aus.

go out. (After I shall have Cato schluß eine jede Rede mit den Worten : Uebrigens halte

eaten at night, I go out.)

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