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ledge ve speak of must help us to use the shade tints in such a sheet from the blackened paper; this traced outline will then be Fay that the muscles and bones which give the variety of sur- ready for shading. face may be exactly represented in accordance with the action Until the pupil has had some considerable practice, he will and strength the parts exhibit.

find that his greatest difficulty does not consist in making an The manner of using the pencil in shading has been already even tint, as all defects can be remedied by stippling—that is, explained in Lesson XII. (Vol. I., page 359). The pupil must by carefully filling up the lighter or uneven parts with the reier to this again, and continue the practice. It would be point only; but it consists in uniting the extreme lights with advisable to procure a ball about the size of a cricket-ball (this the decided shadows by semitones, which are liable to appear kind of ball, indeed, would answer the purpose), whitewash it, and dirty, and require a very careful and delicate hand to treat when dry it will form an excellent model from which the prac-them properly. tice of shading may be studied with advantage ; for the ball To sum up, we have in these lessons taken up the three exhibits every degree of light and shade, from the highest light leading divisions of art-still life, landscape, and figure—and have to the darkest shadow, including the cast shadow upon the table endeavoured to give the necessary instructions which are geneor stand upon which it is placed. Figs. 141, 142, and 143 are rally applicable to all, at the same time paying due regard to given to illustrate the course to be pursued. After the outline particulars which belong to and sustain the individual character has been made, if it should be black or heavy, faint it. A light of each subject as it comes before us. Our pupils will have outline is the best to proceed with in the shading. A black out- discovered that the leading principles of art are universal, line upon the edges of the shadow injures them very much ; it that they are not confined to one particular branch to the exdestroys the harmony of tone, and, what is very objectionable, clusion of others; but from the moment we take up the pencil the eye is attracted by it. We are obliged to make use of a to commence the outline, the essential beginning of every subline to determine the extent of the part, and its subdivisions ject, we start upon principles which are absolute, and which which contain the extent of tone or colour, and we must have must have their influence in directing us. This refers to the no mean consideration of its importance, but as we proceed with drawing or outline preparatory to filling it in with light and the work, the line must be absorbed in the shadows. Nature shade or colour. There is no necessity to repeat the cautions shows no black outline but a limit; we draw the limits by clear we have given, or the necessary process of execution, when enfaint lines, and complete the effect by shading. It must be gaged in this most difficult and most important part of the bome in mind that we have only two means of distinguishing work. Our efforts should be to acquire a bold and unhesitaobjects from one another—by light and shade, and by colour; con- ting manner of drawing; this can only be done by a thorough sequently, when Nature begins to use black lines to mark her knowledge of the subject and close observation, combined with boundaries, we may. Mark in slightly, but with great care, the patience and perseverance. A bold, free style is frequently extent of the broad and cast shadows. In order to understand understood to be a rapid dashing manner, a fatal mistake clearly the extent of these shadows, and to decide where the in hundreds of cases where study and experience have had half-tint commences, and the depth and proportion of all other but little influence. Bold drawing is done with few lines and minor tones, the pupil must look at his copy or model for a seemingly little effort, in a quiet, deliberate, and steady manner, moment or two with half-closed eyes; he will very soon see the producing a resemblance which is recognised, felt, and admired advantage of doing so, as he will thereby be able to say which by all who are interested in it. Success of this kind is not is decided shadow and which are the half-tints, and thus at altogether the result of manual practice, the mind has the most coce determine the proportion of tone he is to employ in repre- to do with it; the knowledge of things in general, of facts senting them. The first stage will be to fill in the whole of the relating to natural history, manners and customs, and the broad and cast shadows with one flat even tint, equal in tone to character and construction of the object we are representing, the reflections, as in Fig. 141 ; afterwards darken the greatest are the greatest means of help we can obtain. A mind thus depth by crossing lines, lifting up the pencil as explained by thoroughly instructed will have much less difficulty in guiding Fig. 83, Lesson XII. (Vol. I., page 360); then lastly will be the the hand than when it is dependent upon manual practice only; semitones connecting the high lights and broad shadows, with all because, if the mind can fully comprehend that which has to be those minor tones found within the limits of the broad light, and done, and can within itself see the result, the hand well praccaused by the varied surface of the object (Fig. 142). The stump tised in the manner of wielding the pencil will at once be guided Dentioned in Lesson X. (Vol. I., page 295) may be used to lay on by its influence, doubts and speculations will be few, and the a flat and moderate tint over the parts intended for the broad result satisfactory. It is not at all uncommon to meet with the and cast shadows; afterwards work over the shadows with the case of a draughtsman or artist satisfied with a picture, at point is the line manner. The use of the stump must be restricted which a man with an accomplished mind only smiles. Why is to the shadows named until the pupil has acquired confidence in it? Simply because the painter has depended more upon his handling it, and then he will find himself capable of employing hand than his judgment, or that his mind is incapable of reit for the darkest of the minor tones, but in this he must be ceiving those more important lessons from Nature which elevate guided by his own judgment, resulting from experience. Per- art and make it valuable. Of course we feel we are addressing haps some of our pupils may be unable readily to procure a those who cannot remain satisfied with bare imitation, whose stamp; we will show them how to make one. Cut some thick desire is to do something more, and picture the life as well as coarse grey packing-paper to the shape of Fig. 144, according the form. The instructions necessary for imitation only are to the dimensions there given ; and then roll it closely up, be very simple, and can soon be explained, and we trust we have ginning at the broader end, and terminating with a b. If the not failed to do so; but beyond that point the sources of instamp be well made it will be very hard and tight, ending in a struction are infinite, as every object has something to reveal point at both ends. Put a little gum on the end a b, and press it concerning itself, and the artist must not fail to listen to it. down upon the body of the stump; it will then be fit for use, We will conclude with a passage from one of the lectures of 23 follows:- Take a piece of hard strong paper, and cover a por Sir Joshua Reynolds, delivered to the students at the Royal tion of it with a BB pencil until it is quite black; then rub the end Academy :-"There is one precept,” he observes, " in which I of the stump on the blackened paper, and tone down the shadows shall be opposed only by the vain, the ignorant, and the idle. with it as evenly as possible. Another hint with regard to the I am not afraid that I shall repeat it too often. You must have outline. It frequently happens that, by repeated alterations, the no dependence on your own genius. If you have talents, insurface of the paper loses its firmness and becomes dirty, so dustry will improve them; if you have moderate abilities, that, when shading upon it, it is very difficult to make a clean industry will supply their deficiency. Nothing is denied to and bright drawing; therefore finish the outline regardless of well-directed labour; nothing is to be obtained without it. Not the paper, and trace it upon a clean piece to receive the to enter into metaphysical discussions on the nature or essence shading. The tracing-paper may be made by rubbing a dark of genius, I will venture to assert that assiduity, unabated by and soft pencil upon half a sheet of foolscap. Place the clean difficulties, and a disposition eagerly directed to the object of paper to receive the shaded drawing upon a drawing-board; its pursuit, will produce effects similar to those which some call upon this place the tracing-paper laid upon its face down. the result of natural powers. Though a man cannot at all wards; and lastly, the finished outline upon that; pin them times, and in all places, paint or draw, yet the mind can pre

one end, and then, with a hard point, firmly pare itself by laying in proper materials, at all times and in all press over the outline, which will be printed upon the clean | places."

dorn at

ma.

an.

son.

LESSONS IN GERMAN.-XXXVII. ich dafür, taj Carthago zerstört werden muß. 21. Man vermuthet, die

šestung sei von den Feinden eingenommen worden, allein die Besaßung werde SECTION LXXII.-PASSIVE VERBS IN THE SUBJUNCTIVE.

begnadigt worden sein. 22. Der Jüngling sagte, es werde ned Vicles VoR ($ 85.)

ihm gethan werden. 23. Der betrübte Vater glaubt, sein Sohn werte von VOCABULARY.

dem erbitterten Feinde erschossen worden sein. 24. Die Freundin behauptete, NG*brecyen, tobrcak off, Dafür þalten, to be of Klagen, to complain, | 25. Der Arme flagte

, daß er gewaltsam fortgeschleppt worden wäre.

daß das Unglüd durch die Schuld tes Nachbars herbeigeführt worden wäre. crop, pluck. opinion, to deem.

lament. Auf'fallend, startling, Dar'bieten, to present, lösen, to solve, un

EXERCISE 139. striking, remark- offer.

riddle.

1. It was said that everybody would love those children. = It able. Ehren, to honour, re- Ora'fel, n. oracle.

was said those children would be loved by everybody. 2. The Nus'rufen, to call out. spect, esteem. Rithjel,n.riddle,enig- teacher believes that the scholars could have learned their exerNeuößere, n. counte- Gin'nehmen, to occupy,

cise. = The teacher believes that the exercise could have been nance, exterior. take possession of. Spiel, n. game, play.

learned by the scholars. 3. The gardener said he would dig toBefürch'ten, to fear, ap- Fort'jlepren, to drag, Troja, n. Troy.

morrow in the garden. = The gardener said it would be dug by prehend.

pull along Me'bermaß, n. excess, him to-morrow in the garden. 4. We wish that you may love and Begnazigen, to par. Graben, to dig, grub, superfluity.

esteom your friends.=We wish that your friends may be loved don, favour.

ditch.
lle'brigens, as for the

and esteemed by yon. 5. We believed not that we should ever Beißen, to bite. Griechiich, Greek, Hel. rest, besides.

have been praised by our teachers, and that we should have Besa'ßung, f. garri. lenic.

Verfün'digen, to

satisfied them in everything. 6. It is impossible that you could Hintergehen, to de. nounce, predict.

have received the intelligence before us, except it might have Veste'chung, f. corrup- ceive, delude.

Vermu'then, to sup- been communicated to you by telegraph. 7. How is it possible tion, bribery. Hirsch, m. stag, hart, pose, presume, that this undertaking could have been finished by you ? 8. We Cartha'go, n.Carthage.

deer.

think.

doubt very much that we can ever be rewarded for our troubles, RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

and that the promises can ever be fulfilled. 9. How could it be Er wollte nicht erlauben, taš jener He would not allow that that possible that that people was governed badly, when it had so

wise and good a prince ? 10. The poor slave complained that Mann gc'rufen werte.

man should be called.

he had been forcibly dragged along, and in the excess of his Sie hatten vergebens gehofft', daß They had vainly hoped that the tie viclen fleinen Her'zegthümer in

grief he cried out, “ Oh, that I had never been born!”

many little dukedoms would Provin'zen cinógetheilt würden. be divided into provinces.

SECTION LXXIII.-IDIOMS OF PREPOSITIONS. Man glaubt, taß bei diesem letten It is supposed that, by this late

The preposition wezen is often compounded with the genitive Sturme viele Shiffe verschlnägen (last) storm, many vessels

of personal pronouns ($ 57. (2)], which in this connection subworten seien.

have been cast away.

stitute t or et for the final r; as:—Meinetwegen (instead of meinct: Er erzähl'te mir, tab meine Ab'hand. He told (Sect. LXXXII. 1) me wegen), on my account, for my sake (literally, on accommt of me).

lungen über diesen Geógenstand that my dissertations con- Seinetwezen nur bin ich gefommen, on his account only have I come. Tehr gelobt' worden wären. cerning this affair had been

1. The preposition zu is often used after certain verbs (as, very much lauded.

machen, werten, wiblon, etc.) to mark the result of an action, or Da die fürst'liche Familie ge'gen- Since the princely family is the end or destination of a thing ; as :—Sie haben ihn zum Feint wärtig ist, so vermu'thet man, daß present, it is conjectured

gemacht, you have made him (to) an enemy, or, you made an enemy tiesen Abend ein großes Concert' that a great concert will be of him. Das Gif wird zu Wasser, the ice becomes (to) water. Sie werte gegeben werden.

given this evening.

wiblten ihn zum Kaiser, they elected him (to the) emperor. Ich hoffe, daß in furzer Zeit alle I hope that in (a) short time

2. Vertacht auf Iemand haben, or, Jemand im Verdachte haben (liteHin'dernisse von ihm werten über. all hindrances will have been rally, to have suspicion upon one, or, to hold one in suspicion) wun'den worden sein.

surmounted by him.

answers to our " to suspect ;' - Ich habe Vertacht auf ihn, or, EXERCISE 138.

ich habe ihn im Bertachte, I suspect him, or, I have suspicion of 1. && wird gesagt, daß der Schauspieler cine Vorstellung gebe. = Es

(upon) him. wird gesagt, daß eine Vorstellung von dem Schauspieler gegeben werte. 2.

VOCABULARY. Der Nachbar glaubt, taß der Knabe seine Eltern täusche. Der Nambar | An'fleiren, to dress, Krankheit, f. sickness, Verracot', m. suspi. glaubt, daß die Eltern von dem Knaben getäuscht werden. 3. Die Kinder attire.

illness, malady, cion. sagten, der Jäger schösse ben Birich. = Die Kinter jagten, der Hirsch würre Aufwärterin, f. female disease.

Weiter, farther, more von dem Jäger geschossen. 4. Man befürchtet, der wund beiße tie Leute.= servant, waiting Mittag, m. noon, mid- distant. Man befürchtet, die Leute würden von dem Hunde gebissen. 5. Man ver

day.

Werfen, to thron, muthet, der Freund habe den Freund hintergangen. = Man vermuthet, der Aus“zchrung, f. con. Mitternacht, f. mid- cast. Freund sei vom Freunde bintergangen worden. 6. Der Vater meinte, sumption.

night.

Werzuf', whereupon, daß die Kinder das Stüd gesvielt bätten. = Der Vater meinte, daß das Baden, to bathe. Srijen, to eat; zu

on which Stück von ren Kindern geipielt worden wäre. 7. Er erzählte mir, tab Früb'studen, to break- Mittag speisen, to Zuerst', at first, for die Märchen die Blumen in seinem Garten abgebrochen bätten. = Er fast.

dine.

the first. zāblte mir, daß dic Blumen in seinein Garten von den Mirden wiren

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. abgebrochen worden. 8. Der alte Soltat rief aus, daß er seinen Felt: herrn nie vergessen werde. = Der alte Soldat rief aus, daß sein Haben Sie gehört', an was für einer Have you heard what disease Feldherr nie von ihm werte vergessen werden. 9. Die Mutter sagte, Krankheit der Reisende gestor'ben the traveller (has) died of ? sie werde diesen Nachmittag im Garten graben. = Die Mutter sagte, ist? ed werde diesen Nachmittag im Garten von ihr gegraben werten. So viel (Sect. XXXIV. 4) ich As far as I know, he (has) died 10. Ich möchte wissen, ob Sie ihn würden geehrt haben. = Ich möchte weiß, ist er an der Cho'lera ge- of the cholera. wissen, ob von Ihnen würde gechrt worden sein. 11. Ich dachte stor'ben. nicht anders, als daß er das Spiel werde gewonnen haben. = Ich dachte Aleran'der ter Große starb an ciner Alexander the Great died of (a) nicht anders, als daß das Spiel von ihm werte gewonnen worden sein. 12. Krankheit zu Wa'bylon im trei sickness at Babylon in the Das Oratel verfündigte ihm, er werde siegen. 13. Er sagte mir, er werde und drei'bigsten Jahre seines Les thirty-third year of his life. von Jedermann geliebt und geachtet. 14. &r behauptet, das Räthsel sei bens. durch ihn gelöst worden. 15. Die Geschichte meldet, daß Troja von den Auf wen haben Sie Vertacht'? Whom do you suspect? (Tpon gricchischen Fürsten zerstört worden sei. 16. Gr sagte ihm, er würde seinet:

whom have you suspicion?) wegen (Sect. LXXIII. 1) Alles zu thun bereit sein. 17. Der Freund be. Ich habe ihn im Verradh'te, michy I suspect him of having robbed flagte sich, taß er so wenig von mir besucht mirte. 18. Man sagt, Ungarn beraubt zu haben.

me. (I have him in suspicion sei durch Bestechung, nicht durch Gewalt der Waffen besicgt worden. 19.

to have robbed me.) Mein Nachbar sagte mir, tas Aeußere dieses Mannes böte nichts Auffallendes Nachdem ich zu Nacht gespeist' Haben After I shall have supped I shall tar, aber seine Seele ware geziert durch eine Menge trefflicher Gigenichaften. werte, gehe ich aus.

(After I shall have 20. Der alte Cato schloß eine jede Rede mit den Worten : Uebrigens halte

go ont.

eaten at night, I go out.)

as:

woman.

er

me

Gr ist nam zehn Uhr zu mir gefom'He came to after ten

EXERCISE 74 (Vol. I., page 324). o'clock. (He is come to me

1. What is that servant gone for ? 2. She is getting water at the after ten o'clock.)

well, wood from the forest, and meat from the market. 3. Has she Er ist wegen seiner Krankheit nicht On account of his illness he did already gone for my trunk at the railway station ? 4. Yes, she went geyan'gen.

not go. (He is on account for it directly after she got up. 5. We sent for a physician for the of his illness not gone.)

sick man.

6. He got me to copy the letter, and then to carry it to the

post. 7. I neglect nothing to bring your son to a better course. 8. EXERCISE 140.

Let us not be deluded by this event. 9. One should suffer the dead to 1. Wissen Sie nicht, an was für einer Krankheit Ihre Nichte gestorben rest. 10. He kept me waiting, although I was in a hurry. 11. Why did

you not let your little brother come ? 12. Because he was all the ift? 2. Šo riel ich gehört habe, ist sie an der Auszehrung gestorben. 3.

afternoon at school. 13. Do you let your children learn French ? Siele sind in diesem Jahre an der Chelcra gestorben. 4. Weiß man nicht,

14. No, because I consider the English language more useful, 15. The met die filbernen Löffel gestohlen hat? 5. Nein, aber man wat Verdacht major ordered his servant to show me the way to the village. 16. The auf einen Bedienten des ņauses. 6. Man hatte zuerst eine alte Aufwär- gentleman whom you ask for bad the captain driven into the country. terin im Bertachte. 7. Er hat mich im Vertachte, ihn vorsäßlic, beleit ist 17. For whom do you send for the books ? 18. I send for them for zu haben. 8. Iu weiß wirklich nicht, auf wen ich meinen Verracht werfen, my youngest sister, in order to teach her Italian, 19. He had me in. un trorauf ich ibn früßen soll. 9. Nachrem ich mich angefleitet, und

vited to travel with him next week. nadzem ich gefrühstüdt haben werte, will ich ihn besuchen. 10. Nach,

EXERCISE 75 (Vol. I., page 324). teme zu Mittag gesreist hatte, las er die Zeitung. 11. Nachdem er sich sebatet hatte, machte er einen Spaziergang. 12. Nach zehn Uhr des

1. Welchen von diesen Aerzten werten Sic holen lassen ? 2. Ich werde thents besuchte er mich noch. 13. Nach Mitternacht werten wir unsere feinen von Beiden holen lassen. 3. Laß mich zufrieden, denn ich bin nicht Keiss weito: fortsegen. 14. Es gicbt Menschen, welche nach diesem Leben wohl. 4. Nur frige Soldaten lassen ihren Anführer im Stiche. 5. Warum Irin anteres criarten. 15. Ich freue mich seinetwegen mehr, als meinet ließen Sie Ihre kleine Sdwester nicht kommen? 6. Sie fonnte nicht, denn Feyen. 16. Ibretwegen habe ich ri: Nicise unternommen. 17. Guret: fie war ten ganzen Morgen in der Schule. 7. Er hat einen Zaynarzt holen meten ist der Vater so betrübt. 18. linsertweg:n brauchen Sie fich nicht zu lassen, um einen Zahn herauszuziehen. 8. Was lassen Sie Ihr Dienstmitfitamen. 19. Mein Bruder war seiner selbst nicht mehr mächtig. 20. chen holen? 9. Ich lasse Tie Papier und Dinte holen. 10. Laßt uns Har Du Herrn N. selbst, oder seine Frau gesehen? 21. Ich habe iin menschlich hanteln. 11. Laßt uns doch nach der Schule gehen. 12. Last felbft nicht nur gesehen, sondern auch gesprochen. 22. Ein treuer Soldat

und ništyt ten Beispielen ter Gottlosen folgen. dirbt liekr, alt taß er zum Verräther wird.

EXERCISE 76 (Vol. I., page 347).
EXERCISE 141.

1. What kind of weather is it to-day ? 2. It is beautiful weather to1. Are we obliged to wait for our friend ? 2. No, not on his day, but it is somewhat colder than yesterday. 3. What opinion does

he entertain concerning this thing ? 4. His opinion of it is not the account. 3. This man is detested on account of his perfidy. best.

5. My society is for him the most agreeable in the world. 6. 4. Do not grieve on account of us ! 5. On my account you may What kind of fish are these ? 7. They are sea-fish. 8. In what kind of do what you like. 6. My brother died of consumption in the work does he occupy himself ? 9. He occupies himself partly in nineteenth year of his age. 7. Do you know who has stolen writing, partly in reading. 10. What a power music has over the mind Foar gold watch? 8. No, but I am suspicious of that man who of man! 11. What a great delight it is to see the world! 12. What carne to our house yesterday. 9. At first I suspected a servant a glorious aspect the firmament, with its innumerable stars, presents !

14. The of the house. 10. After I had performed my last voyage, I ap. 13. Every star in the heavens forms a world of its own. plied myself to the study of the living languages. 11. After really virtuous man devotes every day of his life to laying aside his faults

more and more. 15. Has not every one of your friends such a hat? we had dined, we took an airing on horseback. 12. After he had breakfasted, he visited his brother-in-law. 13. This lady order to save their native land.

17. Such men are necessary, in 16. No, every one has a different one.

18. Have you seen that blind man wants eighteen ells of muslin for a dress. 14. That youth be- who possesses a delicacy of touch, which is astonishing ? 19. Yes, came a doctor. 15. That speculation made our neighbour a I have seen him. 20. The giver of such a gift is to be praised. rich man.

16. He told me he should on his own account speak 21. The hardships of such a journey strengthen the body. 22. Such to his father.

actions will call forth the admiration of posterity. 23. I have not had such agreeable hours for a long time. 24. Among the inhabitants

there are many very opulent. 25. Have you not too lived to see KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN GERMAN.

many strange things ? 26. O yes, I have already seen many remark

able things. 27. Many a brave soldier had to lose his life in the EXERCISE 72 (Vol. I., page 324).

battle. 28. Has not this author written many good works? 29. Cer

tainly, many of them are excellent. 30. Have both friends come to 1. It is questionable whether we shall have fine weather to-morrow.

an understanding about this thing ? 31. Yes, in some points they 2. It is proper to keep holy the Sabbath. 3. It is proper to esteem

have agreed with one another. 32. Some English ships were sunk in older people. 4. One works more joyfully when one has the conscions

this storm, 33. A few prudent men retired from the meeting. 34. DES3 that one is doing something good. 5. It is not proper to decline All the inhabitants of the town fled at the enemy's approach. 35. the invitation. 6. The really prudent man will labour to adapt him.

Many persons pass their whole life in idleness, 36. Was that your self as much as possible to the times. 7. It affords great pleasure brother who was the whole of yesterday in your society? 37. No, it to further what is good. 8. It is proper that every foreigner should

was my nephew, who visits me once every year. 38. What a magni. adopt the good, but not the evil customs of a people. 9. This man's

tude the earth has, and how much smaller, notwithstanding, is it than wealth increases visibly. 10. It is not proper for children to be dis- tho sun ! 39. What advantages has man over the beast ? 40. What obedient. 11. It is questionable whether this man has done his duty. | bird's fenther is this ? 41. If the scholar is industrious, he learas 12. It sometimes happens that the considerations connected with a

something. sportive occurrence are very serious. 13. It often happens that small

EXERCISE 77 (Vol. I., page 347). circumstances occasion great events. 14. Who has met you this morning? 15. My friend the captain has met me. 16. Did anything 1. Mander Gelehrte ist mifiverstanten worten. 2. O, was für Thur. disagreeable happen to him on his last journey ? 17. Yes, a great heiten begeht der Mensch in seinem Leben! 3. Mit was für Gesellsħaft misfortane berell him. 18. What has happened to you? 19. Nothing batten Sie Umgang ? 4. Manch fleißiger Kaufmann ist durch eine unvor, has happened to me. 20. This punishment serves him right.

Tichtige Speculation zu Grunde gerichtet worden. 5. Manche Blume ist EXERCISE 73 (Vol. I., page 324).

geboren, im Verborgenen zu blühen. 6. Jedes Blatt, jeter Zweig, und jeder

Tropfen Wasser zeugen von unendlicher Weisheit und Macht. 7. Jeder 1. Gs gehört sich, daß Kinder ihre Eltern achten.

2. Es schickt sich muß Rechenschaft von sich selbst geben. 8. Die ganze Umgegend von Coblenz nicht für einen treisen Mann, ter Menge zu folgen. 3. Die meisten

ist romantisch. 9. Alle sind wohl zu Hause. 10. Die Unterhaltung mit jungen Leute winíchen groß in der Welt zu scheinen. 4. Sie sollten unter solchen Menschen ist belehrend. 11. Ich habe nie von solch einem Unglüce allen Umständen die Wahrheit sagen. 5. Es frågt sichy, ob wir Ihre Ein

gchört. 12. Go ist heute schönes Wetter, aber etwas fälter alt gestern. laz ung annehmen werden. 6. Gs fragt sich, ob Sie Recht over Unrecht haben 7. trägt sich zuweilen zu, tak ter beste Mensch irrt. 3. Die 13. Ich habe schon manche Freute gehabt. 14. Id wünsche einige Citronen Regierung fort ett Deberíam von ihren Unterthanen. 9. Die Bevölkerung

zu haben. 15. Gr kam etwas zu spät. Contend nimmt jerei Jahr ungeheuer zu. 10. Mein Bruter wirmete sich

EXERCISE 78 (Vol. I., page 382). mebr ten Wissenschaften, als dem Bergnügen. 11. Wissen Sie, wie weit 1. He defended himself with an umbrella instead of stick. 2. InIhr Freund Ihnen gerathen hat? 12. Er hat Ihnen gerathen das zu thun, stead of going with friends, he was always in the society of strangers. mezone gestern sprach.

3. They had a great chest in the room instead of a bed. 4. In Germany they are very polite to foreigners. 5. The roots of the forest Oxides of Sulphur.-All the oxides of sulphur which are known were his only nourishment. 6. Water, on this occasion, took the

possess acid properties :place of wine. 7. A scholar has taken the place of teacher. 8. They use pencils instead of pens. 9. Travelling gives me very much plea- Hydric Sulphite or Sulphurous Acid, H,50g. sure. 10. My children have learnt writing and reading of me.

11.

Hydric Sulphate or Sulphuric Acid, H,80,. Let us go; this long waiting is disagreeable to me. 12. They gene

Hydric Hyposulphite or Hyposulphurous Acid, H,8,0,. rally prefer sitting to standing. 13. He learnt to labour in his youth. Hydric Dithionate or Dithionic Acid, H,8,0,. 14. We learnt to write together. 15. I hate writing; on the contrary, Hydric Trithionate or Trithionic Acid, H,8,0,. I like painting so much the more. 16. He understands drawing better Hydric Tetrathionate or Tetrathionic Acid, H,8,0,. than painting. 17. We heard the bells pealing and the cannons thun. Hydric Pentathionate or Pentathionic Acid, 1,8,0,. dering. 18. The howling of the storm, and the wild raging of the waves, heightened still further the courage of the brave captain and

Sulphurous Acid (symbol, SO,; combining weight, 64; density, his crew, instead of depressing it. 19. Thinking God more benevolent 32).-Sulphur burns in oxygen with a lilac-coloured flame, and than just, is equivalent to dishonouring him (Gellert). 2). This scho- the sole product of the combustion is the permanent gas, so,, lar's inexcusable behaviour vexed the teacher.

which has a density exactly double that of oxygen, for the gas occupies the same volume as the oxygen from which it is made,

thus :LESSONS IN CHEMISTRY.-XV.

S + 0, = 50,

- + 2 = 2. SULPHUR AND ITS COMPOUNDS. SULPHUR :—SYMBOL, S-ATOMIC WEIGHT, 32—DENSITY OF VAPOUR AT The gas may be procured more easily by cautiously heating 1,000° CENT., 32.

in a flask a mixture of 3 parts of sulphur and 4 of manganese SULPHUR is a yellow solid which is found mixed with the soil dioxide ; the reaction is thus expressed :in many volcanic districts. It also appears in combination with

Mn0, + 8, =MnS + 80g. metals forming a large class of ores named sulphides ; and moreover it takes some part in the animal economy, for

it is found a third process consists in heating sulphuric acid with copper in albumen, hair, garlic, etc. The localities from which the or mercury in an ordinary flaskgreater part of the sulphur of commerce is procured are the

Hg + 2H,50. HgSo, + 21,0 + 50g. valleys of Noto and Mazzaro, in Sicily. Here it is mixed with clays and breccia. Some sulphur is derived from metallic sul. The gas is well known for its suffocating odour. It cannot phides, particularly iron pyrites, Fesy, but this is liable to support combustion. Water at 0° Cent. dissolves 68-8 volumes contain arsenic. The pyrites is heated in conical clay tubes, of the gas, but this solution gradually absorbs oxygen from FeS remains behind, while the other atom of sulphur is the air, and becomes converted into sulphuric acid.

By liberated. The Sicilian sulphur undergoes partial purification causing the gas to traverse a tube surrounded by a mixture at the mines by being submitted to a rough sublimation—that of salt and ice, or by submitting it to a pressure of 2 atmois, when heated to 490° Cent. the sulphur begins to boil, and to spheres, it liquefies into a colourless limpid Auid. come off in vapour. This is passed into a chamber in which it

Fig. 46 shows the arrangement. The gas, to purify it, is is cooled, the vapour condensing into a fine yellow powder sent through a "wash bottle,” w, which contains concentrated flowers of sulphur. Sometimes the melted sulphur is run into sulphuric acid, by which the gas is dried. The liquefied sulwooden moulds, by which it is converted into cane sulphur, or phurous acid collects in the tube on the jar s, and is preserved brimstone.

Properties.—Sulphur is a brittle solid without taste or smell. When rubbed it emits a peculiar odour, and becomes negatively electrified. It is a very bad conductor of heat, and when a stick of brimstone is held in the hand in contact with the ear it crackles and frequently falls to pieces from the unequal expansion. It is quite insoluble in water, as may be easily seen by examining a piece of brimstone which has been for years in a vessel of water from which a lady's lap-dog drinks. The edges of the roll will be found as sharp as the day when it was first put into the water. Alcohol and ether have but a slight solvent action upon it, but the bisulphide of carbon, CS,, dissolves it freely. Sulphur exists in three modifications. The sulphur which appears in nature when crystallised, is in rhombic octohedra. This same shape is assumed when the bisulphide of carbon, which holds sulphur in solution, is evaporated. These latter crystals, however, are transparent. To procure the second modification, sulphur is melted, and when it is covered with a film

w on cooling, a hole is broken through the crust, and the sulphur which is still liquid is poured out; the under surface of the film and the sides of the crucible will be found covered with long needleshaped transparent crystals belonging to the oblique prismatic form, and having a specific gravity of 1.98, whereas that of th3 native sulphur is 2.07. These crystals soon become opaque, and when touched crumble into powder, the particles of which are found to be crystals similar to those of native sulphur. Thus sulphur is “ dimorphous," or capable of crystallising in two different systems. The third and more remarkable variety is produced by heat. At 1150 sulphur begins to melt, forming a pale yellow mobile liquid. Upon raising the temperature its colour

Fig. 46. becomes darker, and at 250° it is an opaque mass, so viscid as to be poured from the vessel with difficulty ; 20° higher it by hermetically sealing its neck. Of course, when exposed to again resumes its fluid condition, and if it be poured into cold the air, the liquid evaporates rapidly, and by this means a temwater when in this state, it becomes a soft and plastic mass of perature of 60° Cent. may be obtained. This experiment may an amber-brown colour, and so tenacious that it can be drawn be easily shown by wrapping the bulb of an alcohol thermometer out into fine threads. It is in this condition that casts of in muslin and pouring some of the liquid upon it. medals, etc., are taken for electro-plating. After a lapse of Sulphurous acid possesses great bleaching powers, and also socze time it returns to its yellow colour. In passing from one antiseptic properties. If a red rose be held over the fames of of these conditions to another, there is invariably a remarkable ignited sulphur its colour

will be immediately changed. Chlorine alteration in temperature.

cannot be used in bleaching silk, wool, and especially straw, as it leaves them with a yellowish tinge. In these cases this gas is be bluish (Marsh's test). One of the oxides of nitrogen is sised. It seems simply to combine with the colouring matter, generally present—this may be ascertained by the test given for thus bleaching it. The gas is sometimes used for checking nitric acid. rinous fermentation when it is proceeding too rapidly. This is The presence of other salts may be determined by evapodone in the manufacture of cider, by burning sulphur over the Tessel in which the fermentation is proceeding.

[graphic]

Sulphuric Trioxide (symbol, so, ; combining weight, 80; density, 40).—This substance may be prepared by passing a mistare of sulphurous acid gas and oxygen through a tube containing spongy platinum heated to 180° Cent. In the pores of the platinum the sulphurous gas becomes oxidised into sog, which passes out of the tube in white vapours, and condenses in a receiver into fine silky needles.

This substance possesses no acid properties until it combines with water, which it does with violence, forming sulphuric acid.

When the vapour of sulphuric trioxide is passed through a red-hot tube it is decomposed into 2 volumes of sulphic dioxide and 1 of oxygen, thus-So, = SO + 0.

Fig. 47.

[blocks in formation]

COMPOUNDS OF SULPHUR AND HYDROGEN.

Nordhausen Sulphuric Acid (H,0.250z).–At Nordhausen, a

rating some of the acid in a platinum crucible; if any be pretown in Saxony, a fuming acid of the abovo name and formula,

sent, they will remain. has long been made by distilling green vitriol, which is iron affinity for water, of which it can take up fifteen times its

Properties.—This acid forms sulphates. It has a great sulphate, thus

weight if exposed long enough to the atmosphere. In com4 (Fe$0.) + 4,0 280, + 2Fe,0, + H,0.250g.

bining with water, the temperature is greatly increased, and the This acid, when heated, gives off sulphuric anhydride, and volume of the mixed liquids is less than the sum of their leares British oil of vitriol behind, thus:

volumes. The maximum condensation, 3 per cent., is reached

when 3 volumes of acid are mixed with 2 of water. The 1,0.250, = SO, + H,0.80,.

best test for sulphuric acid is barytio water, or a chloride or It is capable of dissolving sulphur, but its great use is to dissolve nitrate of barium; the barium displaces any other base from indigo, which property gives it its commercial value.

its combination with the acid, and forms the insolublo barium Sulphuric Acid, or Oil of Vitriol (H,80.).—No chemical com sulphate, which falls in a white powder; thuspound is of such use in the arts and manufactures as this ; indeed, the commercial prosperity of a country may be very

Caso, + BaNO, = CANO, + Baso, accurately measured by the quantity of sulphuric acid it con

The remaining five oxides of sulphur are not of sufficient sumes.

interest to require a notice here. The mode of preparing the acid is to oxidise sulphurous acid gas, by means of nitric trioxide, thus

Sulphuretted Hydrogen, or Hydric Sulphide (Symbol, H,S; comSO, + 1,0 + 1,0, = H,80, +N,Og.

bining weight, 34; density, 17).--This gas is always procured Here it will be seen that the nitric trioxide gives one atom of by treating some metallic sulphide with sulphuric acid. The its oxygen to the SO,, which thus becomes SO,; this combines with sulphide of iron may be conveniently made by heating a rod an atom of water, forming H,OSO3, which is usually written of iron, such as that from which nails are made, to a strong red H,80The N, O, is now N, O,, nitric oxide ; but in the presence heat, then touching it with a stick of brimstone; the sulphur of steam this gas is capable of combining with oxygen and and the iron combine, forming ferric sulphide, Fes. In the returning to its former state, thus

same bottle in which hydrogen or carbonic acid gas was made, NÀO, + 0 = 1,0,6

place this sulphide, and add diluted sulphuric acidand it is again in a condition to oxidise another atom of Sog.

FeS + 4,50, = Feso, + H, S; Thus it appears that the nitric trioxide merely acts as a carrier that is, iron sulphate (green vitriol) and sulphuretted hydrogen of oxygen between the air and the sulphurous acid gas. Theo- are the results of the reaction. retically, a definite quantity of the trioxide can transform an Properties.-It is this gas which imparts to rotten eggs their indefinite quantity of the sulphurous into sulphuric acid. Prac. offensive odour. In the decomposition of the albumen, the sultically, however, this is impossible, for reasons which will be phur which it contains unites with the hydrogen--another of its sufficiently apparent. Fig. 47 shows the arrangement by which constituents-producing the gas. When passed through a redthe manufacture of sulphuric acid is carried on. A chamber made hot tube, it is decomposed into sulphur and hydrogen; the of wood, sometimes 300 feet long and 15 broad by 15 high, is lined latter having a volume equal to that of the undecomposed gas, with sheet lead; water a few inches in depth covers the bottom; as this equation would indicate :at one end there is a furnace in which sulphur is burning, and the flames of the sulphur heat a crucible containing sodium

H,S = H, +S nitrate and sulphuric acid, which produce the fumes of nitric acid; at the other end is a boiler in which large quantities of The gas is very poisonous, but when largely diluted with air, it steam are generated, and ejected into the chamber by means of acts as a powerful narcotic. pipes. There is an opening at F to admit air and produce a It burns with a feebly luminous flame into water and sulphucurrent through the chamber; sometimes, thoroughly to mix the rous acid, a quantity of sulphur being deposited in the jar from various vapours, several partitions divide the chamber, having incomplete combustion. Water, at ordinary temperatures, abtheir openings alternately at the top and near the floor. The sorbs three volumes of the gas, and in this manner it may be SO, as soon as formed fails and combines with the water; this kept for laboratory purposes ; only oxygen must be excluded, for process generally proceeds until the acid reaches a density of otherwise the hydrogen will be separated to form water and the 1:50. This is removed from the chamber and boiled in shallow sulphur deposited. This solution reddens litmus, and is thereleaden pans; when it reaches a density of 1.750 it corrodes the fore sometimes called hydro-sulphuric acid ; whenever an oxide lead, and therefore a further condensation is carried on in pla- of a metal is presented to it, the metal becomes a sulphide, timun vessels. The oil of vitriol of commerce is generally impure, and the hydrogen of the gas with the oxygen forms water, containing lead sulphate, as well as sulphates of any bases, lime, thus :e.o., which the water may contain, and if the acid has been

CuO + H, = CuS + 1,0. made from iron pyrites, which is the case with all English acid, From the variety of colours which sulphides exhibit, and their it is sure to contain arsenic. To decide if this be the case, behaviour under certain circumstances, this gas becomes a valudevelop hydrogen with the acid, ignite it, and the flame will | able test agent. By consulting the following table the tests

2

= 2.

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