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LESSONS IN ITALIAN.-II.

IX. v, named in the alphabet vee (u consonante).

X. z, named in the alphabet tsaita, sounded like to in II.—PRONUNCIATION OF VOWELS AND CONSONANTS.

Switzerland, or like dz in adze.

These sounds vary I NOW proceed to explain Italian pronunciation in a method of

in different parts of Italy. After l, n, and r, it is recent adoption by some ingenious teachers of Italy, by which

generally pronounced like tz in Switzerland. The all the combinations of the vowels and consonants, and conse

same sharp sound occurs in words derived from quently all the ingredients and component parts of the language,

Latin, and ending in zia, zio, zione, etc. will pass under the eye of the reader. Let him learn from the very beginning of his labours to pronounce each syllable of the indeed each word given as an example or illustration, with an

I shall mark each word in the following pronouncing tables, and following words and tables, and he will soon acquire a correct method of pronunciation. No word or combination of words accent, which, being merely arbitrary, used for the occasion to can offer any difficulty to him, because he will have mastered the Italian printing, I denominate

the accent of tone. In every

facilitate the progress of the English learner, and not used in component parts of all words in these tables.

Italian word composed of more than one syllable, there is always The Italian language has five vowels, representing seven

one syllable on which, when we pronounce it, the voice ought to sounds :

pause with a marked elevation of tone. This prolongation and I. a, invariably sounded like the English interjection ah. elevation of the voice on the syllable is similar to the transition II. i, invariably sounded like ee in see.

of the voice from one tone to another in music, in order to III. u, invariably sounded like oo in too.

descend to the level of the original tone from which the voice IV, 1. e, invariably sounded like ay in say, but with a slight was raised. The accent of tone exists more or less in every lan

opening of the mouth only, and with an elevated and guage, but it is more or less sensibly marked in one language clear tone. It is called, on that account, the close than another, and it is strongly so in Italian; and on the marked sound of the vowel.

use of this accent in a great measure depends the harmony of 2. e, invariably sounded something like e in let, set, and the language. I shall mark this accent by the acute sign ('),

the first e in every, but with a wide opening of the from right to left. It is true that this sign is sometimes printed mouth, and with a deep sound. It is called, on that in Italian words, but in a very few instances only, which I shall account, the open sound of the vowel.

have occasion to point out hereafter. The grare accent ("), from V. 1. o, invariably sounded with a medium sound between o left to right, is used much more frequently (the rules for its use

and oo, which has no equivalent in the English lan- will be given hereafter), and for this reason I prefer using, in guage, but which may be easily caught by the ear order to avoid confusion, the acute accent as the arbitrary mark from hearing an educated Roman or Tuscan speak. or sign of the accent of tone. Two-thirds of the Italian words Perhaps an approximation is the o in bone, hole, and have an accent of tone regulated by principles clear and in. note, but with a slight opening of the mouth only, variable; which it would be inexpedient to lay down now, as and with an elevated and clear tone. It is called, on they would not at this stage of our progress be thoronghly that account, the close sound of the vowel.

understood, but which I shall take occasion to point out in con2. o, invariably sounded something like o in lord and venient places as I proceed.

orange, but with a wide opening of the mouth, and One remark more with respect to the vowels e and o. I have with a deep sound. It is called, on that account, the called the first sound of e as ay in say, and the first sound of o open sound of the vowel.

(the medium sound between o and oo, which cannot be adequately The first sound of e and the first of o occur in the majority of vowels. The

reason is this: they are heard in all syllables with

marked by an English equivalent) the ruling sounds of those syllables, and may be called the ruling sounds of those two out distinction, whether they have the accent of tone or not vowels. No distinguishing sign is used in Italian to mark the while the second sound of e (pronounced with a wider opening of two e's or two o's. Englishmen must have some mark to indi- the month and a deeper sound, and something like e in let and cate when e and o are to be sounded with their second or open ever) and the second sound of 0 (also pronounced with a wider sounds. I shall, in these cases, place on e and o this sign “, as for example, é, 6.

opening of the mouth and a deeper sound, and something like o in The pronunciation of what, for the sake of distinction, I shall orange and lord), can only be heard in accented syllables, of which denominate the circumflexed sounds of e and o is not uniform fore, are much more frequent than the latter; because u.

there can be in each word only one. The former sounds, therethroughout Italy; but as the pronunciation of Rome and Florence is the standard, all departures from it may be reckoned accented syllables are more numerous than those accented. by our students as provincialisms, which ought to be carefully lish equivalent in ai or ay, I shall have no difficulty in marking

With regard to the e in unaccented syllables having an Eng. avoided.

The Italian consonants, seventeen in number, are divided into the pronunciation ; but with regard to o in unaccented syllables, mutes and semi-vowels. Mutes are those that require a vowel accent, and thus confuse the reader, who would perhaps be

as there is no equivalent, I should be obliged to use the acute after them to render them pronounceable. Semi-vowels are those which require a vowel before them to make them pro- which the accent marking the peculiar sound of o. I beg it

unable to determine which was the accent of tone in a word and nounceable.

Let me first enumerate the mutes, and show by tables their therefore to be understood once for all, that where I shall have combinations with vowels in Italian words.

occasion to use an o in unaccented syllables without any sign There are ten above it, the

vowel must invariably have the first sound of o as mutes :

above explained. I follow the authority not only of the eduI. b, named in the alphabet, bee.

cated classes of Florence and Rome, but also that of Celso II. c, named in the alphabet chee, and sounded like ch in Cittadini and the best theoretical writers on Italian pronuncia

church before the vowels e and i. Before all other tion.
vowels it is sounded like k in English.

FIRST PRONOUNCING TABLE,
III. d, named in the alphabet dee.

showing the combination of vowels with mute consonants in IV. g, named in the alphabet jee, and sounded like g in natural order. ginger before the vowels e and i only. Before all

Italian.
Pronounced.

English.
other vowels it is sounded like g in gang, go, and gull. Bado

báh-do

I take care V. j, named in the alphabet i (ee) lungo or jota (i conso

bái-vo

I drink. nante), and sounded like y in yes only at the com Bice

bée-tchai

Beatrice, a woman's name. mencement of a word or syllable and before a vowel. At the termination of a word it is no longer a conso- before e and i is sounded like ch in the English

word church.

The reader must not forget my previous observation that o nant, but must be sounded like a prolonged or lengthened ee.

Boce (for voce) bó-tchai Voice, word. VI. p, named in the alphabet pee.

The acute accent over o marks not only the accent of tone, VII. q, named in the alphabet koo. It is an auxiliary letter, but also the first sound of o as stated before. only used before u with the sound of k.

Buco

bóo-ko Hole, VIII. t, named in the alphabet tee.

Ebano

e-bah-no Ebony.

Bevo

Gaza

Once for all, I must refer my readers to the opening expla Adele

ah-de-lai Adeline, a woman's name. mation, where I stated that there is no English equivalent to

Adiro

ah-dée-ro I provoke to anger. the second, open or circumflexed sound of the e, as in the first

Adoro

ah-đó-ro I adore.

Aduno syllable of ebano. For that reason, I have not attempted to

ah-dóo-no I unite, I assemble others. Adda

áhd-dah The river Adda. imitate it by an English sound; and have therefore simply

Edda

ed-dah The Edda of Scandinavian marked it by the circumflex sign. In all cases of the e circum

Iddio
Id-dée-o God.

[literature. flexed, the reader must studiously avoid the English sound of Adduco

ahd-doo-ko I lead to. €, which would only create the greatest confusion. He may

Gah-dzah Gaza in Palestine. always bear in mind what I have stated, that an approximation Geto

je-to

Jess (in falconry). to the circumflexed e is to be found in the e of the English Gita

jée-tah A walk, trip. words let and ever; only uttered with a wider opening of the

Godo

gó-do I rejoice. Gufo

góo-fo A horned owl. mouth and a deeper sound. The circumflexed e is invariably

Legame

lai-gáh-mai A tie, ligament. the accent of tone.

Angelo

áhn-jai-lo Angel. Abete ah-be-tai Fir-tree.

Angina

ahn-jée-nah Inflammation of the throat. Abile sh-bee-lai Able.

Vigore

vee-gó-rai Vigour. Obolo (Latin, obolus) 6-bo-lo Farthing.

Arguto

ahr-góo-to Ingenious, witty. The reader must bear in mind, that this is the second or less

Paggi

páhd-jee Pages (attendants). frequent sound of o, something like the English o in the words The pronunciation of gg depends on the vowel that follows orange and lord, but with a wider opening of the mouth and a the latter g. If that vowel is e or i, the gg's are pronounced deeper sound. I give it the circumflex mark, because it is the somewhat as if the first g had merely the sound of d; and the less common sound. Wherever it occurs in my lessons, it will second g, which goes to the next syllable, like the English j in invariably denote, as in the case of the circumflexed e, the jay, only the voice must not pause too long on the d of the accent of tone as well as the peculiar sound of the o.

syllable where the first g occurs; the stress must be laid on it, Abuso ah-bóo-zo Abuse.

and the voice must glide as quickly as possible to the pro

nunciation of the second g, which must be very soft. In this I shall have occasion to speak of the two sounds of s when I way there will be effected a more equal distribution of the sound explain the sounds of the semi-vowels.

j between the two syllables, which will produce the correct sound Babbo (Tuscan) báhb-bo Papa.

of the gg. It is a fundamental rule of Italian pronunciation that double consonants must be uttered and vibrated distinctly. This is

LESSONS IN MUSIC.-XV. essentially necessary, not only as it augments the beauty and marks the orthography of words, but as it frequently distin. ILLUSTRATIONS OF MENTAL EFFECT OF FAH AND guishes words of totally different meaning, but differing only

LAH-(continued). in spelling by the single consonant instead of the double one ; 1. In the last lesson we requested our pupils to study, in the as, for example, caro, dear, and carro, a car; as I shall have examples given, the proper mental effect of the note FAH. But occasion later more fully to illustrate. Where a or any other our attention was specially called to its effect in slow music. vowel precedes a double consonant, a particular stress must be Let us now take one example of the remarkable manner in laid on that vowel, and its sound must be shortened. I have which this effect is modified by quickened movement and a lively not attempted to indicate that shortening of the sound of rhythm. The following is an old song-tune, which was composed the vowel by any new sign, because a frequent change of sign by the great Henry Purcell. Meant, at first, as it would seem, only creates confusion, and the true pronunciation is obvious for the nursery rhyme of “Old Woman, whither so high," but from the necessity of giving a vibrating clearness to the double which was put to a peculiar use by Lord Wharton in the memorable consonants.

year A.D. 1688. Wishing to throw ridicule on an unpopular lordBobbe (for bevve) béb-bai He drank.

lieutenant of Ireland, whom King James II. had just appointed, he The English e, whenever it is sounded as in the word get, composed a doggrel ballad, which, by the charm of the music,

conquered the hearts of the king's own army. Bishop Burnet corresponds to the shortened sound of the first sound of e (ai).

says :-"A foolish ballad was made about that time, which had Gildi (for gobbi) jib-bee Hunchbacks.

a burden said to be Irish words—-'Lero, Lero, Lilliburlero'The reader must not forget my previous observation that g that made an impression on the king's army that cannot be before e and i is sounded as in the English word ginger. imagined by those who saw it not. The whole army, and at last, Gobbo gób-bo A hunchback

the people both in city and country, were singing it perpetually ; Dubbi déob-bee Doubts.

and perhaps never had so slight a thing so great an effect." Cado káh-do I fall.

“ Lord Wharton,” says Mr. W. Chappell, in his valuable ColCecino tchai-tchée-Do A wild swan.

lection of National English Airs,' “boasted publicly of having Cito tchée-to Quickly.

rhymed King James out of his dominions. But he might, with Coda kó-dah Tail.

far greater justice, have given the credit to Purcell, without Cute kóo-tai Skin.

whose irresistibly fascinating tune his lordship's rhymes would, Ducato doo-kah-to Dukedom, ducat.

in all probability, have fallen as harmless as his enemies could Ricevo ree-tchái-vo I receive.

have wished.” But where lies the power of ridicule in this tune, Incido

in-tchée-do I cut. Ancona

thus so remarkably proved ? Undoubtedly the elegant melody, an-kó-na Ancona.

with its various rhythm, forms the magic spell which detains the It is obvious that not only before double consonants not in ear; but the poison of the bowl, the sting of the ridicule, the the same syllable, but even before one consonant in the same mockery of the laugh, is in that note FaH--the fourth of the syllable, a or any vowel must be shortened in the Italian, as scale--so persistently recurring on the marked accents of the perhaps in any other language. It is therefore unnecessary to measure-ever and anon showing itself with cold sarcastic curltise any sign.

ing lip out of the midst of “wreathed smiles." Every one who Lacuna lah-kóo-nah Pool, swamp.

sings the song must feel that FAH is the note on which his feelBacco bák-ko Bacchus.

ings of contempt would find expression, if he can suppose his Becco bék-ko Beak.

heart to be filled with the old animosity against “the new Picca pik-kah Spear.

Deputie." In a former lesson we noticed how the note me is bók-kah Mouth.

used to express contempt. But that was the contempt of pride, Succo sóok-ko Juice.

that despises and passes by. This is the contempt that looks Duda

dáh-do Die for gaming. Deco

long enough at its object to loathe it. Let our pupils, however, dái-vo I ought, I must. Tito dée-to Finger.

judge of all these matters for themselves by actual experiment. Dopo đô-po After, afterwards.

Let our own opinions be doubted, discussed, even rejectedDruce doo-tchai General.

anything so that our pupils only observe and think for themEdace ai-dán-tchai Gluttonous.

selves.

Восса

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person is able to accompany him by singing the second part, they should take notice of the consonance or sounding-together

of the notes. In addition to the observations on the consonances m :fis is :1 :t d':d :d id:

of DOH, ME, sou in a former lesson, let the following remarks be examined and tested.

Fah forms a more "perfect” consonance with the key-note than LAH. (It is more like it, and has a greater number of coinciding vibrations.) But the consonance of Lay with the

key-note is more soft and pleasing. sId':t :1 11:m:m fim:rld :-:t, The best consonances with FAH are RAY and LAH. The best

notes to sound with LAH are far and don'.

It may be noticed that when the notes of a consonance are in their closest position, as Dohl with LAH, or LAH with Far, the proper mental effect of each is sweetly blended with that of the

other; but when, by raising or lowering one of them an octave, l, :t, :dd:r : mm:1 :s ls : they are more distant, as DOH with LAH or LAHT with Fau, each

produces its own effect with greater distinctness, though still 3. When the pupil has, by help of these examples and others with good agreement. which he may find, learnt to recognise the proper mental effect Two persons can easily try these experiments by singing the of FAH and Lah, he will proceed to the exercises which follow, chord DOH, ME, sou together, and then "striking out" each into learning to point them on the modulator from memory, and to the separate note previously agreed on. There could be no sing them both to the syllables and to the words. If another better preparation for the study of harmony.

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The grass' withereth th' || flower fadeth

The effect of LAH is beautifully shown in the air, and that of BUT THE WORD OF OUR || GOD. SHALL STAND. FOR | EVER. 1 given in Lesson II. (Vol. I., page 90).

FAH in the second. Look back for the instructions on chanting

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This illustrates FAH and Law when in succession at the follow. When he reaches the asterisk let the third voice strike close. If three persons can be got to join in singing it, let in. When each singer reaches the close, let him begin again the first sing alone till he comes to the note over which an instantly; and so let them go on, round and round, after one asterisk is plaeed to the words “Who'll." Then just as he another, until the leader makes a signal for all to stop together. strikes that note let the second singer strike the first note and This kind of composition is called a round.

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In singing this round take care to keep the time accurately.

EXERCISE 1. Here four voices should follow each other just as three

Give the algebraical expressions for the following statements voices did in the last case. FAH is well illustrated here. in words :If you sing the round with four voices, or even with only two,

1. The product of the difference of a and h into the sum of b, c, you will have an opportunity of comparing the consonance, FAH and d, is equal to 37 times m, added to the quotient of b divided by with lah, with the semi-dissonance Fan with Te. Directly the the sum of h and b. second voice gets on to the bar containing LAH, LAH, TE, TE, 2. The sum of a and b, is to the quotient of b divided by c, as the the first voice will be singing FAH, FAH, FAH, FAH. "TE with product of a into c, is to 12 times h. FAH” is usually treated as a dissonance; but it is a very 3. The sum of a, b, and o, divided by six times their product, is equal piquant and useful one. Notice whether your own taste and to four times their sum diminished by d. ear do not require, what musicians demand, that it should be

4. The quotient of 6 divided by the sum of a and b, is equal to 7 followed by the consonance “ME with Dow,” the Fai descending times d, diminished by the quotient of b, divided by 36. on ME, and the TE ascending to DOH.

34. We now give an example of the method of writing out algebraical expressions in words.

EXAMPLE.-What will the following expression become, when LESSONS IN ALGEBRA.-II.

words are substituted for the signs ? DEFINITIONS (continued).

ALGEBRAICAL EXPRESSION.

a+b

=abc-6m+ 27. When four quantities are proportional, the proportion is

a+c

STATEMENT IN WORDS.--The sum of a and b divided by h, is expressed by points, in the same or anner as in the Rule of Proportion in arithmetic. Thus a : 6::c:d

signifies that a has to equal to the product of a, b, and c, diminished by 6 times m, 6, the same ratio which c has to d. And ab: cd :: a+m:b+n, and increased by the quotient of a divided by the sum of a and means that ab is to cd, as the sum of a and m, to the sum of

EXERCISE 2. b and n.

Write out the following algebraical expressions in words :28. Algebraic quantities are said to be like, when they are expressed by the same letters, and are of the same power ; and 1. ab + =dx a + b + Cunlike, when the letters are different, or when the same letter is

6 + 6 raised to different powers. Thus ab, 3ab, -ab, and -bab, are 2, a + 7 (h + x)

(a + h) (6-c). like quantities, because the letters are the same in each, although the signs and co-efficients are different. But 3a, 3y, 3bx, are

d-4

3. a-b:ac :: :3 x (h + d + y). unlike quantities, because the letters are unlike, although there is no difference in the signs and co-efficients. So x, xx, and xxx,

ah a + ab ba x ( + lu) are unlike quantities, because they are different powers of the 3 + (6 - 0)

h + d m same quantity. (They are usually written , 2, and xo.) And

35. At the close of an algebraic process it is often necessary universally if any quantity is repeated as a factor a number of to restore the numbers for which letters have been substituted times in one instance, and a different number of times in another, at the beginning. In doing this the sign x must not be omitted the products will be unlike quantities; thus, oc, ccce, and c, are between the numbers, as it generally is between factors expressed unlike quantities. But if the same quantity is repeated as a by letters. Thus if a stands for 3, and b for 4, the product ab factor the same number of times in each instance, the products is not 34, but 3 * 4, i.e., 12. are like quantities. Thus, aaa, aaa, aaa, and aaa are like EXAMPLE.—If a = 1, b = 2, c= 3, and a = 4 what is the quantities.

ad bc 29. One quantity is said to be a multiple of another, when the numerical value of the expression +0+- ?

b former contains the latter a certain number of times without a

Substituting the value given above for each letter, the algeremainder. Thus 10a is a multiple of 2a ; and 24 is a multiple

ad bc

1 x 4 of 6.

braical expression +C++ becomes in figures +3+

2 30. One quantity is said to be a measure of another, when the

2 x 3 4 6 former is contained in the latter any number of times, without

+ 3 + or 2 + 3 + 6, which is equal to 11. a remainder. Thus 36 is a measure of 15b; and 7 is a measure of 35.

EXERCISE 3. 31. The value of an expression, is the number or quantity for Find the values of the following algebraic expressions, supwhich the expression stands. Thus the value of 3+4 is 7; that posing a = 3; b = 4; c= 2; d = 6; m = 8; and n=10:of 3 X 4 is 12; and that of

8

is 2. • 32. The RECIPROCAL of a quantity, is the quotient arising from

bc + + dividing A UNIT by that quantity. The reciprocal of a is a; the

1

b + ad reciprocal of a +b is a tö; the reciprocal of 4 is

33. In commencing arithmetic the learner has to study the method of expressing words by figures, and, vice verså, figures by

4. bm + words; so in algebra he must first accustom himself to convert statements made in words into algebraical expressions, and also

5. ebm + to write out algebraical expressions in words. We give two examples, first of all, of the method of converting statements in

6. (a + c) x (n - m) + words into algebraical expressions, and follow them by an exercise a x (d + c)

(c + b) x (m - d) to the same. The answers to the examples in this exercise will

7.

+ abc be found at the end of our next lesson.

ac + 5m

(41 - b) (a ) EXAMPLES.—What is the algebraic expression for the follow

+ m - cb + ing statements, in which the letters a, b, c, etc., may be supposed to represent any given quantities ?

POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE QUANTITIES. STATEMENT IN WORDS (1).—The product of a, b, and c, 36. A POSITIVE or AFFIRMATIVE quantity is one which is to divided by the difference of c and d, is equal to the sum of b and be added, and has the sign + prefixed to it. (Art. 11.) c added to 15 times h.

abc

37. A NEGATIVE quantity is one which is required to be subALGEBRAICAL EXPRZSSION (1). =b+c+15h.

TRACTED, and has the sign - prefixed to it. (Art. 10 and 11.) STATEMENT IN WORDS (2).The sum of a, 2b, and 3c is necessary that some of them should be added

When several quantities enter into a calculation, it is frequently equal to the difference of d and e divided by 10 times the product of f and g.

together, while

others are subtracted.

de ALGEBRAICAL EXPRESSION (2).-a+26+3c=

If, for instance, the profits of trade are the subject of calcu10 fg

lation, and the gain is considered positive, the loss will be

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