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insurance against loss by accidental fire, where a man pays a derrière, behind; chez, at the house of; concernant, touching ; certain per-centage upon the value of the property insured. excepté, except; outre, besides ; selon, according to; voici, here

Farmers can insure their crops against damage by storms. is; voilà, there is, eto. [$ 139 (1)]. Owners of vessels can insure them and their cargoes, eto.

2. Others, being rather prepositional phrases, govern their EXERCISE 59.--EXAMPLES IN STOCKS, SHARES, object by means of the preposition de :-hors de, out of; loin de, INSURANCE, ETC.

far from ; à fleur de, even with; à force de, by dint of; à l'égard 1. When the Three per Cents. are at 89, find the rate per cent. de, with regard to ; à l'insu de, without the knowledge of, unknown received.

to; à raison de, at the rate of; au deçà de, this way of; au delà 2. When the Three and a Half per Cents. are at 92, find the rate per de, that way of ($ 139 (2)]. cent. received.

3. Others take a-quant à, as to; jusqu'à, as far as, etc. 3. When the Four per Cents. are at 96, find the rate per cent. [s 139 (3)). received. 4. Three per Cents, are offered at 90%, Five per Cents, at 150;; in French have a regimen in common, provided they govern in the

4. Two or more verbs, adjectives, or prepositions may in which should one invest? 5. Shares paying an interest of £1 Os. 60, cost 22}; what is the rate

same manner or case. per cent. received? What is the rate per cent. received after a Nous aimons et nous louons nos We love and praise our children, deduction of income tax of 70, in the pound?

enfants, 6. Is it better to invest in the Three per Cents. at 89, or the Three Ce jardin est utile et agréable à That garden is useful and agreeable and a Half per Cents. at 98; ?

notre père,

to our father. 7. When the Three per Cents, are at 86, find what the Three and a Au dedans ou au dehors du roy. Within or without the kingdom. TIalf per Cents. should be at, so that an investment in both should aume, produce the same income.

5. When, however, two or more verbs, adjectives, or preposi8. Find the income derived from investing £2,500 in the Three per tions, coming together in the same sentence, do not govern their Cents. at 86. 9. Find the income derived from investing £1,000 in the Three per common. The regimen must be repeated, or replaced by a pro

regimen in the same manner, they cannot have a regimen in Cents. at 87%, after deducting an income tax of 78. in the pound,

10. What must a person have invested in the Three per Cents. at noun, or another turn must be given to the sentence. The 905, if a transfer of of his capital to the Four per Cents. at 115 would following sentences could not, therefore, be translated literally increase his income by £7?

into French :11. A person invests £5,187 10s, in the Three per Cents. at 83, and That man is useful to and loved by his family-I write to and when the funds have risen to 85 he transfers two-fifths of his capital to receive letters from my brother-To be exposed to or sheltered from the Four per Cents. at 96; find the alteration in his income.

the rain. We must say :12. A person

sells out of the Three and a Half per Cents. at 92. Cet homme est utile à sa famille, That man is useful to his family, and and realises £18,55); if he invests two-fifths of the produce in the Four per Cents, at 96, and the remainder in the Three per Cents. at J'écris des lettres à mon frère, et I write letters to my brother, and re

et il en est aimé,

he is beloved by them. 90, find the alteration in his income. Find also the alteration in the

j'en reçois de lui, per-centage he gets. 13. What is the price of the Three per Cents, when £10,000 will Etre exposé à la pluie, ou en étre To be exposed to the rain, or to be

à l'abri,

sheltered from it. purchase £11,111 2s. 23d. worth of stock? What will be the annual rincome produced ?

Utile and aimé, écrire and recevoir, exposé and à l'abri, take 14. Whon the Three por Cents, are at 874, what must the Three and different regimens. & Quarter per Cents. be at in order that an investment of £1,580 in

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. the latter may produce an income greater than the same sum invested Nous sommes arrivés avant la ba- We arrived before the battle. in the former by £1 18s. 6,0,?

taille. 15. A person buys £500 worth of stock at 981; what must he sell at Vous vous asseyez toujours devant You always sit before me. to gain £21 5s. by the transaction ?

moi. 16. Which is the better investment, bank stock paying 10 per cent. Les avez-vous placés sur la table ? Have you placed them upon the table ! at 319, or Three per Cent, Consols at 96?

Je les ai placés dessous.

I have placed them under. 17. A man invests £4,297 10s. in the Three per Cents. at 95}; he Je les ai mis sous la chaise ou I have put them under the chair or sells out one-third of his stock when the funds have fallen 94,

dessus. £1,600 worth of stock when they have risen to 967, and the remainder Ils demeurent derrière notre mai. They live behind our house. et par. What does he gain ?

18. The income derived from a sum invested in the Three per Cents. J'ai loué une chambre de derrière. I have rented a back room. at 904 differs from that derived from an equal sum in the Fire per Nous occupons le devant de la mai. We occupy the front of the house. Cents. at 150) by £1. Find the sum.

19. A person finds that if he invest a certain sum in railway shares Je les ai recontrés derrière votre I met them behind your garden. paying £6 a share when the £100 share is at 132, he will obtain jardin. £10 168. a-year more for his money than if he invest in the Three per Vous avez acheté cette terre à You have bought that estate vithout Cent. Consols at 93. What sum has he to invest ?

l'insu de votre père.

the knowledge of your father. 20. A person invests £10,000 in the Three per Cents. at 92, and J'ai payé le jardinier à raison de I paid the gardener at the rate of te sells out two-thirds when they have risen 1 per cent, above, and the deux francs par jour.

francs per day. remainder when they have fallen 1 per cent. below, the price at which he bought; he then invests the proceeds in the Four per Cents. at par.

VOCABULARY. Find the change in his income.

Assiette, f., plate. Dessous, under, under | Hors, out.

it. 21. The net income of an estate, after deducting 10d. in the pound Coût-er, 1, to cost.

Plat, m., dish. for income tax and 4 per cent. on the remainder for expenses of col Dedans, inside, within. Dessus, above, upon it. Pomme de terre, 4., lection, is £437. What is the gross rental?

Dehors,outsido,without. S'enrich-ir, 2, to become potato.
Derrière, m., back. rich,

Sur, upon, about.

Devant, m., front. Hectolitre,m.,100 litres. KEY TO EXERCISE IN LESSON XXXVII. (page 47).

EXERCISE 153. 1. £2,

8. £21 8s. 11:33. 14. 238 183. 7 d. 4ff. 2. 416 4s. 83:10. 9. Ratio is 200 : 209–15. £987 138. 57 d.

1. N'avez-vous pas fermé la porte de devant ? 2. Nous 3. £3231

£109 6s. 8d. 16. £1,236 58.5 d. 3!11. l'avons fermée, mais nous n'avons pas fermé la porte de derrière. 4. £436 178. 10:0;d. 10. L293 13s. 4d. 17. £832 4s. 6Hd. 3. Qui est arrivé avant moi ? 4. Le monsieur qui est assis 5. 833 10s. 10,8 d. 11. In 1 year 5's mths. 18. £310 68. 47sa. devant la fenêtre. 5. Qui demeure derrière votre maison? 6. 6. £793 4s. 1134 . 12. 31 per cent. 19. £752 16s. 1,91 d. Il n'y a point de maison derrière la nôtre. 7. Ne pensez-vous *7. £83. 13. £230 78. 10:a. ust. 20. £535 5s, 5301'd.

pas qu'à force de travailler, il s'enrichira ? 8. Je ne crois pas qu'il s'enrichisse, s'il vend ses marchandises à si bon marché.

9. Apprend-il la musique à l'insu de ses parents ? 10. Il l'apLESSONS IN FRENCH.-XLI.

prend à leur insu. 11. Vous êtes-vous marié à l'insu de votre SECTION LXXIX.-GOVERNMENT OF PREPOSITIONS, ETC. sæur? 12. Je me suis marié à son insu. 13. Notre ami n'est ($ 139).

pas dans la maison, il est dehors. 14. Il n'est pas hors de la 1. SOME prepositions govern the nouns which follow them with-ville, il est dedans. 15. Avez-vous de l'argent sur vous ? 16. out the aid of other prepositions. Avant, before (at an earlier Je n'ai pas d'argent sur moi. 17. Demeurez-vous sur le derrière period) [$ 142 (1)]; devant, before opposite place) [§ 142 (1)]; ou sur le devant de la maison ? 18. Nous demeurons sur le

upon it. .

son.

son.

Portu

guose ?

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means,

derant. 19. La cuisinière a-t-elle mis les assiettes sur la table Connaissez-vous ces deux Portu. Do you know these two on dessous ? 20. Elle a mis les assiettes, les plats, les cuillères

gais ? et les fourchettes sur la table. 21. Combien ces pommes de Je connais celui qui parle à M. L. I know him who speaks to Mr. L. terre rous coûtent-elles ? 22. Je les ai achetées à raison de cinq

VOCABULARY. francs l'hectolitre. 23. Avez-vous fait réparer le dedans ou le Appel-er, 1, to call. Connaissance, f., ac-i De temps en temps, dehors de la maison ? 24. J'ai fait réparer l'intérieur et l'ex. A toute force, by all quaintance.

from time to time. térieur.

Expliqu-or,1, to explain. / Numéro (or in abbrevi.
EXERCISE 154.
Avert-ir, 2, to tarn. Guerre, f., war.

ation No), number.

De jour en jour, from Phrase, f., sentence. 1. Have you bought that house without your father's know. Blessure, f., wound.

Combl-er, 1, to over day to day.

Prélud-er, 1, to prelude. ledge? 2. I have bought it without his knowledge. 3. Have

whelm. you forgotten to shut the front door? 4. I have shut the front

EXERCISE 155. door and the back door. 5. I have brought all my books except two or three.

1. Est-ce vous, Madame, qui avez appelé votre domestique ? 6. Does your brother occupy the front of your 2. Ce n'est pas moi qui l'ai appelé. 3. Est-ce vous, mon ami, house? 7. He occupies the back. 8. Whom have you met behind that house ? 9. I met nobody behind the house. 10. qui voulez à toute force aller en Espagne ? 4. Ce n'est pas

5. N'est-ce pas lui qui a averti ce Does that gentleman live behind your house? 11. Nobody lives moi, c'est mon cousin.

6. Ce n'est pas lui, c'est moi qui l'en behind our house. 12. There is no house behind yours. 13. matelot de son danger ?

ai averti. 7. Est-ce nous que vous attendez de jour en jour ? Have you a knife about you ? 14. I have no knife about me.

9. Est-ce vous, 15. Do you carry a knife about you? 16. I never carry a knife 8. Ce n'est pas vous, c'est eux que j'attends.

Madame, qui nous avez comblées de bienfaits ? 10. Ce n'est about me. 17. Has not your brother money about him? 18. He has no money about him. 19. Will you put these pencils pas moi, Madame. 11. N'est-ce pas en Italie que vous avez

fait connaissance avec lui ? 12. Ce n'est pas en Italie ; c'est upon the table, or under it ? 20. I will put them in the

en Russie. 13. Est-ce vous, Mesdames, ou vos cousines que drawer (tiroir). 21. How much have you given for that wheat? 22. I bought it at the rate of twenty-five francs per cousines que vous avez vues.

nous avons vues au bal ? 14. C'est nous, ce n'est pas nos

15. Ne connaissez-vous pas ces hectolitre. 23. Is that lady's house out of the city? 24. It is

deux messieurs? 16. Je connais celui qui parle à Madame L. not out of the city; it is within. 25. Has not your sister 17. Est-ce vous qui avez reçu une blessure à la guerre ? 18. placed the plates upon the table ? 26. She has put the plates

19. N'est-ce pas vous qui upon the table, and the spoons under it. 27. Have

you had ce n'est pas moi, c'est mon voisiu.

nous avez expliqué cette phrase ? 20. Est-ce vous, Monsieur, Four house repaired? 28. I have had the inside repaired, but not the outside. 29. How much does that silk cost you ? 30. I qui demeurez au N° 18? 21. Ce n'est pas moi qui y demeure.

22. Entendez-vous ces musiciens ? 23. J'entends celui qui have bought it at the rate of five francs per metre. 31. Did you chante. 24. Je n'entends pas bien celui qui joue. 25. Nous marry without your father's knowledge ? 32. I married without entendons ceux qui préludent. his knowledge. 33. Have you sold my books without my knowledge ? 34. I sold them without your knowledge. 35. I sold

EXERCISE 156. them without my sister's knowledge.

1. Is it you, my friend, who have warned me of my danger ?

2. It is not I who have warned you of it. 3. Is it they whom SECTION LXXX.-THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN, CE

you expect from day to day ? 4. It is not they whom we ex($ 108).

pect. 5. Is it you who have done this? 6. It is not we; it 1. The pronoun ce answers to the English pronoun it, used is you who have done it. 7. Was it in England that you bought before the verb to be, in such sentences as, it is I, it is thou, etc. this hat? 8. It was not in England; it was in Germany. 9.. The latter pronouns (I, thou, etc.) are rendered by moi, toi, lui, Was it not in Russia that you became acquainted with him ? elle, nous, vous, eux, m., elles, f. The verb remains in the 10. It was not in Russia; it was in Italy. i1. Was it you who singular, except when the pronoun following it is in the third were calling us ? 12. It was not we; it was he. 13. Are you person plural; in which case it may be put in the plural or in not acquainted with the two Poles who are reading ? 14. I the singular ($ 116 (2)]. If the pronoun is followed by qui, know the one who is near you. 15. Is that (est-ce là) the lady the verb is better in the plural, and if followed by que, in the whom you expected ? 16. It is not (she). 17. Is it you, gentlesingular.

men, who have loaded my brother with kindness? 18. It is C'est moi, c'est lai, c'est elle, It is I, it is he, it is she,

not (we), sir; we have not the pleasure of knowing him. 19. Is Ce sont elles qui parlent, It is they who speak.

it you who have been wounded in the (au) arm ? 20. It is not (I). C'est elles que nous cherchons, It is they whom we seek.

21. Do you not hear those two ladies ? 22. I do not hear the

one who sings. 23. hear the one who plays, 24. Was it you 2. If the relative pronoun qui and another verb follow être, who came to our house this morning ? 25. It was not I; I was this second verb must agree in number and person with the pro- in London then (alors). 26. Was it you, sir, who did us that noun preceding the relative.

favour? 27. It was not (I); it was my sister. 28. Was it C'est vous qui avez fait cela, It is you who have done that. your son who wished by all means to go to London ? 29. It C'est nous qui avons déchiré cette It is we who have torn that silk, was not he; he is now in Germany. 30. Is it you who wrote

that letter? 31. We have written no letter. 32. Who lives 3. Ce also renders the English pronoun it, used absolutely, at (au) No. 20 ? 33. I live there (c'est moi). 34. Is it we but not unipersonally, before the verb to be [$ 108 (5)].

whom you have seen? 85. It was not you whom I saw. Ce fut en Allemagne qu'il trouva It was in Germany that he found his son ami, friend.

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN FRENCH. 4. Celui qui, celle qui; ceux qui, m., celles qui, f., are equi

EXERCISE 73 (Vol. I., page 356). valent to the English pronouns he who, she who, they who-celui

1. Are you soon going away ? 2. I am going away next week. que, celle que, ceux que, celles que, render he whom, etc.

& Why do you go away? 4. Because I do not like being here. 5. Do

you like being with your aunt better than being here ? 6. I like it better. Celui ou celle qui chante, He or she who sings.

7. Are you not wrong to go away so soon ? 8. I am right to go away.

9. Do you not rejoice at the misfortunes of others ? 10. We do not RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

at all rejoice at them. 11. Does that man become angry with the Est-ce vons qui nous avez averti Is it you who have warned us oj gardener? 12. He becomes angry with him, because he will not make de cela ? this 1

haste. 13. Does he get angry very often? 14. He gets angry every C'est nous qui vous en avons averti. It is wo who have warned you of it. moment, he gets angry at pothing. 15. Do you never make haste ? Est-ce vous, mesdames, que nous Is it you, ladies, whom we have met ? 16. I always make haste when I have something to do. 17. Do you not avons rencontrées ?

delight in running and playing? 18. I delight in playing, and my Ce n'est pas nous, c'est eux que It is not we; it is they whom you brother delights in reading. 19. Do you rejoice at the arrival of the vous avez vus. have seen.

Turkish ambassador ? 20. I rejoice at it. 21. Do you not like being Ce n'est pas vous, ce sont eux qui It is not you ; it is they who have in America? 22. I like being here much better than being in France. ont fait cela. • done that.

23. Does not your scholar like being at your house ? 24. He likes C'est en Angleterre que je vous It is in England that I have seen you. being with me, but he wishes to return to his father's. 25. Make

haste, it is already noon.

soie,

ai Tu.

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43

EXERCISE 74 (Vol. I., page 356).

votre bourse? 13. Nous l'avons laissée chez le marchand. 14. Avez1. À quelle heure votre ami s'en va-t-il? 2. Il s'en va tous les matins vous acheté les belles gravures que j'ai vues chez votre libraire! 15. à neuf heures. 3. Vous en allez-vous avec lui ?

Je ne les ai pas vues. 16. Votre mère les a-t-elle achetées? 17. Elle

4. Je m'en vais avec lui, quand j'ai le temps. 5. Voulez-vous vous dépêcher de finir votre petite fille a-t-elle cassé mes tasses ? 19. Elle les a cassées exprès,

a acheté des livres, mais elle n'a pas acheté de gravures. 18. Cette lettre? 6. Je me dépêche de la finir. 7. Le jardinier se fache-t-il 20. Cette dame reçoit-elle ses revenus tous les mois? 21. Elle les reçoit contre son frère ? 8. Il se fâche contre lui, quand il ne se dépêche tous les six mois. 22. La maison que vous avez achetée est-elle grande! pas. 9. Dépêchez-vous, mon ami, il est dix heures. 10. Pourquoi ne vous dépêchez-vous pas ? 11. Je me plais à jouer, mais je ne me plais de M. votre père ? 25. J'ai reçu une lettre de lui, il y a quatre jours.

23. Je n'ai pas acheté de maison. 24. Avez-vous reçu hier une lettre pas à étudier. 12. Vous plaisez-vous chez moi? 13. Je m'y plais. 26. Avez-vous parlé à ces dames ! 27. Je leur ai parlé. 28. Leur 14. Vous réjouissez-vous de l'arrivée de votre mère ? 15. Je m'en réjouis. 16. Votre frère n'a-t-il pas tort de s'en aller si tôt ? 17. Il

avez-vous donné des fleurs ? 29. Je leur en ai donné. 30. Les livres a raison de s'en aller, il a beaucoup à faire à la maison. 18. Vous que vous avez achetés, sont-ils reliés? 31. Non, Monsieur, ils sont réjouissez-vous des malheurs d'autrui? 19. Je ne m'en réjouis pas. examinée. 34. Votre frère en a examiné plusieurs.

32. Avez-vous examiné cette maison ? 33. Je ne l'ai pas 20. Je me réjouis de votre succès. 21, M, votre frère ne s'approchet-il pas du feu? 22. Il s'éloigne du feu, il a trop chaud. 23. Cette demoiselle se fâche-t-elle contre vous ? 24. Elle se fâche d'un rien. 25. Vous plaisez-vous à Paris ? 26. Je m'y plais. 27. Pouvez-vous LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.--XXVIII. vous passer de moi aujourd'hui ? 28. Nous ne pouvons nous passer de rous; dépêchez-vous de finir votre ouvrage. 29. Avez-vous besoin TABLE OF LATITUDES AND LONGITUDES OF PLACES IN de votre canif? 30. J'ai besoin de m'en servir. 3i. Dépêchez-vous de

EUROPE. vous lever, il est six heures. 32. Fait-il beau temps? 33. Non, Mon: In the present lesson we continue and bring to a conclusion our sieur, il pleut. 34. M. votre père se porte-t-il bien ce matin? 35. Oui, table of the latitudes and longitudes of places in the Continent Monsieur, il se porte bien.

of Europe. EXERCISE 75 (Vol. I., page 356). 1. Who has told you that? 2. The barrister has told it to me. 3. Have you spoken to him of this affair ? 4. I have not yet spoken

Name of Place. Country, etc. Latitude. Longitude. to him about it. 5. Have you seen him lately? 6. I saw him a few days ago. 7, Did you not write yesterday ? 8. We read and wrote the whole day. 9. Have you not taken off your gloves and shoes?

Needles Lighthouse England.

50° 39' N. 1° 36W. 10. I have not taken off my gloves, but I have taken off my hat. 11. Negropont

Archipelago

38 27 23 36 E. Has not the tailor put on his hat? 12. Yes, Sir, he has put on his Neustadt

Austria

49 16 15 E. hat. 13. What have you done to that little boy? 14. I have done Nevers

France

47

3 9 E. nothing to him. 15. Have you not told him that I am here? 16. I Newark

England.

53

49 W. have not yet told him of it. 17. What have you studied this morning ?

Newbury
England.

51 55 1 20 W. 18. We have studied our lessons, and we have read our books. 19.

Nice
France

43 44 7 14 E. Has the minister's gardener planted the pear-tree? 20. He planted it Nieuport

Belgium.

51 8

44 E. more than eight days ago. 21. Have you bought a black cloth coat? Nimeguen, or Nyme22. I have bought one. 23. Have you worn it to-day? 24. I have

gen
Holland

51 51 5 52 E. not worn it yet. 25. We have put on our shoes and stockings this Nimes, or Nismes France

51 4 21 E. morning.

Nishnii, or Nijni
EXERCISE 76 (Vol. I., page 356).

Novgorod
Russia

56 18

2 E. Nogent-sur-Seine France

48 29 3 30 E. 1. Avez-vous étudié aujourd'hui? 2. Nous n'avons pas le temps Noirmoutier (I. de) France

0

15 W. d'étudier, nous avons lu une page. 3. N'avez-vous pas écrit à mon Nordkyn (Cape) Norway

71 9 27 42 E. frère ? 1. Je ne lui ai pas encore écrit. 5. L'Allemand n'a-t-il pas Nordlingen

Bavaria

48 51 10 29 E. écrit à ma mère ? 6. Il ne lui a pas encore écrit. 7. Avez-vous dit North Cape

Norway

71 12 25 46 E. à ma mère que j'ai pris ce livre ? 8. Je n'ai pas encore vu votre mère. Nottingham. England.

52 57

8W. 9. Qu'avez-vous fait ce matin? 10. Nous n'avons rien fait. 11. Avez- Novara

Italy

45 27

38 E. vous ôté votre habit? 12. Je n'ai pas êté mon habit, il fait trop froid. Novgorod

Russia

58 36 31 17 E. 13. Le libraire a-t-il écrit à votre frère ? 14. Il lui a ecrit il y a long. Nuremberg

Bavaria

49 27 11 5 E. temps. 15. Lai a-t-il écrit il y a un mois ? 16. Il lui a écrit il y a

Oczakow
Russia

46

31 30 E. plus d'un an. 17. Avez-vous planté un poirier ? 18. Nous en avons dessa

Russia

46 28 30 43 E. planté plusieurs. 19. Fait-il trop froid pour planter des arbres? 20. Oldenburg

Germany

53

12 E. Il fait trop chand. 21. Le jardinier, qu'a-t-il fait à votre petit garçon ? Oleron

France

43
12

0 35 E. 22. Il ne ini a rien fait. 23. Quelqu'un lui a-t-il fait quelque chose ?

Omer, St.
France,

50 45

15 E. 24. On ne lui a rien fait. 25, A-t-il quelque chose ? 26. Il n'a rien.

Onega
Russia

63 53 38 4 E. 27. M. votre père a-t-il mis son chapeau noir ? 28. Non, Monsieur, Oporto

Portugal.

41 7 8 33 W. il n'a pas mois son chapeau noir, 29. M. votre frère, qu'a-t-il dit ? 30. Orebro

Sweden

59 16 15 12 E. Il n'a rien dit.

Orel
Russia

52 55 36
EXERCISE 77 (Vol. I., page 371).

Orford Lighthouse. England.

52 6

32 E. 1. Have you brought us our clothes? 2. We have not yet brought

Orleans.
France

1 55 E. Ortegal (Cape) Spain

43 47 them. 3. Have you forgotten them? 4. We have not forgotten them,

53 W. Osnaburg Prussia

52 17

3 E. but we have not had time to bring them. 5. Why have you not called

Ostend the merchants? 6. I have called them, but they have not heard me.

Belgium.

51

2 54 E. Otranto Italy

40

18 7. Have you heard that music? 8. I bave heard it. 9. Have you not

30 E. Oxford England.

51 seen the pretty flowers which I have brought? 10. I have seen them;

16 W. Paderborn Prussia

51 43 to whom have you given them? 11. I have given them to no person,

45 E. Padua Italy

45 23 11 I have kept them for you. 12. Have you examined those engravings

53 E

Palermo. well? 13. I have examined them well. 14. Have you bought them?

Sicily

38 7 13 29 E. Palma, Majorca (I).

39

Mediterranean Sea 15. I have not bought them. 16. Have you not received your income?

35 2 43 E.

42
Pamplona
Spain

50 17. I have not yet received it.

12 W. 18. Has the servant broken these cups?

Paris
France

48 19. She has broken them. 20. Has she broken cups on purpose? 21.

50

90 E.

Parma She has broken none on purpose.

48 Italy

10 19 E. 22. Have you bought bound or

Paros (I.)
Archipelago

37

25 sewed books? 23. I have bought bound books. ' 24. Have you said

11 E. Pavia Italy

45 11 those words to us? 25. We have said them to you, but you have for

9 E. Peniscola Spain

40

0 gotten thom. 26. I have not forgotten your errand.

25 E. Penrith . England.

54 41

45 W. EXERCISE 78 (Vol. I., page 371).

Perekop.
Russia

46

33 40 E. Perigueux Trance

45 11 1. Avez-vous vu mes tasses? 2. Je ne les ai pas encore vues. 3.

Perm
Russia

58

56 39 E. M'avez-vous apporté mes livres? 4. Je ne les ai pas oubliés, je les ai

Perpignan
France

43

2 53 E. laissés chez mon frère. 5. Votre mère a-t-elle appeló vos scars!

Pesaro
Italy

43 55 19 53 E. 6. Elle ne les a pas encore appelées. 7. La domestique vous a-t-elle

Peterborough. England.

52 35 dit cette nouvelle ? 8. Elle m'a dit cette nouvelle. 9. Elle me l'a Petersburg, Si.

0 16 W. Russia

58

80 26 E. dite. 10. Avez-vous oublié ma commission ? 11. Nous ne l'avons

Piacenza,
Italy

45

40 E. pas oubliée, nous avons oublié votre argent. 12. Od avez-vous laissé

2

.

1
8

37

8

8

2

1

7
8

14

8

46

8

1

9

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Latitude.

Longitude.

Country, etc.

Latitude.

Longitude.

Pisa

10

13

48

43

33

48

43

3W.

30

49

Pillan

Prussia Pilsen

Austria Piombino

Italy

Italy Plymouth

England. Poitiers

France Pola

Austria Polotsk.

Russia Poole

England. Portland Lighthouse England. Porto-Vecchio

Corsica Portsmouth

England. Prague

Germany Prosbarg

Hungary Quentin, St.

France Quimper.

France Ramsey (I. of Man). England. Ratisbon

Bavaria Ravenna.

Italy R4 (I. de)

France Rendsburg

Prussia . Rennes

France Revel

Russia Rheims

France Rhodes (I.)

Archipelago Riga

Russia Rimini

Italy Rochefort-sur-Mer France Rochelle

France Rodosto.

Turkey Rome

Italy Ronda

Spain Rotterdam

Holland Roden

France Rogen (I.)

Prussia Ruremonde

Holland. Ripen, or Ribe Denmark Saintes.

France Salisbury

England. Salonika

Turkey Salzbarg

Austria Santander

Spain Sarator.

Russia Sark (I.)

English Channel Schiedam

Holland. Schleswig

Prussia Schmalkalden.

Prussia Schweidnitz

Prussia Schwerin

Germany Sebastien, St. . France Sotuval

Portugal Sheerness

England. Shrewsbury

England. Sienon

Italy Simpheropol

Crimea Shagen (Cape).

DeniNark Sonderburg

Prussia Sonderholm

Denmark Soathampton

England. Spartivento (Cape). Italy

Italy Spires, or Speyer Bavaria Spoleto.

Italy Stade

Prussia Staples, or Fern Lt. England. Start Point

England. Stavanger

Norway. Stockholm

Sweden Stolberg

Saxony Strbane

Ireland Stralsund

Germany Strasbourg

France Strelitz

Germany Stromboli (I.).

Mediterranean Sea Stromness

Orkneys. Stattgart

Würtemburg Sanderland

England. Swansea.

Wales Syracuse

Sicily
Tugaurog

Russia
Tambor

Russia
Tarifa (L.)

Spain

Spain
England.
Russia
Prussia
Wales
Archipelago
Italy
Sicily
Sweden
Italy
Spain
France
France
Belgium.
France
Spain
Sicily
Austria
Prussia
Austria
Greece , .
France
Würtemburg
Russia
England.
Italy
Russia
England.
Italy
Würtemburg
Sweden
Sweden
Russia
Italy
France
Holland
Spain
Malta
Turkey
France
Italy
Holland
Prussia
France
Italy
France
Italy
Austria
Spain
Austria
Spain
Portugal.
France
Russia
Russia
England.
Prussia

.

54° 40' N. 19° 56' E. 49 45 13 23 E.

55 10 31 E. 43 43

23 E. 50 22 4 9W. 46 34 0 22 E.

53 13 52 E. 55 29 28 47 E. 50

1

59 W. 50 31 2 27 W. 41 35 9 15 E. 50

1

6W. 50 5

26 E. 48 8 17 10 E. 49 50 3 17 I. 48 0

4W. 54 19 4 23 W. 49 1 12 6 E.

25 12 12 E. 46 11 1 25 W. 54

18 9 40 E, 48 6

1 40 W. 59 27 24 49 E. 49 15

2 E. 36 10 28 OE. 56 57 24 3 E.

3 12 33 E. 45 56 0 57 W. 46 9

1 9W. 0 27 31 E. 41 54 12 29 E. 36 49 5 18 E. 51 55

29 E. 49 26

1 6 E. 54 30 13 30 E. 51 12

5 59 E. 55 19 8 46 E, 45

0 38 W, 51 4

1 48 W. 38 22 56 E. 47 48 13 3 E. 43 30

3 51 W. 51 31 46 0 E. 49 27 2 22 W. 51 54

24 E. 54 31

9 34 E. 50 43 10 28 L. 50 50 16 28 E. 53

38 11 25 E. 23

1 33 E. 38 32 8 55 E.

27 0 45 E. 52 43

41° 8' N. 1° 12' E. 51 2

8 7W. 47 23 40 17 L. 52

7 49 E. 51 41

42 W. 39

26 41 17 13 17 E 37 3 14 16 E. 67

22 19 E. 53 8 52 I. 40 50 0 30 E.

7 5 56 E.

36 1 27 E. 50 37

3 22 E 47 23 0 42 E. 36 11

6 38 3 12 32 E. 46 4 11 7 E. 49

6 38 E. 45 39 13 47 E. 37

22 22 E. 48 18 4 4 E, 48 31

3 I. 54 11

41 E. 51 12 0 17 E. 45 3

7 41 1. 56 50 35 59 E. 55

1 26 W. 46 4 13 13 E 48 24 9 59 I. 69

20 9 59 49 17 38 E. 51 16

51 28 E. 43 43 12 38 E. 48 28 5 3W. 52

5 5 7 E. 39 29 0 24 W. 35 54 14 31 E. 40 20 19 26 E. 47 41 2 45 W. 45 26 12 18 E. 51 22

6 10 2. 56 9 12 I. 49 10

5 22 E. 45 26 11 0 I. 48 47 2 7 D. 45 32 11 32 I. 48 13 16 22 E. 42 14 8 41 W. 46 37 13 50 E. 41 51

5 26 W.

9 OW. 29

4 41 E. 59 12 39 56 E. 46

33 28 E. 53 42 1 30 W. 51 12

9 4 E.

40

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Name of Place.

2 46 W. 43 20 11 19 E. 56

5 E. 57 43 10 38 E.

54 9 47 E. 57 0

9 42 E. 50

54 1 23 W. 37 58 16 6 E.

6 9 48 E. 49 18

8 26 E. 42

12 44 E. 53 36 9 27 E. 55 38 1 37 W. 50 13 3 38 W. 59 0 5 39 E. 59 17 18 SE. 50 42 12 47 E. 54 49 7 27 W. 54 20 13 5 E. 48 36 7 42 E. 53 20 13 3 E. 38

15 13 E. 58 57 8 17 W. 48

10 E. 54 54 1 23 W. 51 37

3 57 W. 37 3 15 15 E. 47 13 38 56 E. 52 41 41 80 E. 36 1 5 87 W.

Tarragona
Taunton
Tcherkask
Tecklenburg
Tenby
Tenedos (I.)
Terraciza
Terranova
Torneafors
Tortona
Tortosa
Toulon
Toulouse,
Tournay.
Tours
Trafalgar (Cape)
Trapani
Trent
Treves, or Trier
Trieste
Tripolitza
Troyes
Tübingen
Tula
Tunbridge
Turin
Tver
Tynemouth
Udine
Ulm
Umea
Upsala
Uralsk
Urbino
Ushant (I.)
Utrecht,
Valencia,
Valetta
Valona
Vannes
Venice
Venlo
Verden
Verdun
Verona
Versailles
Vicenza.
Vienna
Vigo
Villach
Villalpando
Vincent, Cape St.
Viviers
Vologda.
Voronetz
Wakefield
Waldeck
Wardhuus, or Var.

dohuus
Warrington
Warsaw.
Weimar.
Wesel
Whitehaven
Wiborg, or Viborg .
Wiborg, or Viborg .
Wicklow
Wilna
Winchester
Windsor
Wittenberg
Wolfenbüttel
Wolverhampton
Workington
Worm:
Wurzburg
York
Ypres
Zante (I.)
Zurich
Zutphen
Zywiec

53 . 20 55 E. 8

33 E. 6 12 E. 19 12 E

52

.

GEOMETRICAL PERSPECTIVE.-VI.

give the perspective height of the pyramid. Complete the in.

clined edges as in Fig. 34. (Observe, we might have drawn ef PROBLEM XV. (Fig. 34).- A square pyramid 4 feet side and 6 not parallel to the side of the square; in that case we should feet high, one edge of the base at an angle of 60° with the pic- have been compelled to find another vanishing point; therefore ture plane, and the nearest angle 1 foot within the picture. The to save extra work we draw it parallel to the side of the square, base of the pyramid must be treated as the square in Problem so that we may make use of the VP of that side. Definition X., Fig. 25, Vol. II., page 361; after which draw the diagonals in 13, Vol. II., page 162.) the perspective projection, namely, ab and cd; their intersection PROBLEM XVI.-A cone 4 feet diameter and 6 feet high. This will determine the perspective of the centre e, from which erect al will be done from almost the same directions as the pyramid. Look perpendicular e f; this will

back to Problem XII., Fig. be the axis of the pyramid.

31, Vol. III., page 9, where we From DEdraw a line through

have the perspective of a circle. the centre of the base to the

Now the base of the cone, picture plane at g, from

being a circle, must be treated which draw the line of con

Fig. 34,

in the same way.

To draw tact, and upon it from g set

the elevation, draw a perpenoff the given height of the

dicular line, the line of conpyramid g h. Draw the re

tact from d or b (Fig. 31); tiring line from h to DE', and

th

mark off upon this line the at the point where this inter

given height, and from that sects the axis e f will be found

point draw a line to the rethe perspective height of the

spective vp; thus, if the line pyramid, namely, at i. Draw

of contact is from d, DER will lines from the angles a, b, c, d

be its VP; a perpendicular to i, to represent the inclined DE 1

line drawn from the centre of edges of the pyramid ; this

the circle to cut this vanishwill complete the problem.

ing line will be the axis, and If we place the ground plan

the point of intersection will beyond the picture plane (Fig.

mark the apex, from which 35) we must proceed as fol

draw lines to o and p for the lows: Place the plan with

sides of the cone.

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Sip

SP the PP, as required by the question, and produce two of the PROBLEM XVII. (Fig. 36).- A cylinder 4 feet diameter and 8 parallel sides to the PP, to be continued

perpendicularly to the feet high stands on its end ; the eye is opposite half the height base of the picture, from which draw the retiring lines to the of the cylinder. In working this problem we prefer placing VP, Visual rays from each angle of the plan, cutting the retiring the plan beyond the PP, it being necessary to draw a circle for lines, will give the positions of the angles of the square. This cach end of the cylinder, therefore the same perpendicular lines method of using only one vp has been fully explained in Les- drawn from the plan will answer for both. It will be seen that son V.; we trust the pupil will make himself master of it, as when these perpendiculars have reached the base of the picture we shall have to employ it very frequently. For the elevation, cther lines are drawn from them to the Ps, and the circle is diagonals may be drawn and the subject completed as in drawn by hand as in Fig. 31, Vol. III., page 9. For the upper circle, Fig. 34; but we will show another way, and draw the diagonals a b is drawn horizontally across the perpendiculars according to in the ground plan which give the centre e. Draw ef parallel the height of the cylinder, and the same process with regard to to the side of the square, and the perpendicular line fg, the the circle is followed as in the one for the base ; lastly, lines line of contact. Upon f g mark the given height of the pyra- c, d, drawn tangential to the outer edges of the circles, will give mid g h, and from h draw a line to VP; a visual ray drawn from the

sides of the cylinder. the centre e of the plan, cutting the line from h to the VP, will PROBLEM XVIII. (Fig. 37).- To draw the perspective represent

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