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tation of an incline. A rod 5 feet long is inclined to the hori- observe that as his knowledge and confidence increase he should, son 40°. The plan of the rod is 50° with the picture plane, when he repeats the problems, take other angles and other the nearest end 1 foot from it. In this case the vanishing scales of proportion. This kind of repetition will be of great point of the plan of the rod must be found, and

service to him.) We must first show the orthonot that of the rod itself. We intend in a future

graphic projection of the board (Fig. 38), 'and lesson to show how the vanishing point for an

then apply it to the perspective projection. When incline may be found without a plan, giving only

the board is horizontal, or laid upon the ground, the dimensions and positions, and the method of

the plan will be a square, a b cd; but if we raise asing it; but for the present turn back to Problem

the side a c, allowing the edge bd to remain upon IV., Fig. 14 (Vol. II., page 297), where the same sub

the ground, it would then be inclined to the horizon ject is shown in orthographic projection; the rod

as represented by the line or edge of the board., is there placed at a given angle with the ground,

e f; drop a perpendicular from f, then the ay, and perpendiculars are drawn from the ex

plan is projected by a b c d. Observe, if the tremities between

edge of the board which the line a b,

were still further elethe plan, is drawn.

vated, the plan would Now we must first

become narrower, project the rod orFig. 36.

that is, a' c would thographically in or

approach b d. When der to determine the

the board becomes plan preparatory to

perpendicular to the drawing it perspec

ground, then the plan tively. An indefinite

would be a line only line a b must be

(see the observations drawn at an angle of

made upon the circle, 500 with the picture

Figs.10 and11, Lesson plane; c is the point

III., Vol.II.,page297). where the rod touches

We will now proceed the ground, draw ce

with the perspective 5 feet long at an

projection of the angle of 40° with

board as given in the ab; draw e d per.

question; it is there pendicularly to a b;

stated that the edge cd will then be the

of the board is inplan of the rod; com

clined at 500 with plete the perspective

the PP;

therefore representation of cd,

draw an indefinite which will be f g (see

line de at that angle, Fig. 7, Legson II.,

make d. 6 equal to the Vol. II., page 225).

length of a side, and This last observation 18

at a right angle with refers to the perspec

de; this is the edge tive only of the plan;

upon which it rests, we must now repre

and is horizontal; sent the rod in its

Fig. 39.

draw bh parallel to inclined position. As

de; draw bf at an one end of the rod is

angle of 48° with on the ground, and

bh, and make it the other above it,

equal to bd; froma our attention must be

s draw perpendicudirected to the ele

larly to bh the line vated end, because

50d

V

fa' c', we shall then the lower end is al

have in the paralleloready found in g. It

gram a' cbd the must be evident, on

plan of the board turning once more to

at the given inclinaFig. 7, that the line

tion. The angle a f gis the perspective

of the board touches of the line d c; and VP

the picture plane, since the line dc is

therefore d is a point the plan of the given

of contact; also the line e c, therefore e

line b a' is produced must be perpendicu

to the picture plane larly over d. The

at m; d u and mo question now comes

are lines of contact to this : how far above d? We answer,

upon each of which the height of the inclilength of d e, which must be set off on the

nation of the board a'f is set off as o p and line of contact, namely, h i. From i draw a

up; from the points p, p draw lines to the vp. line to the VP, and the point m where the line

Visual rays cutting these lines will give the from i to vp cuts the visual ray from d will

upper angles of the board, q s; utsr will determine the position of the upper end of the

be the perspective view of the board. rod; join mg, which will be the perspective

After this, we recommend the pupil to apply representation of the rod.

s'p the same directions and angles of inclination PROBLEM XIX. (Fig. 39).- A square board

in representing an equilateral triangle, making is inclined to the horizon at an angle of 48°; one edge is hori- the edge equal to db at 40° with the PP ; bf, the inclination, will zontal, the plan of the inclined edge of the board is 500 with the be equal to a perpendicular from the centre of the base to the picture plane; length of side 6 feet. The scale may be either opposite angle, placed in the plan half way between d'a'. To find 4 feet ar 2 feet to the inch. We give the pupil the choice, and the perpendicular, the triangle must be separately constructed.

Fig. 38.

the

PRESENT TENSE.

or

or

LESSONS IN LATIN.-XXVIII.

erant quum milites a duce e castris in aciem oducti sunt. 10. Metuebamus ne urbs ab hostibus obsidione cincta esset.

11. Deus pie REGULAR VERBS.--THE THIRD CONJUGATION. colitor, 12. Leges divinæ ne contemnuntor.

13. Sapientes semper PASSIVE VOICE.

ratione regi student. 14. Pueri probe excolendi sunt. 15. Ne vinci EXAMPLE.--Légor, 3, I am read.

tor cupiditatibus. 16. Non eris dives nisi divitiae a te contempta

erunt. 17. Contemnens voluptates, diligēris. 18. Quoad literis honos Chief Parts : Légor, lectus sum, lègi. Characteristic lotter, E short.

erit, Græci et Latini scriptores in scholis legentur,

EXERCISE 99.-ENGLISH-LATIN. Indicative. Subjunctive. Imperative. Infinitive. Participle.

1. My mind will be cultivated. 2. My brother's mind has been cul. Sing. Lègor, Legar. [lėgitor. Login Legëris.

tivated. 3. If thy mind is well cultivated, thou wilt be loved. 4. Legäris. Légère or Legitur.

Riches are despised by the wise. 5. Riches will be despised by me. Legatur. Legitor. Plu. Legimur.

6. Riches will have been despised by my father. 7. Let riches be Legamur. [lėgiminor. Legimini. Legamini. Lögimini or

despised by thee, my son. 8. He strives (studet) to be governed by

reason. 9. The boy must be well cultivated. 10. Let the boy be well Leguntur. Legantur. Leguntor.

cultivated. 11. I have taken care that pleasures should be despised IMPERFECT TENSE.

by my children. 12. The Latin writers are read in my school. 13. II Sing. Legibar. Legérer.

thou livest well, thou wilt be loved by good men. 14. I fear riches Legebäris (e). Legerēris.

will (may) not be despised by thee. 15. Many wars have been carried Legebatur. Legeretur.

on by the English. 16. The city was burnt by the enemies. Plu. Legebamur. Legeremur. Legebamini. Legeremini,

THE FOURTH CONJUGATION.
Legebantur, Legerentur.

ACTIVE VOICE.
FIRST FUTURE TENSE.

EXAMPLE.-Audio, 4, I hear.
Sing. Légar.

Chief Parts : Audio, aūdīvi, auditum, audire. Characteristic letter, I long. isegëris (e). Lectum Legendus.

PRESENT TENSE. Legetur.

[iri. Plu. Legemur.

Indicative. Subjunctive. Imperative. Infinitive. Participle. Legemini.

Sing. Audro. Añdiam. [audito. Audire. Audiens. Legentur.

Audis. Audias. Audi
PERFECT TENSE,

Audit. Audiat. Audito.
Sing. Lectus sum. Lectus sim,

Lectum Lectus.

Plu. Audimus. Audiamus. [auditóte. Lectus es. Lectus sis.

[esse.

Auditis. Audiatis. Audīte Lectus est. Lectus sit.

Audiunt. Audiant. Audiunto. Plu. Lecti sumus. Lecti simus.

IMPERFECT TENSE. Lecti estis. Lecti sitis.

Sing. Audiobam. Audirem. Lecti sunt. Lecti sint.

Audiebas. Audires,

Audiebat. Audiret.
PLUPERFECT TENSE.

Plu. Audiebamus, Audirēmus.
Sing. Lectus eram. Lectus essem.

Audiebatis. Audiretis.
Lectus eras. Lectus esses.

Audiebant. Audirent.
Lectus erat. Lectus esset.
Plu. Lecti eramus. Lecti essemus.

FIRST FUTURE TENSE.
Lecti eratis. Lecti essetis.

Sing. Audiām

Auditurum Auditürus, Lecti erant. Lecti essent.

Audiēs.

[esse.

Audiét.
SECOND FUTURE TENSE.

Plu. Audiēmus.
Sing. Lectus ero.

Audietis. Lectus eris.

Audiont. Lectus erit.

PERFECT TENSE.
Plu. Lecti erimus.

Sing. Audivi.
Audi(v)&rim.

Audi()isse.
Lecti eritis.

Audi(v)īsti. Audi(v)eris. Lecti erunt.

Audivit. Audi(v)erit, Instances.- In this way conjugate in full, agor, agi, actum Plu. Audivimus. Audi(v) Erimus. esse, I am driven ; regor, regi, rectum esse, 'I am ruled; and

Audi(v) Istis. Audi(v)eritis,

Audi(v)ērunt. Audi(v)erint. dividor, divỉdi, divisum esse, I am divided. By conjugating verbs in full after the models given in our lessons, the self-teacher

PLUPERFECT TENSE. will gain facility in recognising and determining the different Sing. Audi(v)ɛram. Audi(v)issem. tenses of the different moods of Latin verbs of the four con

Audi(v)eras. Audi(v)isses.

Audi(v)erat. Audi(v)isset. jugations, both in the active and passive voice, at sight. The

Plu. Audi(v)erāmus. Audi(v)issēmus. vocabularies given in the different lessons will supply the student

Audi(v)eratis. Audi(v)issetis. with abundant examples for practice.

Audi(u)erant. Audi(v)issent.
VOCABULARY.
Conspicio, conspicere, Dives, divitis, rich, a Quidam, quædam,

Sing. Audi(v)ero. conspexi, conspec- rich man.

quoddam, certain.

Audi(v)eris. tum, 3, I behold. Divitiæ, -arum, pl., f.,' Quoad, adv., as long as.

Audi(v)erit. Contemno, contem- richos.

Plu. Audi(v)erimus.

Schola, -æ, f., a school. nere,contempsi, con- Educo, 3, I lead out. Scriptor, - ris, m.,

Audi(v)eritis. temptum, 3, I de Honos, -oris, m.,

Audi(v)erint.

writer (E. R. scripspise, contemn. honour. ture). GERUNDS.

SUPINES. Curæ mihi est, it is an Pie, piously, reli. Societas, -ātis, f., rela

Gen. Audiendi.

1. Auditum. object of care to me, giously.

tionship

R.

Dat. Audiendo. or I take pains that. Probe, honestly, ercel- society).

Acc. Audiendum.
Detogo, detegere, de- lently.

Vix, scarcely.
Abl. Audiendo.

2. Auditu,
texi, detectum, 3, I Que, and; this comes Voluptas, -&tis, f.,
uncover, detect, lay after the word, is

Instances. According to the example, form finio, 4, I finish;

pleasure, delight. open. voluptasque.

haurio, hausi, haustum, haurire, 4, I draw up, I drink. EXERCISE 98.—LATIN-ENGLISH.

VOCABULARY. 1. Pater curat ut ego strenue escolar. 2. Curo ut puer bene exco- Antequam, before that. | Expedio, 4, with the Lenio, 4, I soften, soothe. latur. 3. Pater curabat ut puer bene excoleretur. 4. Curæ mihi est Corona, -, f., e crown, reflective pronoun, Membranum, -i., 1., a ut a te diligar. 5. Conjuratio Catilinæ a Cicerone detecta est. 6. chaplet. (guard. I prepare.

! leaf, or covering. Tria bella atrocissima gesta sunt inter Romanos et Carthaginienses. Custodio, 4, I keep, Garrio, 4, I chatter. Munio, 4, I fortify. 7. Labor voluptasque naturali quadam societate inter se juncta sunt. Dormio, 4, I sleep. Lacedæmonii, -orum, Navigo, 1, I sail (E. E. 8. Multæ urbes ab hostibus combustæ sunt. 9. Vix hostes conspecti Esurio, 4, I am hungry. m., the Spartans. I navigate).

SECOND FUTURE TENSE,

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Obedio, 4, I obey, go- Prodest, he benefits. Specto, 1, I regard (id

EXERCISE 102.-LATIN-ENGLISH. verns the dative(obe- Punio, 4, I punish. spectant, have this

1. Pater curat ut filius bene erudiatur. 2. Pater curabat ut filius diemtis, syncopated Simulac, as soon as. object).

bene erudiretur. 3. Cives metuant ne castra ab hostibus ante urbem for obedireratis). Sitio, 4, I thirst (sitie- Tenuis, -e, thin.

muniantur. 4. Oculi tenuissimis membranis vestiti sunt. 5. Quum Paris, -étis, m., a wall. runt is a syncopated Vestio, 4, I clotho (E. rex urbem intrabat, omnium civium domus coronis et floribus vestite Placio, 2, I please. form for sitiverunt). I R, vest).

et ornatæ sunt. 6. Non prius dormiemus quam negotia vestra finita EXERCISE 100.--LATIN-ENGLISH.

erunt. 7. Simulac castra munita erunt, milites se ad pugnam expe

dient. 8. Metuebamus ne urbs ab hostibus obsidione cincta esset. 1. Milites per totum diem sitierunt et esurierunt. 2. Natura 9. Imprðbi puniuntur. 10. Bonus discipulus literarum cognitione oculos tenuissimis membranis vestivit. 3. Cur domus vestræ parietes erudiri stadet. 11. Urbs, obsidione cincta, multis malis punitur. coronis oraavistis et vestivistis? 4. Præceptoribus vestris placueratis, 12. Vir eruditus non solum sibi sed etiam aliis prodest. 13. Paeri quis semper præceptis eorum obedieratis. 5. Vix milites nostri castra diligenter erudiendi sunt. muniverant, quum Cæsar aciem instruxit. 6. Non prius dormiemus quam negotia nostra finierimus. 7. Quum milites castra muniverint,

EXERCISE 103.-ENGLISH-LATIN. ad pugnam se expedient. 8. Cavete, pueri, ne garriatis. 9. Lacedæ

1. They are guarded. 2. The city is guarded. 3. The city will be moniorum leges id spectant ut laboribus erudiant juventutem. 10. guarded. 4. The city has been guarded. 5. I take care that the Nemo dubitabat quin pueros semper custodivisses. 11. Narrate mihi city is (may be) guarded. 6. No one doubts that the city is well qua consolatione ægrum amici animum leniveritis. 12. Nescio cur guarded. 7. The citizens ought to guard the city. 8. Why do not pogrum puniveritis. 13. Non dubitabam quin præcepta mea memoria

the citizens guard the city? 9. I know not why the citizens do not castodirissetis. 14. Ne garritote, filiæ. 15. Venio te rogatum ut guard the city. 10. I fear the citizens may not guard the city. 11. mecum ambules. 16. Milites urbem custodire debent. 17. Sapientia They have prepared for the fight. 12. The walls of the house have est ars videndi. 18. Obediendum est præceptis virtutis. 19. Ars been clothed with flowers. navigandi utilissima est. EXERCISE 101.- ENGLISH-LATIN.

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN LATIN.-XXVII. 1. They thirsted. 2. I shall be hungry. 3. Thou will not obey my

EXERCISE 94.--LATIN-ENGLISH. precepts. 4. The boys chatter. 5. They have not obeyed their father.

1. I am exercised. 2. Thou art exercised. 3. He is exercised. 4. 6. I know not why they have not obeyed their father. 7. No one doubts that good boys obey their father. 8. He kept my words in I was exercised. 5. Thou wast exercised. 6. He was exercised.

I shall be exercised. 8. You will be exercised. 9. He will be exermemory. 9. I shall take care that thou keepest (mayost keep) my

cised. 10. Father takes care that I am well exercised. 11. The words in memory. 10. They come to fortify the city. 11. The art of writing is useful. 12. They adorn the walls of their house with chap. I take care that the

boy is well exercised. 14. The father took care

ditch is filled up. 12. I take care that you are well exercised. 13. leta. 13. I shall not sleep until (before that) I have (shall have) that his son was well exercised. 15. I took care that you were well inished my business. 14. Hast thou finished thy business? 15. He exercised, 16. I took care that your daughter was well exercised. wa punishing the boy when I entered the school.

17. Who knows not how our minds are increased by excellent fruits THE FOURTH CONJUGATION.

in the pursuit of learning ? 18. We fear that our army will (may) be

conquered by the enemies. 19. All the citizens feared that the city PASSIVE VOICE.

would be surrounded with a blockade (blockaded) by the enemies. EXAMPLE.---Audior, 4, I am heard.

20. When we are exercised in letters, our minds are increased by

the knowledge of many useful things. 21. When we are frightened Cid Parts : AQdior, audītus sum, audiri. Characteristic letter, 1 long. by a sudden danger, we ought not forthwith to despair of safety. 22. PRESENT TENSE.

The honour of virtue will be blotted out by no forgetfulness. 23. Indicative,

24. The boys have been strenuously exercised in the study of letters. Subjunctive. Imperative. Infinitive. Participle.

We feared that the city had been surrounded by a blockade by the 8.ng. Audior. Audiar.

[auditor. Audiri.

enemies. 25. I fear that the soldiers have been frightened by a sudden Audiris. Audiaris. Audire or

danger. 26. Let the boy be strenuously exercised. 27. Bo not de Auditur. Audiatur. Auditor,

terred from the design by the difficulties of things. 28. Good scholars Ple, Audimur. Audiamur. [audiminor.

endeavour to be exercised in the study of letters. 29. A boy well Audimini. Audiamini. Audimini or

educated pleases all. 30. The enemies being terrified remain in the Audtuntur. Audiantur, Audiuntor.

camp. 31. Boys ought to be strenuously exercised. IMPERFECT TENSE. Sing. Audiébar, Audirer.

EXERCISE 95.-ENGLISH-LATIN. Audiebāris (e). Audirēris.

1. Pueri strenue exercentur. 2. Strenue exercentor pueri, 3. Audiebatur. Audiretur.

Pueri strenue exercendi sunt. 4. Pueri strenue exercebuntur. 5. Pls. Audiebanrur. Audiremur.

Strenue exercentur pueri. 6. Pueri strenue exercebantur. 7. Pueri Andiebamini. Audiremini,

strenue exerciti sunt. 8. Pueri strenue exerciti erunt. 9. Caro ut Audiebantur. Audirentur,

pueri strenue exerceantur, 10. Curabam ut pueri strenue exercerentur. FIRST FUTURE TEXSE,

11. Mew sorores strenue exercitæ sunt. 12. Puella strenue exercita Sing. Audiar.

'Auditum Audiendus. erit. 13, Metuo ne urbs obsidione cingatur. Audiëris.

[iri.

EXERCISE 96.-LATIN-ENGLISH.
Audietur.
Plu. Audiemur.

1. We have led. 2. Thou hast led. 3. Thou leadest. 4. I was Audiemini.

leading. 5. He will lead. 6. He may lead. 7. While I was painting, Audientur.

thou wast writing, and brother was reading. 8. The enemies were PERFECT TENSE.

forming a line of battle. 9. As long as you live, you will live well. Sing. Auditus sum. Audītus sim.

Audītum Auditus. 10. If you cultivate virtue, good men will lore you. 11. The enemies Auditus es, Audibus sis.

[csse.

formed a line of battle. 12. The enemies will draw up their line of Auditus est. Auditus sit.

battle. 13. We have written many letters (of the alphabet) to-day. Prime Auditi sumus, Auditi simus.

14. The enemies carried on a most frightful war. 15. Cæsar had Auditi estis. Auditi sitis.

drawn up in line of battle. 16. As soon as we have written the Auditi sunt. Auditi sint.

letters, we will walk. 17. I take care that I cultivate the minds of

boys. 18. I took care that the teacher cultivated the mind of my son. PLUPERFECT TENSE,

19. No one doubts that I have always diligently corrected the boy. eng, Auditus eram. Audītus essem.

20. We fear that the enemies have burnt the city. 21. No one doubts Auditus eras. Auditus esses.

that the enemies will surround the city with a blockade (will blockade Auditus erat. Auditus esset.

the city). 22. Tell us what your parents have written. 23. Let him Piel Auditi eramus. Auditi essemus.

write. 24. Learn, o boy. 25. Good boys learn willingly. 26. The Auditi eratis, Auditi essetis.

soldier, bravely defending himself against enemies, is praised. 27. Auditi erant. Auditi essent.

We ought to restrain our desires.
SECOND FUTURE TENSE.
Eng. Anditus ero.

EXERCISE 97.-ENGLISH-LATIN.
Anditus eris.

1. Urbem defendi. 2. Milites urbem defendebant. 3. Urbem deAnditus erit.

fendent. 4. Urbem defenderunt. 5. Scribebant. 6. Ille literas Par Anditi erimus,

scripsit. 7. Nemo dubitat quin tu bonas literas scripturus sis. 8. Auditi eritis.

Cura ut literas scribas. 9. Præceptor curat ut discipuli bonas literas Auditi erunt.

scribant. 10. Hodie literas scripsi. 11. Hostes aciem instruent. 12.

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Milites urbem combusserunt. 13, Literas legi, quas scripsisti. 14.

THE ALPHABET OF NATURE. Metuo ne hostes urbem obsidione cincturi sint. 15. Corrige illum 2. Phonography is based upon an analysis of the English spoken puerum. 16. Præceptor curabit ut discipulos corrigat. 17. Narra language. Its consonants and vowels are arranged so as to show, as far mihi, quid patri dixeris. 18. Cupiditates coerceto. 19. Cupiditates as possible, their mutual relations. In the consonants, p stands first, coercere debemus. 20. Puer coercens cupiditates amatur. 21. Strenue next b; the rest follow in perfectly natural order, first the mute or exanimum cole, mi fili!

plosive letters, proceeding from the lips to the throat; then the semi

vocals, or continuants, in the same order; and lastly the basals, LESSONS IN SHORTHAND.-II.

liquids, coalescents, and aspirate. Scarcely more than half the conso

nants are essentially different; the articulations in the pairs p and 6, t EXPLANATION OF TERMS.

and d, f and v, etc., are precisely the same, but the sound is, so to speak, 1. PHONETICS (from own, phònë, voice,) the things relating to light in the first, and heavy in the second letter of each pair. The conthe voice: the science which treats of the different sounds of the sonants in each pair are represented by strokes in the same position, and human voice, and their modifications. The style of spelling in of the same shape, but that chosen for the second is written thick, inaccordance with this science is named PHONETIC; the common stead of thin; thus, p. \6, 11, 1 d,

fi L 0, etc.; and style, such as is used in this book, being called Romanic, because it thus, not only is the memory not burdened with a multitude of signs, is formed from an alphabet derived from that which was used by the but the mind perceives that a thin stroke corresponds with a light Romans. PhonogʻRAPHY, (from phòně, voice, and ypaon, graphê, writing,) \f, th(in), s, sh, are called light, or sharp consonants, and

f, th(in), 8, sk,

articulation, and a thick stroke with a heary articulation. P, 1, k, the art of representing spoken sounds by written sigas; also the style

are further denominated whispered, or breathed consonants ; while of writing in accordance with this art. Phonor'YPY, (from phõnē, voice, and Tutos, tūpos, type,) the art nants.' The difference is that in the flat letters (b, d, g, etc.) a vocal

b, d, g, v, th(en), z, zh, are heavy, flat, spoken, or murmured consoof representing sounds by printed characters or types ; also the style murmur is added to the action of the organs by which the sharp letof printing in accordance with this art. or mark, indicating a certain sound, or modification of sound; as ligaments in the larynx or muscular sound-box in the windpipe, PHO'NOGRAM, (from ypauuu, gramma, letter,) a written letter ters (P, t, k, etc.,) are produced. The vocal murmur” which makes

p into b, t into d, etc., is produced by the vibration of two vocal ah, \ p.

which lies behind the bony projection in the throat called Adam's PHO'NOTYPE, a printed letter, or sign, indicative of a particular apple, or pomum Adami. The light sounds are also called surds, sound, or modification of sound; as, 0, o (in so, snow); P, p. while all the other letters (including m, n, ng, l, r, u, y, and

LOGʻOGRAM, (from Royos, logos, word,) a word-letter; a phono- the vowels,) are called sonants. Ch and i are double consonants, gram, that, for the sake of brevity, represents a word; as I t, which formed by the union of t, sh, and d, zh, as may be heard in fetch, represents it.

cheap; edge, jem. They are placed in the alphabet, next to t, d, the GRAM'MALOGUE, a letter-word; a word represented by a logogram; first elements of these compound consonants. The vowels are aras it, represented by t.

ranged naturally in two series, guttural and labial. Each series PARA'SEOGRAM, a combination of shorthand letters representing a sented by light dots and strokes

, and the corresponding long sounds

commences with the most open sound. The short vowels are reprephrase or sentence. The terins art and SCIENCE should be used in accordance with phy, the heavy strokes and dots are made without any perceptible

by heavy ones. After a few weeks' practice in writing Phonograthe following definitions :-a science consists of general principles effort ; they are traced by the pen, with as much facility as their corthat are to be known ; an art, of practical rules for something that responding heavy sounds are produced by the organs of speech. is to be done. Hence we speak of the art of Phonography, and of the science of Phonetics on which it is based.

DIRECTIONS FOR PRACTICE.

3. The student of Phonography will find no difficulty in acquiring THE PHONOGRAPHIC ALPHABET.

a knowledge of this useful art, if he will practise according to the Consonants.

following directions :-He should first obtain a knowledge of the ĐXPLODENTS.

sounds of the Phonographic Alphabet, by pronouncing them aloud ; CONTINUANTS.

and then learn the signs by which these sounds are represented. P

B
F

V

This is most effectually done by writing each character several times, and pronouncing its name aloud at the same time.

4. The following Exercises are to be read, and afterwards copied т D

into a book made of ruled paper. The pupil need not read through CH/ /

the whole lesson before he commences writing, but when he has J S ) ) z

read an Exercise, (that is, pronounced to himself the shorthand let

ters or words of which it is composed,) he should write it several K G SH, ZH times, until he can form the characters neatly and accurately. A 3d.

or 6d. “Phonographic Copy-Book” may be obtained of Mr. F. Pitman,

20, Paternoster Row, London, or of Mr. Isaac Pitman, Phonetic
M
N
NG

Institute, Bath, or it may be ordered through any bookseller. As a

child learns to walk slowly, and with caution, and by continued walkLIQUIDS.

ing acquires strength to walk quickly, or to run, so must the shortIr

hand pupil trace his characters deliberately and accurately, until by Ꭱ

much writing he can write both well and fast. We have known many

students acquire an illegible style of shorthand writing by disregarding COALESCENTS W Y C ASPIRATE H(-) 69 this advice.

5. The phonographic characters should not be written smaller than Towels.

they are here; and care must be taken at the outset to trace them SHORT.

slowly and accurately. Rapidity and accuracy combined can be at: 1. AH

alms
ă

tained only by practice. The student is again particularly cautioned at

against attempting to write with rapidity at the ontset.' When his 2. . A

hand has become accustomed to trace the simple geometrical forms of

. ape

the phonographic characters with correctness and elegance, he will 3. E

eat
1

it

find no difficulty in writing them quickly; but if he lets his anxiety

to write fast, overcome his resolution to write well, he will not only 4. AU

be longer in attaining real swiftness, but will always have to lament

the illegibility of his writing. 5. 0

ů

6. All the consonants, when standing alone, should rest upon the line. ope

up

LC, the straight Zr, vw, y, and 6 *, are written 6. 00

full upward. Horizontal letters, as — m, are written from

TH (

(TH

NASALS.

LONG.

on

ooze

T, D

CH, J //

s, z ))

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left to right. All other consonants, as It, \ p, are written

EXERCISE 1.-CONSONANTS. downward; but, WHEN JOINED TO OTHER STROKES, 1 and sh The pupil should write out this Esercise several times, if necessary, may be written either upward or downward. In Exercise 1, until he is able to form the characters as accurately as they are here each consonant is repeated several times, for the purpose of giving drawn. Place the longhand letters at the commencement of each line the pupil sufficient practice in its formation to enable him to write it in the copy book. accurately, and remember its sound. 7. Phonography is at all times best written on ruled paper, but

P, B plain paper may be used, as in the following Exercises. The learner should always write upon paper ruled with single lines, and

11 he may use either a quill or a steel pen, or a pencil. A pencil is recommended for exercises, and a pen for ordinary writing and reporting.

// // // As, however, the reporter is sometimes so situated that he cannot use a pen, he should aecustom himself, at times, to report with a pencil. K, GY The pen or pencil should be held as for longhand writing, and the elbow be turned out so that the letter \o can be struck with ease. We will now display the shorthand consonants in a more extended form

F, V than in the preceding alphabet, and show by illustrative words the

TII, TH ((

(( sound or power of each letter. Strictly speaking, consonants are not

(( (( sounds but interruptions of sounds, made by the action of different

)) ) ) ) )
parts of the mouth. The vowels are the only sounds of speech.
CONSONANTS.

SH, ZII )
Letter. Phonograph. Eramples of its power. Name. Phonotype.

M
P
rope post pee P

N
B

robe

Coast bee b
T

NG
fate
tip

t
D
fade dip dee d

r
CII
elch chest chay 9

R (up) / / / / (dowa)
J
edge jest jay j

W (up) vvv (down)
K
leek

kay k
G
league gain

ccccccccc gay

Y

5
F
safe fat ef

f

11 (up) oooo (down) 9
V
vat

ON JOINING THE CONSONANTS.
TH
wreath thigh ith

9. All the consonants, when written alone, should rest upon the

line. When combined to forin words, they should be written with. TH wreathe thy

thee &

out taking off the pen; the second commencing where the first ends,

and the third being continued from the end of the second, etc. S hiss scal

The following combinations, from line 1 to 5, must rest upon the

line. In the combinations given in line 6, and all similar ones, Z ) his zcal

the first letter rests upon the line, and the second is written below.

10. With one exception (which will be explained in the next SII vicious she

s

lesson), every right-line and curve employed in Phonography, is writ.
ZH
vision

zhee
ten in the direction of one of the lines in the following diagram :-

3
u
met

2
N

tcc

L (up)

Erplodents.

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canc

sare

vec

V

Continuants.

CSS

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zee

Z

ish

*

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Coalescents, Liquids. Nasals.

light
right

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ar

1 all straight lines and curves in direction 2 and the curves in direction 4 being inclined midway betwecn a perpendicular and a horizontal line.

EXERCISE 2.-COMBINATIONS OF CONSONANTS. Write the longhand letters after the Shorthand, as in line 1, and so in all the following Exercises. 1. the 7kt, h tm, mt, y

nt.

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2.

3.

yet yay y Aspirate. 11

high aitch h 8. In the above Table the last column is occupied with the phonotype, or phonetic printing letter, that corresponds to the shorthand letter in the second column. These phonotypes are iatroduced for the purpose of assisting the pupil occasionally, in representing to his eye the sounds of which a word is composed, in order to guide him in his practice in the selection of the corresponding shorthand letters. The Exercise that follows must be carefully written out by the pupil into his copy book, each shorthand letter being pronounced aloud as it is written. A good style of writing can be formed only by carefally drawing the shorthand characters at the commencement of the pupil's practice. Speed will come by practice.

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