Milites urbem combusserunt. 13. Literas legi, quas scripsisti. 14.

THE ALPHABET OF NATURE. Metuo ne hostes urbem obsidione cincturi sint. 15. Corrige illum 2. Phonography is based upon an analysis of the English spoken puerum. 16. Præceptor curabit ut discipulos corrigat. 17. Narra language. Its consonants and vowels are arranged so as to show, as far mihi, quid patri dixeris. 18. Cupiditates coerceto. 19. Cupiditates as possible, their mutual relations. In the consonants, p stands first, coercere debemus. 20. Puer coercens cupiditates amatur. 21. Strenue next 6; the rest follow in perfectly natural order, first the mute or eranimum cole, mi fili !

plosive letters, proceeding from the lips to the throat; then the semi

vocals, or continuants, in the same order ; and lastly the nasals, LESSONS IN SHORTHAND.-II.

liquids, coalescents, and aspirate. Scarcely more than half the conso

nants are essentially different ; the articulations in the pairs p and 3, 4 EXPLANATION OF TERMS.

and d, f and v, etc., are precisely the same, but the sound is, so to speak, 1. PHONETICS (from pwyn, phònē, voice,) the things relating to light in the first, and heavy in the second letter of each pair. The conthe voice: the science which treats of the different sounds of the sonants in each pair are represented by strokes in the same position, and human voice, and their modifications. The style of spelling in of the same shape, but that chosen for the second is written thick, inaccordance with this science is named PHONETIC; the common stead of thin ; thus, p, \, 11, 1 d.

f, L, etc.; and style, such as is used in this book, being called Romanic, because it thus, not only is the memory not burdened with a multitude of signs, is formed from an alphabet derived from that which was used by the but the mind perceives that a thin stroke corresponds with a light Romans. Phoxogʻraphy, (from phònē, voice, and ypaon, graphē, writing,) f, th(in), s, sh, are called light, or sharp consonants, and

f, th(in), s, sk,

articulation, and a thick stroke with a heary articulation. P, 1, k, the art of representing spoken sounds by written signs; also the style "are further denominated whispered, or breathed consonants; while of writing in accordance with this art. PHONOT’YPY, (from phõnē, voice, and TUTOS, tūpos, type,) the art nants. The difference is that in the flat letters (b, d, 9, etc.) a vocal

b, d, g, v, th(en), z, zh, are heavy, flat, spoken, or murmured consoof representing sounds by printed characters or types; also the style murmur is added to the action of the organs by which the sharp letof printing in accordance with this art. PuO'NOGRAM, (from ypauuu, gramma, letter,) a written letter

ters (P, t, k, etc.,) are produced. The "vocal murmur” which makes

P or mark, indicating a certain sound, or modification of sound; as ligaments in the larynx or muscular sound-box in the windpipe,

into b, t into d, etc., is produced by the vibration of two vocal

which lies behind the bony projection in the throat called Adam's PHO'NOTYPE, a printed letter, or sign, indicative of a particular apple

, or pomum Adami. The light sounds are also ealled surds

, sound, or modification of sound; as, 0, o (in so, snow); P, p. while all the other letters (including m, n, ng, l, r, w, y, and LoGʻOGRAM, (from Aoyos, logos, word,) a word-letter; a phono- the vowels,) are called sonants. Ch and j are double consonants

, gram, that, for the sake of brevity, represents a word; as, t, which formed by the union of t, sh, and d, zh, as may be heard in fetch, represents it.

cheap; edge, jem. They are placed, in the alphabet, next to t, d, the GRAM'MALOGUE, a letter-word ; a word represented by a logogram; first elements of these compound consonants. The vowels are aras it, represented by | t.

ranged naturally in two series, guttural and labial. Each series PARA’Seogram, a combination of shorthand letters representing a sented by light dots and strokes, and the corresponding long sounds

commences with the most open sound. The short vowels are reprephrase or sentence. The terms art and SciENCE should be used in accordance with phy, the heavy strokes and dots are made without any perceptible

by heavy ones. After a few weeks' practice in writing Phonograthe following definitions :-a science consists of general principles effort ; they are traced by the pen, with as much facility as their corthat are to be known; an art, of practical rules for something that is to be done. Hence we speak of the art of Phonography, and of responding heavy sounds are produced by the organs of speech.

DIRECTIONS FOR PRACTICE. the science of Phonetics on which it is based.

3. The student of Phonography will find no difficulty in acquiring THE PHONOGRAPHIC ALPHABET.

a knowledge of this useful art, if he will practise according to the Consonants.

following directions :—He should first obtain a knowledge of the

sounds of the Phonographic Alphabet, by pronouncing them aloud; EXPLODENTS.


and then learn the signs by which these sounds are represented. P



This is most effectually done by writing each character several times,

and pronouncing its name aloud at the same time. T D

4. The following Exercises are to be read, and afterwards copied ( TH (TH

into a book made of ruled paper. The pupil need not read through CH / J

the whole lesson before he commences writing, but when he has S ) ) Z

read an Exercise, (that is, pronounced to himself the shorthand let

ters or words of which it is composed,) he should write it several K

SH )

ZH times, until he can form the characters neatly and accurately. A 3d.

or 6d. "Phonographic Copy-Book” may be obtained of Mr. F. Pitman,

20, Paternoster Row, London, or of Mr. Isaac Pitman, Phonetic

Institute, Bath, or it may be ordered through any bookseller. As a

child learns to walk slowly, and with caution, and by continued walkLIQUIDS.

ing acquires strength to walk quickly, or to run, so must the shortLC

hand pupil trace his characters deliberately and accurately, until by R

much writing he can write both well and fast. We have known many

students acquire an illegible style of shorthand writing by disregarding COALESCENTS Wc Ya ASPIRATE H(-) 69 this advice.

5. The phonographic characters should not be written smaller than Vowels.

they are here; and care must be taken at the outset to trace them

slowly and accurately. Rapidity and accuracy combined can be at1. AH *)



tained only by practice. The student is again particularly cautioned

against attempting to write with rapidity at the outset. When his 2.

hand has become accustomed to trace the simple geometrical forms of А

. ape


the phonographic characters with correctness and elegance, he will 3. E J


find no difficulty in writing them quickly; but if he lets his anxiety

to write fast, overcome his resolution to write well, he will not only 4. AU all

be longer in attaining real swiftness, but will always have to lament

the illegibility of his writing. 0 -1


All the consonants, when standing alone, should rest upon the line. ope







ir , the straight Zr, w, cy, and 6 h, are written 6. 00

full upward. Horizontal letters, as k,

m, are written from


T, D

CH, J //

s, z ))

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left to right. All other consonants, as It, \ p, are written

EXERCISE 1.-CONSONANTS. downward; but, WHEN JOINED TO OTHER STROKES, 1 and sh The pupil should write out this Esercise several times, if necessary, may be written either upward or downward. In Exercise 1, until he is able to form the characters as accurately as they are here each consonant is repeated several times, for the purpose of giving drawn. Place the longhand letters at the commencement of each line the pupil sufficient practice in its formation to enable him to write it in the copy book. accurately, and remember its sound. 7. Phonography is at all times best written on ruled paper, but

P, B plain paper may be used, as in the following Exercises. The learner should always write upon paper ruled with single lines, and

11 he may use either a quill or a steel pen, or a pencil. A pencil is recommended for exercises, and a pen for ordinary writing and reporting.

// // // As, however, the reporter is sometimes so situated that he cannot use a pen, he should aecustom himself, at times, to report with a pencil. K, GY The pen or pencil should be held as for longhand writing, and the elbow be turned out so that the letter \o can be struck with ease. We will now display the shorthand consonants in a more extended form

F, V than in the preceding alphabet, and show by illustrative words the

TII, TH ((

(( sound or power of each letter. Strictly speaking, consonants are not

(( (( sounds but interruptions of sounds, made by the action of different

)) ) ) ) )
parts of the mouth. The vowels are the only sounds of speech.

Letter. Phonograph. Eramples of its power. Name. Phonotype.

rope post pee P



Coast bee b


fade dip dee d

elch chest chay 9

R (up) / / / / (dowa)
edge jest jay j

W (up) vvv (down)

kay k
league gain

ccccccccc gay


safe fat ef


11 (up) oooo (down) 9

wreath thigh ith

9. All the consonants, when written alone, should rest upon the

line. When combined to forin words, they should be written with. TH wreathe thy

thee &

out taking off the pen; the second commencing where the first ends,

and the third being continued from the end of the second, etc. S hiss scal

The following combinations, from line 1 to 5, must rest upon the

line. In the combinations given in line 6, and all similar ones, Z ) his zcal

the first letter rests upon the line, and the second is written below.

10. With one exception (which will be explained in the next SII vicious she


lesson), every right-line and curve employed in Phonography, is writ.

ten in the direction of one of the lines in the following diagram :-




L (up)


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Coalescents, Liquids. Nasals.


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1 all straight lines and curves in direction 2 and the curves in direction 4 being inclined midway betwecn a perpendicular and a horizontal line.

EXERCISE 2.-COMBINATIONS OF CONSONANTS. Write the longhand letters after the Shorthand, as in line 1, and so in all the following Exercises. 1. the 7kt, h tm, mt, y


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yet yay y Aspirate. 11

high aitch h 8. In the above Table the last column is occupied with the phonotype, or phonetic printing letter, that corresponds to the shorthand letter in the second column. These phonotypes are iatroduced for the purpose of assisting the pupil occasionally, in representing to his eye the sounds of which a word is composed, in order to guide him in his practice in the selection of the corresponding shorthand letters. The Exercise that follows must be carefully written out by the pupil into his copy book, each shorthand letter being pronounced aloud as it is written. A good style of writing can be formed only by carefally drawing the shorthand characters at the commencement of the pupil's practice. Speed will come by practice.

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VOCABULARY. 3.--Die Canarienvögelchen.

Canarien, canary (not Erheben, to raise, lift Schlecht, schlechter, bad, Dee ka-nah-ree-en-fö'-ghel.gen.

used alone).

up. Vögelchen, n. little' Laut, aloud.

Ad), oh, alas. Ein Fleines Mädchen, Namens Carolina, hatte ein


Wehtlagen, n, lamen. Handeln, to act. Ine kli'-ness meyť-yen, nah'-menss Ca-ro-lee'-na, hať-tai ine Name, m. name. nation; 3. n. to Unrecht, wrong.

allerliebstes Canarienvögelchen. Das Thierchen sang vom Allerliebst, most lovely. lament (Klage, f. Un, prefix, un, not. al-ler-leep'-stess ka-nah'-ree-en-fö'-ghel-yen. Dass teer'-yen zank fom Thierchen, No little complaint,lament. Was, what. frühen Morgen bis an den Abend, und war sehr schön


Wch, n. woe). Sollen, to be obliged, frü"-hen mór'-ghen biss an dain ah'-bend, vont vahr zeyr shö'n Bon, of, from.

Weinen, to weep


Früh, early. goldgelb mit schwarzem Gäubchen.

Ilm, for, about, -Sein, seiner, genitive, aber gab ihm Carolina

Morgen, m.


of it, of him. gölt'-gailb mit shwar'-tsem hoip'-yen. Ca-ro-lee'-da ah-bet gahp eem


Kaufen, to buy. Sorgfaltig, carefully. zu essen Saamen und fühlendes Sraut, auch zuweilen ein Bis, till.

Ander, other.

Nein, no. tsoo ess"-sen zah'-men dont kü"-len-dess krout, ouch tsoo-vi'-len ine Abend, m. evening. Noch, yet, still. Erwiedern, to reply. Stüdchen Zuder und täglich frisches Wasser.

Schön, beautiful. Farbe, f. colour, dye, Kurz, short, -ly. shtück.yen tsdock'-ker dönt teyy'-liġ frish-shess vass'-ser.

Gelb, yellow.


Tob, m. death. Aber plößlich begann das Vögelchert zu trauern, und eines

Mit, with.

Eben so, just so. Mir, dative, to me. Ah'-ber plöts-líý bai-gann' dass fö'-ghel-jen tsoo trou’-ern, dënt i'-nes Schwarz, black. Zener, jene, jenes, that. Für, for.

Häubchen, tuft Thun, to put, to do. Dasselbe, the same. Morgens, als Carolina ihm Wasser bringen wollte, lag 18

(Haube, f. cap). Allein, but, alone. Sontern, but. mor'-ghens, als Ca-ro-lee'-na eem vass'-ser bring'-en voll'-tai, lahc ess

Geben, to give.
Neu, new.

Selbst, myself, yourtodt im Käfig.

Ihm, to him (it). Sich wuwberr, to won self, etc. toat im key'-fiy.

3u, to.


Herz, n. heart. Da erhob bie Kleine ein lautes Wehflagen um das Eisen, to eat.

Lieb, dear.

| Lächeln, to smile. Dah err-hope' dee kli-nai ine lou’-tess vey'-klah-ghen xóm dass Saamen, m. seed. Du bist, thou art. ilber, at, over.

Kühlen, to cool. Betrübt, sad (betrüben, Erfenken, to recognise. geliebte Thier und weinte fehr. Die Mutter des Mädchens gai-leep'-tai teer ošnt vine’-tai zeyr. Dee měšť-ter dess meyt'.yenss Zuweilen, sometimes. Dein, thy.

Kraut, n. herb.

to afflict).

Bohl, indeed, well.

Verebren, to honour aber ging hin und faufte ein anberes, bas noch schöner Stück, n. piece. Thräne, f. tear.

(Eyre, f. honour). ah-ber ghink hin gånt kauf-tai ine an'-dai-ress, dass noch shoʻ-ner Zucker, m. sugar. Rufen, to call. Stimme, f. veice. war an Farben und ebenso lieblich sang wie jenes, und that Frisch, fresh.

Werden, to become, Mögen, may. vahr an far-ben dönt ey'-ben zo leep'-liġ zank vee yey'-ness, ošnt taht Wasser, n. water. sign of the future zu Muthe sein, feel. e$ in den Stäfig.

Plößlich, suddenly. tense, shall, will;

(Muth, m. courage. ess in dain key'-fiy.

Trauern, to grieve, sign of the passive mind).

mourn. Allein das Mägolein

voice, to be, to be Dankbar, grateful weinete noch lauter, als es tas neue

Liegen, to lie.

doing. Al-line' dass meyyť-line vi-nai-tai nod lou'-ter, alss es dass noi'ai

(-bar, affia, produeTodt, dead. Sterben, to die.

tive of, able). Vögelchen fah. Da wunderte sich die Mutter sehr und Kafig, m, cage. Leben, n. life.

Grab, n. grave. fö'-ghel-yen zah. Dah voðn’-der-tai zrý dee moot-ter zeyr öðnt sprach: Mein liebes Kind, warum weineft du noch, und bist so

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN GERMAN. shprhch: Mine lee--bess kint, vah'-rõõm vi'-nest doo noch, dồnt bist zo sehr betrübt? Deine Thränen werden

EXERCISE 91 (Vol. II., page 63).

bas gestorbene zeyr bai-trů'pt'? Di'-nai trey'-nen veyr'-den dass gai-shtor'-bai-nai

1. Amerika hat einen goldenen Boden für denjenigen, welcher cines SantVögelchen nicht in das Leben rufen, und hier þaft buia ein werks fundig ist

. 2. Der Geizige ist unempfindlich gegen das Glent An fõ'-ghel-yen niýt in dass ley'-ben rooʻ-fen, dont here hast doo yah ine derer.... 3. Die Italiener, welche sich in einigen Provinzen gegen öffet

reichische Unterbrüdung erhoben, waren uneingebenf ihrer Sowäche. 4. andres,

das nicht schlechter ist denn jenes. Da sprach das Id wurde des Hörens einer so langen Rebe müde. 5. Jeder Mensch it an'-dress, dass niýt shley'-ter ist den yey'-ness. Dah shprahch dass seines Todes gewiß, aber Miemand ist stets desselben eingebenf. 6. Wernte Kind: Ach liebe Mutter, ich habe Unrecht gegen

des Lantlebens so geivohnt wärest wie ich, würdest du nicht in der Statt blet křnt: Ad lee'bai mošt-ter, iy hah'-bai don'-réýt ghey'-ghen dass ben. 7. Niemals will ich mich einer That schuldig machen, welcße mit Thierchen gehandelt, und nicht alles an ihm gethan, was ich Ihrer Freundschaft unwürdig mac t. 8. Der Mensch, welcher ein gewissen teer'-yen gai-han’-delt, dont nyt al'-less an cem gai-tahn, vass ry Haftes Leben geführt hat, und den Befehlen seines Gewissen8 gefolgt ist, fürchtet follte und fonnte.

den Tod nicht; duch der Böse, uneingerent seiner Thaten, und bewußt seiner

Verbrechen, fürchtet den Tod und die Zufunft. 9. Mancher der eines Berzoll-ai dont kõn'-tai.

brechens angeflagt vor seinen Richtern steht, ist fid; einer Fleinern Schaft Liebe Sina, antwortete die Mutter, bu haft sein ja bewußt, als die, welche ihn richten. Lee’-bai lee'-nah, ant'-vör-tai-tai dee moot-ter, doo hast zine yah

EXERCISE 92 (Vol. II., page 63). sorgfältig gepflegt. Ach nein, crwiederte das Kind, ich habe zory-fel-tîy gai-pfleyyť. Ach nine, err-vee'-der-tai dass kynt, îý hah'-bai to me. 2. Even if you are related to me, yet your behaviour does not

1. It would be agreeable to me if I could find a man who was attached noch kurz vor seinem Tode ein Stückchen Zucker, das seem to me at all becoming; and I should think you yourself might nôch köðrts fore zi'-nem to”-dai ine shtuck'.yen tsõčk'-ker, dass doo perceive that people to whom your behaviour is known are not favourmir für tasselbe gabft, ihm nicht gebracht, sondern selbst

able to you. 3. My father remembers the last dearth very well. 4 meer für dass-zel'-bai gahpst, eem niýt gai-bracht', zðn’-dern zelpst bour, obedient to thy superiors, then will they be well disposed, and be

That path is dangerous to the wanderer. 5. Be obliging to thy neighgegessen. So fprachy ta& Mädchen mit betrübtem Herzen. be favourable to you. 6. Is the money promised to you certain? 7. gai-ghess'-sen. Zo shprahch dass meyt'-yen mit bai-tru'p'-tem herr'-tsen. As the prince is not like-minded with the people, and the people are inDie Mutter aber

lächelte nicht über die Klagen des different to the prince, it makes governing difficult to the former, and Deo mởčt-ter ah'-ber ley'-yel-tai nạýt um-ber dee klah'-ghen dess hinders the prosperity of the latter. 8. The stars are favourable to

me; my undertaking will be easy to me. Mädchens, tenn sie crkannte wohl und verehrte die Heilige

9. If bugs are not injurious meyt-yenss, den zee err-kan'-tai vole dont ferr-eyr'-tai dee hi--Ii-gai

to men, yet they are troublesome to them. 10. I am very glad that I

can be useful to you in this affair. 11. Your praise was very flattering Stimme der Natur in tem Herzen des Kindes. Ach! to my friend. 12. To become good is difficult to the vicious, because shtim'-mai dair na-toor' in daim herr'-tsen dess kin'-dess. Ad! they generally remain true to their inclinations. 13. Many a weak sagte sie, wie mag dem undanfbaren Kinde zu Muthe

man is superior in mind to the strong man. 14. What difference is zahch-tai zee, vee mahdı daim čðn'-dank-bah-ren kyn”-dai tsoo moo".tai there between saying, "One man is unlike to the other," and "One man

is dissimilar to the other ?" 15. How stands the game? 16. Very sein am Grabe der Gltern.

unfavourably to me. 17. Though it is disagreeable to me, I must den zine am grah-bai dair el'-tern,

clare to you that your talk is insufferable to me. 18. Who likes to admit

the principle, that "He who is not submissive to his king is untrue to is deposited in crystals. In this form its specific gravity is 4:5, his fatherland ? 19. I shall never forget how much I am obliged to whereas in the vitreous state it was 4.7. you. 20. Not every one who is related to me is also well-pleasing to

A third modification, corresponding to the viscid state of me. 21. What concerns me, I consider also as a matter of importance. sulphur, is obtained by sustaining the temperature of the EXERCISE 93 (Vol. II., page 63).

selenium at 90°C, for some hours: it then suddenly rises to 1. Wer kann einem Kinde feind sein? 2. 3st es Ihnen genehm, einen 160°C. If it now be cooled, its specific gravity is found to be Spaziergang zu machen? 3. Dieses ist Ihrem Geschäfte fchädlich. 4. 48, its fracture has become granular, like cast iron, and its Jedermann war ihr gewogen. 5. Eine gütige That ist Gott wohlgefällig. eddish vapours are given off, which are characterised by their

colour changed to bluish-grey. When thrown upon a hot coal 6. Sie sind Zộrem Bater in Ihren Gewohnheiten sehr ähnlich, denn er war peculiar smell that of horseradish. It burns in the air with a abgeneigt bem Rauchen und abhold bein Trinfen. 7. Was mir angehört, les ist mir auch angelegen sein.' 8. Jedem benfender Manne ist es bemert: bright blue flame, and two well-defined oxides-selenic dioxide 9. Mit Vergnügen will ich Ihnen behilflich sein, eine Anfeflung zu erhal. 111.5), is usually prepared by oxidising selenium by means bar, das es für einen Fürsten nimit leicht ist, ein Volt fich ergeben zu isiachen. Seo,) and selenic trioxide (Seo)--are known.

Selenic dioxide, or Selenious Acid (Se0g; combining weight, ten. 10. Sei deinen Eltern gefällig. ihren Willen gehorsam, dann wer- of nitric acid. The excess of the nitric acid is expelled by heat, den Fie dit geneigt und deincit Glücke günstig sein. 11. Kaltes Wasser and the white selenious anhydroxide remains. At a temperaturo trinfen in einem erhigten Körper fch äə lich. 12. Das Pferd ist ein gelehriges near low red heat it will sublime in a yellow vapour, which on Thiet une reinem Herrn gehorsam. 13. Wenn es Ihnen angenehm ist, condensing forms beautiful white acicular (needle-like) crystals. isntgen Sie morgen Mittag zu mir. 14. Der Hund ist seinem Herrn These are deliquescent—that is, they absorb moisture from the fugiau und treu. 15. Er war geneigt sichy seinen Freunden unangenehm atmosphere--becoming selenious acid, which forms with bases ju machen. EXERCISE 94 (Vol. II., page 94).

the class of salts called selenites, which are all recognised by

emitting the horseradish odour, when heated on charcoal in 1. In olden times, when a mighty man was hostile to another, he de- the blowpipe flame. clared war against him. 2. From all places which belonged to him, this Selenic Acid (H,Se0.).—This acid is produced if, in the promighty man collected those men who adhered to him. 3. After they had cess which

has been given for procuring selenium, sulphuretted assented to his purpose, they engaged to assist him, and to follow him to hydrogen be used, instead of sulphurous acid. Thus the war. 4. Such a mighty lord was Henry the Lion, Duke of Bavaria, to whoun belonged large territories, and whom thousands of warriors

PbSeo, + H,S = H, Seo, + PbS. obeyed. 5. Yet the crown of an emperor always floated before his eyes. By filtering, the lead sulphide is separated; and by evaporating 6. The ducal coronet was not sufficient for him. 7. He trusted to his the liquid until its specific gravity is 2:6, selenic acid is own power, and defled the emperor. 8. The emperor summoned him obtained. When heated this acid gives off oxygen, and becomes to submit to his orders, and threatened him with outlawry. 9. Yet the selenious acid; it forms with bases selenates, which are isomor. duke, who resembled a lion, valued neither reason nor advice. 10. As he phous with their corresponding sulphates, that is, they crystaltill then had overcome all his enemies, he believed himself to be a match lise in the same form. for everybody. 11. He resisted the demand to render an honour to the Emperor, which was due to him. 12. The emperor, who for some time

Seleniuretted Hydrogen (symbol, H. Se; combining weight, wished the duke ill, and on account of his pride was angry with him, 81:5; density, 40-75).--This gas is obtained exactly as sulanticipated him, and waged war against him. 13. The warlike expedi. phuretted hydrogen, that is, by the action of an acid on a tion was not unsuccessful for the emperor. 14. The duke could not selenide. Its odour is even more offensive than that of its withstand the hostile power, and was defeated by the emperor in the sulphur correspondent. battle. 15. He was obliged to flee to England, and only his family and TELLURIUM :-SYMBOL, Ts-COMBINING WEIGHT, 129-DENSITY, 120.. a few of his friends followed him. 16. Here he resigned all hope, and execrated pride as the cause of his misery. 17. According to your other. That is, between every great division we find individuals

The classes of every natural kingdom seem to gradate into each vish, I will help you in looking for the horse which you have lost. 18. One very easily obeys a noble master, who convinces while he which partake of the characteristics of each class. Tellurium commands us. 19, I do not relish this roast meat.

occupies this position between the metals and metalloide, whilst, from its rather high specific gravity, 6.5, some chemists are inclined to rank it with the metals; yet, from its close

analogy to selenium and sulphur, others prefer to consider it LESSONS IN CHEMISTRY.-XVI. as a metalloid. It is a rare substance, sometimes found native SELENIUM-TELLURIUM-PHOSPHORUS.

in the mines of Hungary and Transylvania, but generally it is

combined with gold, silver, bismuth, or copper. It possesses a SELENIUM :-SYMBOL, SE-COMBINING WEIGHT, 79.5—DENSITY, 79-5. high metallic lustre, and resembles bismuth in appearance. A This rare element was discovered by Berzelius in the refuse of high temperature converts it into a yellow vapour, which cona salphuric acid manufactory, at Fahlun, in Sweden. It is not denses in drops and flexible needles; it is a feeble conductor of toand free in nature, and the source from which it is usually heat and electricity. When strongly heated in the air it takes obtained is the mineral clausthalite, in which it is combined fire, and burns with a blue flame, edged with green, into with lead-although the selenides of iron, copper, and silver are Tellurous Dioxide (Te0.), which with water forms tellurous the most abundant.

acid (H, TO,). Its acid properties are feeble, and it possesses Preparation.—Some clausthalite is reduced to a fine powder a bitter metallic taste. and fased with three times its weight of saltpetre, by this means Telluric Acid (H,Te0.) is the combination of telluric trioxide the selenide (PbSe) becomes selenate (PbSO.). The mass is and water. This trioxide is produced when the element, or a now digested in water, acidulated with a little hydrochloric acid tellurite, is heated with salt petre. The process is similar to that to nentralise any of the alkali of the nitre which may remain, by which selenic acid was procured. and the liquid evaporated down to a small bulk. A current of Telluretted Hydrogen (H, Te) is procured by the action of sulphurous acid throws down the reduced selenium as a red, hydrochloric acid on an alloy of tellurium with zing or tin. It docoulent, amorphous powder, the sulphurous acid becoming is a colourless gas, having the same smell as sulphuretted sniphuric.

hydrogen. It acts upon solutions of metallic salts similarly to Properties.-It is chiefly remarkable for its close resemblance that gas, precipitating their tellurides. to sulphur. It may be obtained, like that element, in the three It is usual to group oxygen, sulphur, selenium, and tellurium forms mamorphous, vitreous, and crystalline. When the powder together, since they each unite with two atoms of hydrogen. of the precipitate above alluded to is dried, and submitted to a The last three elements, as in the case of the three halogens, temperature a little below that of boiling water, it begins to exhibit a remarkable gradation. Their combining weights, their softer, and a few degrees higher it melts ; upon cooling, it forms specific gravities, their melting and boiling points, being almost a brittle solid, with a glassy fracture. Its colour is deep brown; in arithmetical progression--that is, in everything selenium is a it possesses neither taste nor smell; is insoluble in water, and mean between sulphur and tellurium. refuses to conduct either heat or electricity: and yet its lustre is PHOSPHORUS:-SYMBOL, P-COMBINING WEIGHT, 31-DENSITY, 62. metallic. Sulphuric acid is capable of dissolving it, and is The density of the vapour of phosphorus is an exception to rendered green; but when diluted the selenium falls unaltered. the rule hitherto strictly regarded, for, instead of being the Bi-ulphide of carbon, at its boiling point, can hold in solution same as its atomic weight, it is just double, or 62, and there1 per cent of this element, and upon evaporation the selenium fore the volume occupied by an atom of phosphorus is only



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1, that of the preceding elements being 1. The great affinity form by evaporating its solution. If, now, these crystals be phosphorus exhibits for oxygen, precludes the possibility of its melted by heat, and the temperature maintained for some time being found free in nature. It chiefly exists in combination at 212°C, one atom of the basic water will be expelled, and the with lime, as phosphate of lime (calcium phosphate, Ca 2PO2), bibasic acid remains. These three kinds may, when in solution, which is found in bones, and in the seeds of plants. The origin be thus distinguishedof calcium phosphate is traced to a constituent of some of the The monobasic is the only one which will precipitate a solution granitic rocks—the mineral apatite-from the disintegration of of albumen. which the soil has become possessed of this necessary ingre The bibasic gives a white precipitate with nitrate of silver, dient of all seed-producing soils.

The tribasic a yellow precipitate with the same salt. Preparation.-Bone earth—which is obtained by calcining By replacing the atoms of water in these acids by various bones—is composed of phosphate of lime and carbonate of bases, corresponding salts may be obtained. Sometimes the lime; this is treated with diluted sulphuric acid, and kept at water atoms are replaced by different bases. Thus, 100°C for twenty-four hours. By this means all the carbonate of

Na,0 Lime becomes sulphate, and the phosphate is deprived of two

2(NH)0 $2,0,. molecules of lime, which are replaced by two of water. Thus

1,0 3CaOP,0, +24,50, = 2(Caso.) + Ca02H,0P,0,. is microcosmic salt, which is much used with the blowpipe. This last salt is called the superphosphate of lime. Being soluble This process may be thus exhibitedit is easily separated from the calcium sulphate. Evaporating

HO down the solution to a syrup, a quarter of its weight of charcoal

H20 SP,0, OT HYPO, is added, and the whole transferred to an iron retort. The neck


H) of the retort dips into water. On applying heat, bubbles of Now replace one of the H by its equivalent of Nay, and another carbonic oxide escape, and phosphorus, as a yellow waz-like by its equivalent (NH,) ammonium, so that we have substance, distils into the water, the reaction being thus ex. pressed :

NH}PO,. 3(Ca02H,OP,0) + 10C = 1000 + 6H,0 + 3Ca0 P,0, + 4P.

н Properties. It is sold in sticks, which are clear and colourless Phosphorous Acid (P,0,) is obtained by burring phosphorus when the substance is new. Its specific gravity is 1:83. It in a limited supply of air. It is bibasic, forming phosphites. oxidises at all temperatures above 0°C, emitting a faint "phos- When raised to a high heat it is resolved into phosphoric acid, phorescent” light, giving off white fumes, which are phosphoric and the gas next to be considered. acid (P,0.). It melts at 45°C, and boils at 290°C. It is extremely

4P,0, + 34,0 = 3P,0; + 2PH,. inflammable, and must be handled with the greatest care, as much under water as possible. Carbonic disulphide dissolves it phorus are heated in a strong solution of potash, bubbles of

Phosphuretted Hydrogen (PH2).—When a few pieces of phosreadily: from this solution it can be obtained in crystals. When this gas are emitted, which, as they rise from the water into heated in an atmosphere of H, or Co,, to a temperature of which the delivery tube is dipped, take fire. As the combustion 240°C, it assumes its “amorphous” condition, which is a dark red powder. This is more easily made by melting

the is simultaneous at all points of bubble, a ring of white vapour phosphorus with a trace of iodine. In this condition it is not of phosphoric acid is formed. This very beautiful experiment is nearly so inflammable, need not be kept under water, and is not soluble in carbonic disulphide.

Matches.—The great use of phosphorus is in the manufacture of lucifer matches. The ordinary ones are composed of a mixture of phosphorus, potassium chlorate, glue, and red lead, the stick is first dipped in parafin, and then into the above paste.

Bryant and May's safety matches, which only strike on the lid, are made of sulphide of antimony, potassium chlorate, and powdered glass. The lid is smeared with red amorphous phosphorus, and ignition only takes place when the potassium chlorate and phosphorus are rubbed together. By using the above mixture, it is found unnecessary to dip the stick in parafin, as it will catch fire from the ignited composition. This action of phosphorus and potassium chlorate may be shown by powdering a few grains of the salt, adding a piece of red phosphorus about the size of a pea, then very carefully folding it up in paper, upon striking it a moderate blow with a stick, a somewhat violent explosion will ensue. Phosphorus is poisonons; it has a singular action on the jaw-bone, which decays away: this is said not to be the case with the amorphous variety.

Phosphoric Anhydride (symbol, P,Os) is a white powder, formed when phosphorus is burnt in oxygen, or dry air. It is very

Fig. 48. deliquescent, combining with three atoms of water, forming the hydrated acid (3H,0P,Os), which may be considered as two arranged as in Fig. 48. The flask must be nearly full of the molecules of H,PO,

solution. Phosphoric Acid.—The anhydride is capable of forming three

Phosphuretted hydrogen is not spontaneously inflammable acids, by taking three different proportions of water. Consider. when pure, but this property is due to the presence of a minute ing the water as a base, the acids are named

quantity of a liquid, whose composition is supposed to be PH, Monobasic H,OP,O.

It is this gas which sets fire to the bubble of marsh gas, forming

the ignis fatuus.

Phosphorous Chloride (PC12).-Clear phosphorus burns with a Sometimes the first is called "metaphospholic acid," and the pale blue flame in dry chlorine, forming this compound. It is second "pyrophosphoric acid,” because it is got from the third capable of decomposing water and other oxides, the chlorine by heat.

combining with the hydrogen, or the metal and the phosphorus The Monobasic is obtained by evaporating dilute phosphoric forming a phosphite (H2PO2). acid to a syrup, and subjecting this to a low red heat.

Phosphoric Chloride (PCI) is produced by a further action of The Tribasic is procured by boiling for twenty minutes a chlorine on phosphorus chloride. With bromine two similar solution in water of “glacial phosphoric acid.” This latter is compounds are formed; with iodine the beautiful crystallino formed when the hydrate (2H,PO) is exposed to a red heat in P,I., and with sulphur three well characterised sulphides-P.S, à platinum dish. The tribasic acid may be got in a crystalline P,S3, P, S-are produced.


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