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worse.

morn

mourn.

READINGS IN GERMAN.-III.

VOCABULARY. 3.-Die Canarienvögelden.

Canarien, canary (not Erheben, to raise, lift Schlecht, schlechter, bad, Dee ka-nah'-ree-en-fo-ghel-gen.

used alone).

up. Vögelchen, n. little Laut, aloud.

Nd, oh, alas,
Ein fleines Mädchen, Namens Carolina,

hatte ein
bird.

Wehklagen, n. lamen. Handeln, to act.
Ine kli'-ness meyt-yen, nah'-menss Ca-ro-lee'-na, hat-tai ine. Name, m. name. nation; 3. 1. to Unrecht, wrong.

allerliebstes Canarienvögelchen. Das Thierchen sang vom Allerliebst, most lovely. lament (Klage, t. Un, prefix, un., not. al-ler-leep'-stess ka-zah'-ree-en-föʻ-ghel-yen. Dass teer'-yen zank fom Thierchen, n. little complaint,lament. Was, what. frühen Morgen biß an den Abend, und war sehr schön

creature.
Weh, n. woe). Sollen, to be obliged,

shall. fru"-hen mór'-ghen biss an dain ah'-bend, oốnt vahr zeyr sho'n Bon, of, from.

Weinen, to weep:

Früh, early. goldgelb mit schwarzem Häubchen.

Ulm, for, about, a. Sein, seiner, genitive, aber gab ihm Carolina

Morgen, m.

round.

of it, of him. gólt'-gailb mit shwar-tsem hoip'-yen. Ca-ro-lee'-na ah-bet gahp eem

ing.

Kaufen, to buy. Sorgfältig, carefully. zu essen Saamen und fühlendes Kraut, auch zuweilen ein Bis, till.

Ander, other.

Nein, no. tsoo ess"-sen zah'-men dont kü”-len-dess krout, ouchy, tsoo-vi'-len ine Abend, m. evening. Noch, yet, still. Erwiebern, to reply. Stüdchen Zuder und täglich frisches Wasser.

Schön, beautiful. Farbe, f. colour, dye, Kurz, short, -ly. shtück'.yen tsdóck'-ker oönt teyy-frish-shess vass'-ser.

Gelb, yellow.

paint.

Tot, m. death. Aber plößlich begann das Bögelchen zu trauern, und eines Mit, with.

Eben so, just so. Mir, dative, to me. Ah-ber plöts"-líý bai-gann' dass fo-ghel-jen tsoo trou'-ern, đónt i'-nes Schwarz, black. Jener, jene, ienes, that. Für, for.

Häubchen, tuft Thun, to put, to do. Dasselbe, the same. Morgens, als Carolina ihm Wasser bringen wollte, lages

(Haube, f. cap). Allein, but, alone. Sontern, but. inor'-ghens, als Ca-ro-lee'-na eem vass'-ser bring-en völl-tai, lahch ess

Geben, to give. Neu, new.

Selbst, myself, yonrtort im Käfig.

Ihm, to him (it). Sich wuiterr., to won- self, etc. toat im key'-fly.

3u, to.

der.

Herz, n. heart.
Da erhob die Kleine ein lautes Wehflagen um das

Essen, to eat.
Lieb, dear.

Lächeln, to smile. Dah err-hope' dee kli’-nai ine lou’-tess vey'-klah-ghen dóm dass Saamen, m. seed. Du bist, thou art. liber, at, over. geliebte Thier und weinte fehr. Die Mutter des Mädchens

Kühlen, to cool. Betrübt, sad (betrüben, Grfenken, to recognise. gui-leep'-tai teer 8šnt vine'-tai zeyr. Dee měšť-ter dess meyt'-jenss Zuweilen, sometimes.! Dein, thy.

Kraut, n. herb.

to afflict). Bohl, indeed, well.

Verefren, to honour aber ging hin und faufte ein anderes, das noch schöner Stück, n. piece.

Thräne, f. tear.

(Gbre, f. honour). ah'-ber ghink hin ddnt kauf-tai ine an'-dai-ress, dass noch shoʻ-ner Zucker, m. sugar. Rufen, to call. Stimme, f. veise. war an Farben und eben so lieblich sang wie jenes, und that Frisch, fresh.

Werten, to become, Mögen, may. vahr an far'-ben dönt ey'-ben zo leep'-liġ zank vee yey'-ness, dönt taht Wasser, n. water. sign of the future zu Mutbe sein, feel. 18 in den Käfig.

Plöglich, suddenly. tense, shall, will; (Muth, m. courage. ess in dain key'-fiy.

Trauern, to grieve, sign of the passive mind).

voice, to be, to bei Dankbar, grateful Allein das Magdlein weinete noch lauter, als es tas neue Liegen, to lie.

doing. Al-line' dass meyyt-line vi'-nai-tai noch lou'-ter, alss es dass noi'-ai

(-bar, affix, producTobt, dead.

Sterben, to die. tive of, able). Bögelchen fah. wunderte sich die Mutter sehr und Käfig, m. cage. Leben, n. life.

Grab, n. grave. fő-ghel-jen zah. Dah vöðn’-der-tai zrý dee moot-ter zeyr sõnt

spracy: Mein liebes Kind, warum weineft bu noch, und bist so shpraho: Mine lee -bess kint, vah'-röðm vi’-nest doo nõch, dont bist zo

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN GERMAN.

EXERCISE 91 (Vol. II., page 63). sehr betrübt? Deine Thränen werden das gestorbene zeyr bai-truopt ? Di-nai trey-nen veyr'-den dass gai-shtor-bai-nai 1. Amerika hat einen goldenen Boden für denjenigen, welcher eines ant Vögelchen nicht in das Leben rufen, und hier hast du ja ein werks kundig ist. 2. Der Geizige ist unempfindlich gegen das Glend Anfö-ghel-yen nịýt in dass ley'-ben rooʻ-fen, öint here hast doo yah ine berer... 3. Die Italiener, welche sich in einigen Provinzen gegen öfter

reichische Unterorüdung erhoben, waren uneingedenk ihrer Schwäche. 4. andres, das nicht schlechter ist benn jenes. Da sprach tas Ich wurde des Hörens einer so langen Rebe müde. 5. Jeder Mensch if an'-dress, dass niýt shley'-ter ist den yey'-ness. Dah shprahch dass seines Totes gewiß, aber Niemand ist stets desselben eingebenf. 6. Wenn tv Kind: Ach liebe Mutter, ich habe Unrecht gegen

des Landlebens so gewohnt wärest wie ich, würdest du nicht in der Statt bles kint: Ad lee'bai moot-ter, lý hah-bai gon'-reyt ghey'-ghen dass ben. 7. Niemals will ich mich einer That schultig machen, welche mich Thierchen gehandelt, und nicht alles an ihm gethan, was ich Ihrer Freundschaft unwürtig macht

. 8. Der Mensch

, welcher ein gewissen teer-ýen gai-han'-delt, ošnt nrýt al-less an cem gai-tahn, vass ry haftes Leben geführt hat, und den Befehlen seines Gewissens gefolgt ist, fürchtet

ten Tod nicht; doch der Böse, uneingevent seiner Thaten, und bewußt feiner sollte und konnte.

Verbrechen, fürchtet den Tod und die Zukunft. 9. Mancher der eines Be. zoll-tai dont kõn'-tai.

brechens angeklagt vor seinen Richtern steht, ist sich einer Fleinern Schult biebe lina, antwortete bic Mutter, du hast sein ja bewußt, als die, welche ihn richten. Leo'-bai lee'-nah, ant'-vor-tai-tai dee most-ter, doo hast zine yah

EXERCISE 92 (Vol. II., page 63). sorgfältig gepflegt Ach nein, crwiederte das Kind, ich habe zory"-fel-trý gai-pfleyyť. Ach nine, err-vee'-der-tai dass kynt, lý hah'-bai to me. 2. Even if you are related to me, yet your behaviour does not

1. It would be agreeable to me if I could find a man who was attached noch kurz vor seinem Tode ein Stückchen Zucker, bas

du seem to me at all becoming; and I should think you yourself might noch kõõrts fore zi'-nem to”-dai ine shtuck'-yen tsook'-ker, dass doo perceive that people to whom your behaviour is known are not favour mir für basselbe gabst, ihm nicht gebracht, sondern selbst

able to you. 3. My father remembers the last dearth very well. 4 meer für dass-zel-bai gahpst, eem mịýt gai-bracht', zon’-dern zelpst bour, obedient to thy superiors, then will they be well disposed, and be

That path is dangerous to the wanderer. 5. Be obliging to thy neigd. gegessen. So fprach bas Mädchen mit betrübtem Herzen. be favourable to you. 6. Is the money promised to you certain ? 7. gai-ghess-sen. Zo shprahc, dass megt-ýen mit bai-tru'p'-tem herr’-tsen. As the prince is not like-minded with the people, and the people are inDie Mutter aber lächelte nicht über die Klagen different to the prince, it makes governing difficult to the former, and Dee mõõt'-ter ah'-ber ley'.yel-tai niýt u"-ber dee klah'-ghen dess hinders the prosperity of the latter. 8. The stars are favourable to Matchens, tenn fie

me; my undertaking will be easy to me. erkannte wohl und verehrte die Heilige

9. If bugs are not injurions meyt-yenss, den zee err-kun'-tai vole dont ferreyi-tai dee hi’-li-gai can be useful to you in this affair. 11. Your praise was very fiattering

to men, yet they are troublesome to them. 10. I am very glad that 1 Stimme Natur in dem Herzen des Kindes. Ad! to my friend. 12. To become good is difficult to the vicious, becaus: shtim'-mai dair na-toor' in daim herr'-tsen dess kin'-dess. Ach! they generally remain true to their inclinations. 13, Mauy a weal sagte sie, wie mag bem undanfbaren Kinde zu Muthe

man is superior in mind to the strong man. 14. What difference i zahch'-tai zee, vee mahd daim öðn”-dank-bah-ren kin'-dai tsoo moo".tai there between saying, “One man is unlike to the other," and "One mai

is dissimilar to the other?” 15. How stands the game ? 16. Very sein am Grabe der Eltern.

unfavourably to me. 17. Though it is disagreeable to me, I must de zine am grah'-bai dair el-tern.

clare to you that your talk is insufferable to me. 18. Who likes to admi

des

the principle, that "He who is not submissive to his king is untrue to is deposited in crystals. In this form its specific gravity is 4:5, his fatherland ? 19. I shall never forget how much I am obliged to whereas in the vitreous state it was 4.7. you. 20. Not every one who is related to me is also well-pleasing to

A third modification, corresponding to the viscid state of me. 21. What concerns me, I consider also as a matter of importance. sulphur, is obtained by sustaining the temperature of the EXERCISE 93 (Vol. II., page 63).

selenium at 90°C, for some hours: it then suddenly rises to 1. Wer kann einem Kinde feind sein? 2. 3st es Ihnen genehm, einen 160°C. If it now be cooled, its specific gravity is found to be Spaziergang zu machen? 3. Dieses ist Ihrem Geschäfte fchädlich. 4. 48, its fracture has become granular, like cast iron, and its Jedermann war ihr gewogen. 5. Eine gütige That ist Gott wohlgefällig. eddish vapours are given off, which are characterised by their

colour changed to bluish-grey. When thrown upon a hot coal 6. Sie sind Zộrem Bater in Ihren Gewohnheiten sehr ähnlich, denn er war peculiar smell that of horseradish. It burns in the air with a abgeneigt bem Rauchen und abhold bein Trinfen. 7. Was mir angehört, les ist mir auch angelegen sein.' 8. Jedem benfender Manne ist es bemert: bright blue flame, and two well-defined oxides-selenic dioxide 9. Mit Vergnügen will ich Ihnen behilflich sein, eine Anfeflung zu erhal. 111.5), is usually prepared by oxidising selenium by means bar, das es für einen Fürsten nimit leicht ist, ein Volt fich ergeben zu isiachen. Seo,) and selenic trioxide (Seo)--are known.

Selenic dioxide, or Selenious Acid (Se0g; combining weight, ten. 10. Sei deinen Eltern gefällig. ihren Willen gehorsam, dann wer- of nitric acid. The excess of the nitric acid is expelled by heat, den Fie dit geneigt und deincit Glücke günstig sein. 11. Kaltes Wasser and the white selenious anhydroxide remains. At a temperaturo trinfen in einem erhigten Körper fch äə lich. 12. Das Pferd ist ein gelehriges near low red heat it will sublime in a yellow vapour, which on Thiet une reinem Herrn gehorsam. 13. Wenn es Ihnen angenehm ist, condensing forms beautiful white acicular (needle-like) crystals. isntgen Sie morgen Mittag zu mir. 14. Der Hund ist seinem Herrn These are deliquescent—that is, they absorb moisture from the fugiau und treu. 15. Er war geneigt sichy seinen Freunden unangenehm atmosphere--becoming selenious acid, which forms with bases ju machen. EXERCISE 94 (Vol. II., page 94).

the class of salts called selenites, which are all recognised by

emitting the horseradish odour, when heated on charcoal in 1. In olden times, when a mighty man was hostile to another, he de- the blowpipe flame. clared war against him. 2. From all places which belonged to him, this Selenic Acid (H,Se0.).—This acid is produced if, in the promighty man collected those men who adhered to him. 3. After they had cess which

has been given for procuring selenium, sulphuretted assented to his purpose, they engaged to assist him, and to follow him to hydrogen be used, instead of sulphurous acid. Thus the war. 4. Such a mighty lord was Henry the Lion, Duke of Bavaria, to whoun belonged large territories, and whom thousands of warriors

PbSeo, + H,S = H, Seo, + PbS. obeyed. 5. Yet the crown of an emperor always floated before his eyes. By filtering, the lead sulphide is separated; and by evaporating 6. The ducal coronet was not sufficient for him. 7. He trusted to his the liquid until its specific gravity is 2:6, selenic acid is own power, and defled the emperor. 8. The emperor summoned him obtained. When heated this acid gives off oxygen, and becomes to submit to his orders, and threatened him with outlawry. 9. Yet the selenious acid; it forms with bases selenates, which are isomor. duke, who resembled a lion, valued neither reason nor advice. 10. As he phous with their corresponding sulphates, that is, they crystaltill then had overcome all his enemies, he believed himself to be a match lise in the same form. for everybody. 11. He resisted the demand to render an honour to the Emperor, which was due to him. 12. The emperor, who for some time

Seleniuretted Hydrogen (symbol, H. Se; combining weight, wished the duke ill, and on account of his pride was angry with him, 81:5; density, 40-75).--This gas is obtained exactly as sulanticipated him, and waged war against him. 13. The warlike expedi. phuretted hydrogen, that is, by the action of an acid on a tion was not unsuccessful for the emperor. 14. The duke could not selenide. Its odour is even more offensive than that of its withstand the hostile power, and was defeated by the emperor in the sulphur correspondent. battle. 15. He was obliged to flee to England, and only his family and TELLURIUM :-SYMBOL, Ts-COMBINING WEIGHT, 129-DENSITY, 120.. a few of his friends followed him. 16. Here he resigned all hope, and execrated pride as the cause of his misery. 17. According to your other. That is, between every great division we find individuals

The classes of every natural kingdom seem to gradate into each vish, I will help you in looking for the horse which you have lost. 18. One very easily obeys a noble master, who convinces while he which partake of the characteristics of each class. Tellurium commands us. 19, I do not relish this roast meat.

occupies this position between the metals and metalloide, whilst, from its rather high specific gravity, 6.5, some chemists are inclined to rank it with the metals; yet, from its close

analogy to selenium and sulphur, others prefer to consider it LESSONS IN CHEMISTRY.-XVI. as a metalloid. It is a rare substance, sometimes found native SELENIUM-TELLURIUM-PHOSPHORUS.

in the mines of Hungary and Transylvania, but generally it is

combined with gold, silver, bismuth, or copper. It possesses a SELENIUM :-SYMBOL, SE-COMBINING WEIGHT, 79.5—DENSITY, 79-5. high metallic lustre, and resembles bismuth in appearance. A This rare element was discovered by Berzelius in the refuse of high temperature converts it into a yellow vapour, which cona salphuric acid manufactory, at Fahlun, in Sweden. It is not denses in drops and flexible needles; it is a feeble conductor of toand free in nature, and the source from which it is usually heat and electricity. When strongly heated in the air it takes obtained is the mineral clausthalite, in which it is combined fire, and burns with a blue flame, edged with green, into with lead-although the selenides of iron, copper, and silver are Tellurous Dioxide (Te0.), which with water forms tellurous the most abundant.

acid (H, TO,). Its acid properties are feeble, and it possesses Preparation.—Some clausthalite is reduced to a fine powder a bitter metallic taste. and fased with three times its weight of saltpetre, by this means Telluric Acid (H,Te0.) is the combination of telluric trioxide the selenide (PbSe) becomes selenate (PbSO.). The mass is and water. This trioxide is produced when the element, or a now digested in water, acidulated with a little hydrochloric acid tellurite, is heated with salt petre. The process is similar to that to nentralise any of the alkali of the nitre which may remain, by which selenic acid was procured. and the liquid evaporated down to a small bulk. A current of Telluretted Hydrogen (H, Te) is procured by the action of sulphurous acid throws down the reduced selenium as a red, hydrochloric acid on an alloy of tellurium with zing or tin. It docoulent, amorphous powder, the sulphurous acid becoming is a colourless gas, having the same smell as sulphuretted sniphuric.

hydrogen. It acts upon solutions of metallic salts similarly to Properties.-It is chiefly remarkable for its close resemblance that gas, precipitating their tellurides. to sulphur. It may be obtained, like that element, in the three It is usual to group oxygen, sulphur, selenium, and tellurium forms mamorphous, vitreous, and crystalline. When the powder together, since they each unite with two atoms of hydrogen. of the precipitate above alluded to is dried, and submitted to a The last three elements, as in the case of the three halogens, temperature a little below that of boiling water, it begins to exhibit a remarkable gradation. Their combining weights, their softer, and a few degrees higher it melts ; upon cooling, it forms specific gravities, their melting and boiling points, being almost a brittle solid, with a glassy fracture. Its colour is deep brown; in arithmetical progression--that is, in everything selenium is a it possesses neither taste nor smell; is insoluble in water, and mean between sulphur and tellurium. refuses to conduct either heat or electricity: and yet its lustre is PHOSPHORUS:-SYMBOL, P-COMBINING WEIGHT, 31-DENSITY, 62. metallic. Sulphuric acid is capable of dissolving it, and is The density of the vapour of phosphorus is an exception to rendered green; but when diluted the selenium falls unaltered. the rule hitherto strictly regarded, for, instead of being the Bi-ulphide of carbon, at its boiling point, can hold in solution same as its atomic weight, it is just double, or 62, and there1 per cent of this element, and upon evaporation the selenium fore the volume occupied by an atom of phosphorus is only

}2.0.

}, that of the preceding elements being 1. The great affinity form by evaporating its solution. If, now, these crystals be phosphorus exhibits for oxygen, precludes the possibility of its melted by heat, and the temperature maintained for some time being found free in nature. It chiefly exists in combination at 212°C, one atom of the basic water will be expelled, and the with lime, as phosphate of lime (calcium phosphate, Ca,2PO.), bibasic acid remains. These three kinds may, when in solution, which is found in bones, and in the seeds of plants. The origin be thus distinguished — of calcium phosphate is traced to a constituent of some of the The monobasic is the only one which will precipitate a solution granitic rocks—the mineral apatite from the disintegration of of albumen. which the soil has become possessed of this necessary ingre- The bibasic gives a white precipitate with nitrate of silver. dient of all seed-producing soils.

The tribasic a yellow precipitate with the same salt. Preparation.—Bone earth—which is obtained by calcining By replacing the atoms of water in these acids by various bones—is composed of phosphate of lime and i carbonate of bases, corresponding salts may be obtained. Sometimes the lime; this is treated with diluted sulphuric acid, and kept at water atoms are replaced by different bases. Thus, 100°C for twenty-four hours. By this means all the carbonate of

Na,o Lime becomes sulphate, and the phosphate is deprived of two

2(NH.)O SP,Og. molecules of lime, which are replaced by two of water. Thus,

H,0 3CaOP,0, + 2H,50, = 2(Caso.) + Ca02H,0P,0,. is microcosmic salt, which is much used with the blowpipe. This last salt is called the superphosphate of lime. Being soluble This process may be thus exhibited it is easily separated from the calcium sulphate. Evaporating

H,0

H) down the solution to a syrup, a quarter of its weight of charcoal

H2O YP,0s, or

H PO is added, and the whole transferred to an iron retort. The neck

H:0)

H of the retort dips into water. On applying heat, bubbles of Now replace one of the H by its equivalent of Nag, and another carbonic oxide escape, and phosphorus, as a yellow wax-like by its equivalent (NH,) ammonium, so that we have substance, distils into the water, the reaction being thus ex.

Na pressed :

NH,{PO. 3(Ca02H,OP,0) + 10C = 1000 + 6H,0 + 3a0 P,0, + 4P.

H Properties. It is sold in sticks, which are clear and colourless Phosphorous Acid (P,0z) is obtained by burning phosphorus when the substance is new. Its specific gravity is 1.83. It in a limited supply of air. It is bibasic, forming phosphites. oxidises at all temperatures above 0°C, emitting a faint "phos- When raised to a high heat it is resolved into phosphoric acid, phorescent" light, giving off white fumes, which are phosphoric and the gas next to be considered. acid (P, 03). It melts at 45°C, and boils at 290°C. It is extremely

4P,0, + 34,0 = 3P,0; + 2PH,. inflammable, and must be handled with the greatest care, as much under water as possible. Carbonic disulphide dissolves it

Phosphuretted Hydrogen (PH3).—When a few pieces of phosreadily: from this solution it can be obtained in crystals. When phorus are heated in a strong solution of potash, bubbles of heated in an atmosphere of H, or Co,, to a temperature of which the delivery tube is dipped, take fire. As the combustion

this gas are emitted, which, as they rise from the water into 240°C, it assumes its “amorphous" condition, which is a dark red powder. This is more easily made by melting the is simultaneous at all points of bubble, a ring of white vapour phosphorus with a trace of iodine. In this condition it is not of phosphoric acid is formed. This very beautiful experiment is nearly so inflammable, need not be kept under water, and is not soluble in carbonic disulphide.

Matches.—The great use of phosphorus is in the manufacture of lucifer matches. The ordinary ones are composed of a mixture of phosphorus, potassium chlorate, glue, and red lead, the stick is first dipped in parafin, and then into the above paste.

Bryant and May's safety matches, which only strike on the lid, are made of sulphide of antimony, potassium chlorate, and powdered glass. The lid is smeared with red amorphous phosphorus, and ignition only takes place when the potassium chlorate and phosphorus are rubbed together. By using the above mixture, it is found unnecessary to dip the stick in parafin, as it will catch fire from the ignited composition. This action of phosphorus and potassium chlorate may be shown by powdering a few grains of the salt, adding a piece of red phosphorus about the size of a pea, then very carefully folding it up in paper, upon striking it a moderate blow with a stick, a somewhat violent explosion will ensue. Phosphorus is poisonous; it has a singular action on the jaw-bone, which decays away: this is said not to be the case with the amorphous variety.

Phosphoric Anhydride (symbol, P,0z) is a white powder, formed when phosphorus is burnt in oxygen, or dry air. It is very

Fig. 48. deliquescent, combining with three atoms of water, forming the hydrated acid (34,0P,0.), which may be considered as two arranged as in Fig. 48. The flask must be nearly full of the molecules of H PO,

solution. Phosphoric Acid.—The anhydride is capable of forming three Phosphuretted hydrogen is not spontaneously inflammabl acids, by taking three different proportions of water. Consider. when pure, but this property is due to the presence of a minut ing the water as a base, the acids are named

quantity of a liquid, whose composition is supposed to be PH, Monobasic 1,0P,0g.

It is this gas which sets fire to the bubble of marsh gas, formin
Bibasic
2H,OP,0..

the ignis fatuus.
Tribasic
3H,OP,0s.

Phosphorous Chloride (PC12).-Clear phosphorus burns with Sometimes the first is called "metaphospholic acid," and the pale blue flame in dry chlorine, forming this compound. It i second " pyrophosphoric acid," because it is got from the third capable of decomposing water and other oxides, the chlorin by heat.

combining with the hydrogen, or the metal and the phosphord The Monobasic is obtained by evaporating dilute phosphoric forming a phosphite (H,PO). acid to a syrup, and subjecting this to a low red heat.

Phosphoric Chloride (PC1,) is produced by a further action The Tribasic is procured by boiling for twenty minutes a chlorine on phosphorus chloride. With bromine two simils solution in water of “glacial phosphoric acid.” This latter is compounds are formed; with iodine the beautiful crystallin formed when the hydrate (2H,PO) is exposed to a red heat in P,I., and with sulphur three well characterised sulphides-P, å platinum dish. The tribasic acid may be got in a crystalline P, S, P,S.-are produced.

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RECREATIVE NATURAL HISTORY. "a smoky substance" noted by him on glass, and which he

thought aided the fly's “bristles” in clinging to so smooth a THE HOUSE-FLY.

surface. Was this “ smoky substance" the fluid observed by As the family of insects to which the house-fly belongs Power, or was it simply the corroded face of the glass ? Thero (Huscides) contains above one hundred species, we must limit is no doubt that glass does undergo a decomposition, which our attention, in this paper, to that buzzing and teasing creature working opticians call “the sweating.” The worn and irregular which so often worries us during the sultry days of summer. surface thus produced would aid an insect in clinging. Leuwen

The common house-fly (Musca domestica) may seem too well hoek, the patient and profound Dutch naturalist, employed known to require any description. But there are many who will his improved microscopes in examining the “bristles" detected find, on examination, something to wonder at in this dipterous* by Dr. Hooke. Leuwenhoek saw them clearly, and thought insect. The wings and power of flight claim our consideration that the end of each resembled a hook. This conjecture has first. Those who closely watch will often be surprised at the been verified; the extremity of each “ bristle" is curved, and manner in which the fly moves through the air with its back so presents a hooked form. Dr. Derham, the friend of Hooke,

dermwards. Of annan hon the insect and editor of Ray's works,
darts from a table to the ceiling it must turnea, Iur wmo, uvm me
perform a kind of somersault in the air. experiments on pendulums and
The feet, which were downwards on the observations on we soar spots,
table, must be turned uppermost to grasp to investigate the structure of
the ceiling. The motion is so rapid and so a fly's foot. His researches
unexpected that not one case in a thousand led him to adopt a notion re-
may attract our notice. A keen watchful. sembling the sucker theory,
ness will also enable us to observe that this He suggested that flies clung
insect can fly forwards or backwards with, to smooth surfaces by what
apparently, equal ease. The rate of its he vaguely calls their "skinny
motion is about twenty miles an hour, so palms.” Derham may have
that a fly can compete, for some time at had in his mind the adhesive
least, with an ordinary railway train. fluid of Mr. Power and the

Some may here ask whether the “buzz" "smoky substance" of Hooke,
Tax Foot OF THE

of the fly is produced by the rapid vibration while he himself may have in. HOUSE-FLY (MAGNI. of the wings against the air. This may, in distinctly noted what are now FIED).

some cases, be the cause of so peculiar a called " the flaps” on the foot.

sound, but no decisive answer can, with By combining all these, Der. our present knowledge, be given to the question. The fly ham might have got his notion is rightly called a two-winged insect, but the apparent rudi. of an adhesive cr "skinny ments of a second pair can be easily seen, just behind the true palm.” Gilbert White, though wings. These singular organs are called poisers, from a sup an acute observer of Nature, THE TRUNK OF THE HOUSE-FLI position that they enable the fly to balance itself during its was not likely to go deeply

(MAGNIFIED). rapid somersaults in the air. These little thread-like filaments, into microscopic investigations. with the knob on the top of each, may remind some of the He therefore adopted the “ sharp hooked nails” of Dr. Hooke, halancing-poles used by dancers on the tight-rope. If the com the "skinny palms" of Derham, and the sucker theory as non notion respecting the use of the poisers be correct, we shall explanatory of the whole matter. White, however, clearly readily adınit that the fly is well fitted for its evolutions, pos admitted the action of two powers in the fly's foot, one for sussessing both a moving and balancing apparatus.

pension, the other for producing a vacuum. Have we advanced The feet of the fly have long presented a puzzling problem to beyond this in certainty of knowledge ? Mr. John Blackwall, in naturalists, and some persons may even now doubt whether the 1830, described three conclusions to which he had been led. He action of these organs is yet clearly understood. The problem detected an expansion at the end of each hair or “tenter,” reis to explain how the fly can suspend itself from a ceiling or sembling a little pad or cushion, but denied the existence of any walk up a smooth pane of glass. The “sucker” theory was vacuum-producer or air-pump structure. Some persons reminded long popular, and we believed, with little questioning, that the him that each hair, with its expanded tip, might really be a Ay's feet were supplied with a kind of air-pump, by which a separate sucker. This conclusion he refused to admit, alleging vacanm was produced under the feet, enabling them to cling to i it to be unsupported by proofs. Here, then, was a distinct glass much in the same manner that a boy's

denial, by an acute microscopic observer, of toy sacker adheres to a stone. Let no reader

the sucker theory, accompanied, however, by prepare himself to listen to a new theory on

a clear statement that the end of each hair the subject; we must content ourselves with

on the fly's foot possesses a peculiar expansion, describing the successive views which have

looking as if it must have some special work been advocated, and then stating that now

to perform. Mr. Blackwall also arrived at a held by those who have most closely studied

third conclusion—that a fly in walking along a these fine and complex structures. Our

pane of glass leaves behind certain marks, as readers will bear in mind that very high and

if a fluid had been poured out at particular clear microscopic powers, great patience, and

points. He thus agrees with the observations namerous observations are necessary for a

of Power, Hooke, Derham, and White. The satisfactory examination of such minute

examination was still carried on by naturalists, organs.

with the aid of the best microscopes. In 1841, In 1664, Mr. Power, after long scrutiny of

Mr. E. Newman called attention to the almost the Ay's feet, suggested that the insect clung

inconceivable number of the “bristles." to surfaces by its hooked claws, and also by

Hooke had estimated the whole number of the the aid of a fluid poured from tubes on the

THE EYE OF THE HOUSE-FLY

"tenters” on the six feet at sixty; Mr. leet. He saw two powers at work; a grip

(MAGNIFIED).

Newman declares they are “almost infinite." ping machine in the claws, and an adhesive action in the gummy | This observer also saw that a liquid was poured out from some Liquid. Three years later, in 1667, the Gresham professor, part of the complex structure. This fluid has been subjected mathematician, and naturalist, Dr. Robert Hooke, described in to chemical analysis, but no remarkable element has been diskis - Micrographia” the "small bristles” on the " soles" of covered. Water and oils appear to be the constituents, so that the fly's feet. He called them “ tenters” (holders), and counted it is similar to the ordinary matter given off by the pores of ten on each foot, thus giving to this small insect sixty holding the human skin. instruments. But Hooke goes on to describe what he terms Mr. Hepworth, in 1854, observed that "the flaps" of thə

Aly's feet were trumpet-shaped, or resembling the form of a boy's • Diptera, 2 Greek word signifying "two wings."

sucker when supporting a heavy stone. This gentleman also

58

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VOL. III.

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noticed the marks left on glass by " the flaps,” but denied the of the fly. This can, however, only rank at present as a clever existence of an adhesive fluid in sufficient quantity to support supposition, which subsequent discoveries may prove to be true. the weight of a fly. He advocated the sucker theory, giving no The proboscis or trunk of the fly consists of many suction less than 12,000 suction tubes on one foot of a common fly. If tubes, admirably fitted for pumping up the fluids on which the this statement should stand the test of examinations, we shall insect feeds. This trunk would admit of a much longer then have in one small insect 72,000 suction machines. It may description than our space allows; we must, however, remind give some readers a clearer view of the minute scrutinies now the reader that a fly's proboscis really contains tongue, jows, made into insect structure when we state that the expanded and lips, all modified and combined in one organ. The tongue edge of a fly's foot, called "the flap," has been found to be only is a net-work of fine tubes; two fine hooks are visible near the soboth of an inch in thickness.

tip, one on each side, and the extremity is furnished with a Mr. Tyrrell and Mr. West have devoted much time to the series of most delicate vessels, through which the food passes examination of these “flaps," and the following are the principal up to the more fleshy parts of the tongue. An elaborate system results :-Two distinct sets of hairs are found on the foot of a of exceedingly minute muscles draws out and retracts the tongue, ily; one, called "tenents," rise from the inner side of the flap, and aids in rollin, on the whole trunk when the insect has and are employed to grip smonth on--

Suriavos; we ouner series are unished its meal. As nothing vui ñuid can ascend the fine l's,” their office being to protent

, the fine hankans

vuvus, it might be supposed that no fly could dine off a sorid tips of the " tenents” from injury by Friction. We must observe lump of sugar. But the insect is able to dissolve such a subhere that house-flies are not the only insects furnished with such stance by a liquid poured from the trunk, and thus the liquefiel a double system of hairs-most beetles are similarly supplied. sugar is easily drawn up the suction vessels.

The fly's apparatus for walking and holding on may be thus The eyes of a fly are very large when compared with the size summed up :-On a rough surface the insect appears to use its of the head. If one of these compound eyes be examined under claws only; on glass, or on a ceiling, three processes are brought a glass with a linear magnifying power of 100, the organ will into action-first, the “almost infinite" number of hairs are be found to consist of many thousand tubes, each fixed in a sixpressed down on the smooth surface; a peculiar movement of sided case. Every one of these eyelets appears to be a perfect the bristles then expels all the air from between or beneath the simple eye, resembling in all essentials that of man. Dr. Hooke hair-like cushion ; lastly, a fluid is poured ont round the base of gave the number of eyelets in each eye at 7,000, and Dr. Carthe entire hair-pad, and the expelled air is thus prevented from penter estimates them at 4,000. Thus, at the lowest compuentering. A vacuum is in this manner secured and maintained tation, a honse-fly possesses 8,000 separate organs of vision. so long as may be necessary. When the fly wishes to move, the Few insects seem to lead a happier life than this nimble little flap, firmly pressed down on the glass, must be first raised, and creature. But its days are not always free from trouble ; a this is accomplished by the hooked claws which lift up the thin disease of a peculiar character attacks the fly, producing a edges of the hair-pad, and thus let in the air and destroy the white cruption on the body, suggesting the idea of insect vacuum. The movement of the claws in this process is very leprosy. The fly is also infested by little parasitic animals, peculiar. Some notion of it may thus be gained :-Let a which some enthusiastic naturalists have carefully figured and reader suppose that a sucker is fixed to the tip of his little described. finger, and that this sucker becomes fastened to a table by Many persons may ask, what special service do flies perform atmospheric pressure ; let him also imagine the tip of his in the system of Nature? Their particular office appears to be thumb to be armed with a number of fine hooks. He will be the rapid consumption of those dead and minute animals whose able to lift the edges of the little finger sucker by these thumb decaying myriads would, otherwise, soon poison the air. It was hooks, and thus the air will be admitted under the sucker. Some a remark of Linnæus, that three flies would consume a dead what after this fashion does the fly loosen its foot from a surface horse sooner than a lion could. He, doubtless, included the of glass.

families of the three flies, then he was certainly right. A single The insect requires all its force thus to move the feet nimbly. fly will sometimes produce 20,000 larvæ, each of which in a few When benumbed by cold or weakened by other causes, the fly days may be the parent of another 20,000, and thus the remains fixed to one place, unable to lift its feet from the descendants of three flies would soon devour an animal much surface. Feeble or diseased flies may sometimes be seen vio- larger than a horse. lently struggling to extricate themselves. This was observed Our readers will see, in the preceding remarks, that even a by White, who describes the insects as “labouring along and common house-fly can offer to a student of Nature many marvels lagging their feet in windows, as if they stuck fast to the glass." of structure, and numerous proofs of an infinite intelligence in Mr. West has endeavoured to estimate the exact amount of the the almost invisible organs of the meanest creatures. forces which enable a fly to adhere to glass. He found that one-half the insect's weight is supported by the atmospheric pressure on the feet when the vacuum has been produced.” One

READINGS IN FRENCH.-II. fourth of the weight is upheld by the grip of the "tenent"

LE SAPEUR DE DIX ANS. hairs, and the remaining fourth part by the fluid emitted from

SECTION V. the flaps. As a common house-fly weighs about half a grain, À PARTIR de ce jour, on ne se moqua (a) plus autant du petit the supporting force exerted by each of the six feet will amount Bilboquet, mais il n'en devint (b) pas pour cela plus commu to one-twelfth of a grain only, and this force is distributed nicatif ; au contraire, il semblait rouler dans sa tête quelqu among three powers—the atmospheric pressure, the "tenent" fameux projet, et, au lieu de (c) dépenser son argent avec se hairs, and the sustaining fluid. Each of these forces would have camarades, comme ceux-ci s'y attendaient, il le serra soigneuse to support the bath of a grain only, assuming the weight to be ment.2 equally distributed throughout.

Quelque temps après, les troupes françaises entrèrent We have devoted thus much of this paper to the investi. Smolensk, victorieuses et pleines d'ardeur ; Bilboquet en étai gations of eminent men into the structure of a fly's foot, with et le jour même de l'arrivée, il alla se promener (d) dans two objects in view-to induce some readers to make a more ville, * paraissant très-content de presque tous les visages qu' constant use of the microscope in their studies, and to deepen rencontrait;5 il les considérait d'un air riants et semblait le the conviction that there is nothing really little in the works of examiner comme un amateur qui choisit des marchandises. ] an infinite mind.

faut (e) vous dire cependant, qu'il ne regardait ainsi que le The antenne of the fly, or feelers, as some call them, must paysans qui portaient (f) de grandes barbes.? Elles étaien not detain us long, but we cannot pass over some peculiarities sans doute très-longues et très-fournies (9), mais d'un roux of structure in these organs. The third point in the antennæ of laid, qu'après un moment d'examen Bilboquet tournait la tê the blue-bottle fly (Musca vomitoria) is pierced with exceed. et allait plus loin. Enfin, en allant ainsi, notre tambour arrit ingly fine apertures, the diameter of each being only towth of au quartier des Juifs. Les Juifs à Smolensk, comme dar yn inch. So numerous are these openings that both antennæ toute la Pologne et la Russie, vendent toutes sortes d'objet are estimated to contain 17,000. The mouth of each tube is et ont un quartier particulier.10 Dès que Bilboquet y (1) fi protected by a fine curtain-like membrane, behind which a entré, ce fut pour lui un véritable ravissement: 11 imaginez-voi minute sac full of fluid can be seen. Some naturalists regard les plus belles barbes du monde, noires comme de l'ébène : this singular system of apertures and sacs as forming the ear car la nation juive toute dispersée qu'elle est, parmi les entr

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