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LESSONS IN BOTANY.-XXVIII. sphere vines are planted, and arrive at perfection at the Cape of

Good Hope, on the coasts of Chili, at the embouchure of the SECTION LXIII. --AMPELIDEÆ, OR VITACEÆ, THE VINE Rio de la Plata, and in Australia. It is, however, the south FAMILY,

of France which must be regarded as the especial land of the Characteristics : Calyx free; petals four to five inserted upon vine. the border of a hypogynous, or sub-perigynous disc; æstivation The greater number of the Vitacece contain acids of various valvate; stamens five, opposite to the petals ; ovary two, three, kinds distributed throughout all parts of the plant, and in or six celled; ovules ascendant, erect, or reflexed; berry two various proportions; sometimes in the pure condition, someto six celled; ovule dicotyledonous, straight, very minute, lying times mixed with other principles. In the berry of certain at the base of a fleshy albumen; stem ligneous ; leaves palmi. species is found a kind of sugar named by chemists glucose, lobed, digitate, or pinnate.

otherwise known as grape sugar. It is in consequence of the The Ampelideæ or Vitacece are generally trees or shrubs presence of this sugar that the juice of the berries when er. supplied for the most part with tendrils, containing an abund-pressed ferment and give rise to wine, a drink which we have ance of aqueous juice, and having contorted knotty branches. scriptural authority for saying “rejoices the heart of man." The lower leaves are cpposite the upper ones, alternate; stipules The general theory of wine-making is as follows :—The ripe very small, sometimes absent. The flowers are minute, greenish berries contain glucose, much water, a fermentive principle, in colour, arranged in a multifloral panicle or a corymbiform mucus, tannic, malic, and nitric acids, and bitartrate of potash cyme. Calyx very small, obscurely dentated, and nearly entire, (cream of tartar), in addition to many other salts and coloursurrounded by a disc, on which the petals and stamens are ing matters. The grapes are crushed by the naked feet of borne. The corolla is polypetalous, or almost polypetalous ; workmen in large cisterns of wood or stone. On the expiration style very short, stigma terminating

of a certain time, fermentation in a flattened head. Seeds contained

commences amongst the various in a thorny shell; radicle inferior.

principles of the grape; the mass The Vitaceae inhabit all the inter

becomes hot, owing to certain chemitropical region, and especially that

cal compositions and decompositions of Asia. Beyond the tropics they

which are taking place; sugar beare rare, more especially the Tropic

comes changed into alcohol and carof Capricorn. None are found indi.

bonic acid, and the liquor becomes genous to Europe; and if wild vines

inebriating. A scum now rises, which are found in the forests of this con

is nothing more than the partially tinent, the plant is to be regarded

decomposed ferment, and collects in as having escaped from domesticity.

a thick crust. After the lapse of a The true country of the vine seems

few more days fermentation ceases. to be Mingrelia and Georgia, be.

The wine is now formed, and only tween the mountains of the Cau.

requires to be cleared. Red wine casus, Ararat, and Taurus. The

owes its colour to the presence of a most ancient traditions mention the

blue resinoid principle resident in the vine as having been made use of

pellicle of the fruit. This principle, by man, the culture of which may

insoluble in water, is soluble in alcobe said to be commensurate with the

hol, and therefore colours the wine advent of man upon the globe.

in proportion as the alcoholic ferIf we examine geographically the

mentation has become developed. culture of the vine as at present

The free acids contained in wine circumscribed, we shall find the

cause this blue colour to change to northern limit of the region to be

red. Taking advantage of these prinbounded on the western coast of

ciples, nothing is more common than Europe by the embouchure of the

the preparation of white wine from Loire. This limit, stretching away

dark grapes ; all that is necessary to to the east, approaches still further

effect the result being the removal of towards the north until it attains

the expressed juice from the grape the fifty-first parallel of latitude at

husks before alcoholic fermentation the confluence of the Rhine and

has set in. Moselle. Vines which grow to the

The preparation of sparkling wines north of this limit no longer furnish

is effected by bottling the juice before wine, and scarcely yield decent vine

213. THE CORINTH GRAPE.

fermentation has quite ceased. In gar. The culture of the vine suc

this way a portion of carbonic acid, ceeds in the valleys of the Rhine and Danube. In Hungary which would have escaped under other circumstances, is forcibly it does not prosper north of the forty-ninth degree of north retained and dissolved in the wine. latitude; and in Central Russia it stretches along the northern When grapes are dried they constitute raisins. The drying coast of the Caspian under the forty-eighth parallel. This process is either conducted in the sun or artificially. . Raisins of limit, if viewed in its ensemble, corresponds with an arc, the Malaga, of Damascus, and of Corinth (currants), are all sudextremities of which rest westward on the forty-seventh, east-dried. Valencia and all other raisins are dried by artificial ward on the forty-eighth parallel, and the curve of which rises means. The native American representatives of the vine, Vitis as high as the fifty-first degree of north latitude. This vulpina and Vitis labrusca, are but poor substitutes for the curvature is explained by the fact that more heat in given time species of the Old World, the berries being harsh tasted and is furnished to plants growing inland than to those which sharp in flavour; nevertheless, the American native grape is grow near the sea-coast. Passing on from the Caspian Sea not altogether despicable, although it has gained the name of towards the East, we see that the vine is not unknown in “fox-grape," from its sourness. Bokhara and Northern Persia; but on the southern declivity The varieties of the common vine now known are far too of the Himalaya Range it becomes rare, and altogether dis- numerous for enumeration. Perhaps of all these varieties the appears in the valley of the Indus and the maritime region of one possessing most interest is the little Corinth grape, which Persia. South of the twenty-ninth degree of north latitude it yields our so-called currants—a corruption, by the way, of requires to be protected against the ardour of the sun. Under Corinths. Strange to say, this grape, if planted very far away the tropics the vine is sometimes planted in gardens. It from the Grecian Archipelago, ceases to yield the peculiar grape, grows rapidly, but the fruits always wither before arriving but degenerates, and furnishes grapes of ordinary size and at perfection. In North America the vine is not cultivated character. A representation of the Corinth grape is subjoined beyond the thirty-eighth degree, but many delicious kinds of (Fig. 213). These grapes are extensively cultivated in Zante wine are made in the United States. In the southern hemi- ! and others of the Ionian Islands for exportation,

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SECTION LXIV.-ARALIACEÆ, OR IVY WORTS. four, alternate with the petals; ovary inferior, two to three celled, Characteristics : Calyx adherent to the ovary; petals five or uniovular; ovules pendent, reflexed; style simple; fruit drupaten inserted upon an epigynous disc, sessile ; valvular in æsti- ceous, two or three celled; seeds inverted; embryo dicotyledonous, vation ; stamens inserted with the petals, in number equal to straight in the axis of a fleshy albumen ; radicle superior. the latter, and alternate with them, or double

The Cornacee are generally trees or shrubs their number; ovary inferior, two or more

with opposite, simple, or stipulate leaves. celled, uniovulate; ovules pendent, reflexed;

Flowers disposed in a capitulum, umbel, or styles equal in number to the cells, distinct or

corymb. The Cornacere are allied with the coherent; fruit bacciform, dry, or fleshy ; seed

Caprifoliacec, from which, however, they inverse, dicotyledonous; embryo very small

may be distinguished by their free petals. at the base of a fleshy albumen ; radicle

They are also allied with Araliaceo in their superior.

general aspect, and in the possession of a The Araliaceæ generally possess a woody

similar fructification. stem, and have for the most part alternate or

The Cornaceæ inhabit the temperate and stipulate leaves. Flowers regular, capitular,

cool regions of the northern hemisphere. ambelliferous, or in racemes.

Certain members of the order possess in their The Araliacece are inhabitants of tropical

bark a peculiar bitter principle termed corand temperate regions of both hemispheres.

nüine, also an astringent matter. Some proThis natural order has a certain resemblance

duce edible fruits and oily seeds. The greater to the Umbellifere, both in general aspect

number possess a wood of great hardness. and chemical qualities. In Araliacece, however,

The comel-tree (Cornus mascula) is generally

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214. THE GRAPE VINE (VITIS VINIFERA). 215. THE

216. THE RACEME-FLOWERING ARALIA (ARALIA RACECOMMON IVY (HEDERA HELIX).

MOSA). 217. THE DOGWOOD (CORNUS SANGUINEA). the aromatic resinons principles are masked by

diffused over most parts of the world. The astringent and bitter matters.

Orrnus sanguinea (Fig. 217) produces bitter The common ivy needs no description as to

and nauseous fruits, but the seed yields an oil general appearance. Its leaves, when bruised,

useful for illumination and the fabrication of are aromatic, and their juice, incorporated with fatty matter, soap. The Benthamia fragifera, or strawberry-fruited Benthamia, constitutes a good application to burns. The ginseng (Panax is a shrub of Nepaul and Japan, now generally cultivated in EuroSchinseng) grows in Tartary, China, and Nepaul. Its root con- pean gardens. The name fragifera is given to this plant on actains a bitter, an acrid, and a saccharine matter. The plant count of its bearing a fruit similar in general appearance to a enjoys in Asia an immense reputation as a tonic, and sells for strawberry. The Cornus florida is a North American shrub. It three times its weight in silver. Panax quinquefolium grows possesses an astringent bark, and is employed as a substitute for in North America ; its root is collected and sold to the Chinese quinine by American medical practitioners. The Aucuba

Japonica, as a substitute for the real ginseng. The Aralia nudicaulis, or variegated laurel, is a Japanese shrub, an evergreen with shining a North American plant, is celebrated as a sudorific, and its leaves, opposite, coriaceous, sometimes plumose. Flowers diceroots are used for the purpose of adulterating sarsaparilla. cious, small, axillary, disposed in panicles, four petaloid, four SECTION LXV.-CORNACEÆ, OR CORNELS.

staminiferous. Ovary adherent, unilocular, uniovulate ; ovule Characteristics : Calyx adherent to the ovary ; petals four, pendent, reflexed. Fruit, a berry. This shrub, which is full of inserted upon an epigynous disc, valvate in æstivation ; stamens ramifications and very elegant, is a charming garden ornament.

pen, befall.

LESSONS IN GERMAN.-XXXVIII. fläger ließ ten Angeklagten nicht zu Worte fømmen, sondern fuhr immer

mit seinen Beschuldigungen fort, ohne auf die Entschuldigungen zu bēren. SECTION LXXIV.-IDIOMATIC PHRASES (continued).

24. Der Lärm übertönte die Stimme des Nebenden, und ließ ihn nicht zu Nicht wahr? is it not true (literally, not true?), answers to our Worte fommen. phrases, "isn't it?” “ wasn't it?" " don't they?" etc., after an

EXERCISE 143. assertion; as :-Es ist faltes Wetter, nicht wahr? it is cold weather, 1. Your friend whom we saw the day before yesterday is is it not ? Sie kennen ihn, nicht wahr? you know him, do you not? sick, is he not? 2. It was an agreeable evening, was it not, my Sometimes nicht wahr precedes the assertion, as :-Nicht wahr, Sie friend ? 3. Yes, it was; and I shall never forget the pleasure find müte, you are tired, are you not?

we had. 4. Your brother was also there, was he not? 5. It is 1. Aufwarten (compounded of the particle auf and warten (§ 90) yet early, is it not? 6. No, it is very late, and we must go. signifies to wait upon, to serve, and governs the dative. Ich 7. I have waited already an hour for my friend, but still he has iarte Ihnen auf, I wait upon you. Darf ich Ihnen mit einer Tasse Thee not come. 8. I am waiting for our servant. 9. Do not wait aufwarten? may I serve you with a cup of tea ? Ich danke Ihnen, for him, I have just sent him out. 10. After I arrived in Lon. sometimes abbreviated to Id tanke, means in addition to our “I don, I went directly and waited upon my friend, for whom I had thank you,” also, “No, I thank you,” according to the significa letters of recommendation, 11. May I serve you with a cup of tion intended to be given. Ich bin se frei (literally, I am so free) chocolate ? 12. No, I thank you. 13. Will you not visit us or Ich bitte, is the usual equivalent to our “if you please." Ich before you go to the Continent? 14. Yes, I shall pay you a mache ihn meine Aufwartung, I wait upon him (literally, make visit. 15. May I help you to a glass of ale ? 16. I thank you, my waiting upon him). Warten, when followed by the preposition I never drink it. 17. I have heard the news, but I do not know auf

, signifies " to wait for;" as :-Sch warte auf ihn, I am waiting what to say to it. 18. You speak French and German, do you for him.

not? 2. Sollen (see $ 83 [6] Remark [13]), with an infinitive, is SECTION LXXV.-IDIOMS RELATING TO VERBS. often answered, in English, by the infinitive only, preceded by Schmerzen, to pain, is used like the corresponding English the preposition " to ;” as :-jd weiß nicht, was ich thun soll, I do word; as :-Der Gedanke schmerzt mich, the thought pains me. Te not know what to do.

Wunde schmerzt ihn, the wound pains him. 3. Nicht zum Worte, or, zu Worte fommen, signifies, literally, not

1. Weh (pain), joined with thun (to do, to make), forms the to come to the word, or to words; that is, not to be able to speak. phrase Web thun, to pain, to grieve (literally, to make, or canse VOCABULARY.

pain); as :--Daš thut mir weh, that grieves me (it causes me pain). Nachen, n. Aix-la-, G'benfalls, also, too, | Umsonst', in vain, Gr hat dem Sinte weh gethan, he has hurt the child. Die Sand thut Chapelle. likewise.

vainly.

ihm weh, the hand pains him. Das Kind hat sich weh gethan, the An'tläger, m. accuser, Entschuldigung, f. ex. Berge'bens, in vain, child has hurt itself. impleader. cuse, apology. vainly.

2. Leid thun (literally, to make, or cause pain) is employed to Nuf'warten. (See R.1. Kellner, m. waiter, Vergnügt", cheerful, denote mental sufferings ; sorrow ; as :-Es thut ihm leit, daß er es above.) bar-keeper.

merry, delightful. gethan hat, he is sorry that he has done it. És thut mir leib, ikn Beschuldigung, f. accu- Krõnung, f. corona- Vertreter, m. repre- nicht gesehen zu haben, I am sorry not to have seen him. sation, imputation tion,

sentative.

3. Fehlen, to fail, to miss, to lack, is often used impersonally; Bier, n. beer, ale. Ordnen, to regulate, Widerfah'ren, to hap. as :

-s fehlt ihm an Verstand, he was lacking in understanding. Chocola'de, f. choco order.

So, also, Was fehlt dem Manne? what ails the man? Was fehlt late. Tasse, f. cup, dish. Zunge, f. tongue.

Shnen, what ails you, or, what is the matter with you ?
RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

VOCABULARY.
Ihr Herr Vater ist franf, nicht wahr? Your father is sick, isn't he ?

Ab'weichen, to deviate. Meiden, to avoid, Verfen'nen, to mis

A'bermals, again, once shun, to abstain take, to take for Ich war'tete eine Stunde auf Sie, I waited an hour for you; then

from.

another. dann ging ich, und machte dem I went and waited upon Begegʻnen, to encoun- Nic'terschlagen, to de- Verstimmt', out of Fremten meine Auf'wartung. (called upon) the stranger.

ter, meet. Er machte mich darauf aufmerksam, He reminded me (made me

ject, discourage, humour, out of

dishearten. Ding, n. a thing.

tune. daß die Zeit vorbei' war.

observant) that the time was

Erwer'ben, to earn, Pfad, m. path. Volksliet, n. nations!

past. Er wußte nicht, was er tħun sollte.

get, obtain.

Sagen, to say, tell. song.
He did not know what to do.

Fehl'gehen, to
Die meisten Monar'chen lassen ihrem (The) most monarchs allow their

go Scheiden, to part from Bor'fallen, to happen,

another. Willen freien Lauf.

wrong, to miss the

to come to pass. wills free scope (course). Der Lärm ließ mich nicht zum Worte The noise did not permit me to Gereu’en, to cause to Seeʻlenruhe, f. tran. Wahl, f. choice.

way.

Schmerzen. (See above). Vor'sichtig, carefni. kommen. be understood. (R. 3 above.)

repent.

quillity, peace of Weh. (See Rm 1, EXERCISE 142. Gottlosigkeit, f.wicked mind.

above.) 1. Es war eine schöne Stunde, nicht wahr, mein Freund ? 2. Ja, tas

Streit, m. contest, ' Zufriedenheit, f. conwar es, und nicht so bald werde ich sie vergessen. 3. Nicht wahr, der Hinzu“fügen, to add to, contention.

tentedness. Nachbar war ebenfalls auf dem Feste? 4. Ja, er war dort, und sehr ver. to join, adjoin. Tugent, f. virtue. Zu'fügen, to cause, to gnügt. 5. Nicht wahr, es ist schon sehr spät? 6. Nein, es ist noch ziemleid. (See R.2,above.) In'schuldig, innocent. inflict. lich früh. 7. Nicht wahr, es ist nicht Alles wahr, was die Leute ragen? 8. Nein, nicht alles darf man Ihnen glauben. 9. Ich habe schon eine Es fiel nichts von Bedeu'tung vor.

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. Stunde auf ihn gewartet, und immer läßt er sich noch nicht schen. 10. Gå idhmerzt nichts länger und tiefer Nothing pains longer and more

Nothing important happened. Wir warten auf den aufwartenten Kellner. 11. Wenn Sie es erlauben,

als das Bewußt'sein, seine ($ 135. deeply, than the consciouswerde ich Ihnen heute Nachmittag meine Aufwartung machen. 12. Darf

4.) Jugend in Thor'heiten vergeu' ness of having spent one's ich Ihnen mit einer Tasse Thee oder Kaffee aufwarten? 13. Ich tanke

tet zu haben.

(his) youth in folly. für Thee, aber ich bin so frei, eine Tasse Kaffee anzunehmen. 14. Bei der auf. 15. Umsonst habe ich ihn darauf aufmerksam gemacht; er folgt nur Es fehlt mir an Gebult", das Enbe I lack patience to await the end Krönung der deutschen Kaiser zu Aachen warteten die anwesenden Fürsten Sagen Sie mir

, was Ihnen fehlt

, und Tell me what ails you, and what

is the cause of your tears. feinem Kopfe. 16. Der Lehrer machte die Schüler darauf aufmerksam,

meiner Leiden abʻzuwarten.

of my sufferings. wie wohl und gut Gott Alles in der Welt geordnet habe. 17. Der Richter

Gin Lobspruch, den ich mir nicht zu. A eulogium that I cannot ap. fragte ihn vergebens, warum er dieses Verbrechen begangen habe; ter An.

eignen kann, thut mir weher, als geschuldigte hatte nichts darauf zu antworten. 18. Ich habe das Schreiben

propriate, pains me more than erhalten; allein ich weiß nicht , was ich darauf antworten soll. 19. Ich Mir thut baš schon web, was andern That already pains me which

ein vertien'ter Verweis'.

a merited reproof. wüßte schon, was ich darauf antworten würde, wenn ich an Ihrer Stelle

nur leid thut.

makes others only sorry. wäre. 20. Die Männer, von denen Sie sprechen, find eben nicht die besten Vertreter des Landes. 21. Ich ließ meiner Zunge freien Lauf, und erzählte

EXERCISE 144. bas mir witerfahrene Unrecht.' 22. Gr ließ seiner Rede freien Lauf, und 1. Es schmerzt mich, so viele Menschen unglüdlich zu sehen. 2. Die fagte in seiner Begeisterung mehr, als er ýätte thun sollen. 23. Der An- | Wunde schmerzt ihn mit jedem Tage mehr. 3. Es schmerzt nichts meht,

more.

ness.

die von deuter verfannt zu sein, deren Liebe und Achtung man sich gern Der Onkel seßte seinen Hut aus und The uncle put on his hat and cemetben möchte. 4. &s thut mir leid, ihn beleidigt zu haben. 5. Scheis hängte seinen Mantel um.

cloak (hung his cloak round). ten und Meiden thut web, fagt ein altes deutsches Volkslied. 6. Der er eilt heim mit sor'gender Seele, He hastens home with anxious Kopf thut mir weh. 7. Es thut mir in der Seele weh, ihm nicht helfen zu damit er die Frist nicht verfeh'le soul in order that he may not fönnen. 8. Was fehlt Dir, mein Freund, warum so traurig? 9. Et fehlt (Schiller).

miss the appointed time. mir weiter nichts, als daß ich ein wenig verstimmt bin. 10. Sind Sie

EXERCISE 146. franf? 11. Ja, ich bin ein wenig unwobl. 12. Was fehlt Ihnen? 13. 3o habe Koffivel. 14. Sie sind reich und angesehen, und body find Sie

1. Seitdem ich hier angekommen bin, hat sich schon Manches ereignet. niedergeschlagen, was fehlt Ihnen? 15. Es fehlt mir viel, „Zufrieden 2. Seitdem er diese That begangen þat, scheint aller Friede von ihm gea heit und Seelenruhe." 16. AU (Sect. XL. 6) meine Freunde, die ver. wichen zu sein. 3. Seitdem er ført ist, habe ich feine recht frohe Stunde sprochen hatten, zu fommen, waren ba, nur Giner fehlte. 17. Alle Menschen mehr. 4. Seit dieser Zeit hat man nichts wieder von ihm gehört. 5. fehlen. 18. Mein Bruder ist abermals fehl gegangen; statt in mein Haus, Seit meinem zehnten Jahre habe ich das elterliche Haus verlassen. 6. Seit ift er in das meines Nachbars gekommen. 19. Seine Worte gereuten ihn, gestern befinde ich mich nicht ganz wohl. 7. Seit dem Tode seiner Eltern un er versprach, dieselben nie wieder sagen zu wollen. 20. Als dieses vor irrt er ohne Heimath in der Fremde umher. 8. Seitdem er zur Erfenntniß fiel, war ich nicht zu Hause. 21. Dieser Streit fiel in der Nähe meiner seiner selbst gekommen ist, ist er ein ganz anderer Mensch geworden. 9. Wohnung vor. 22. 3c habe dem bereits Gesagten nur noch wenig hinzu. Er zog fich in aller Geschwindigkeit an. 10. In der Eile vergaß er seine zufügen. 23. Diesem Geshenke fügte sie ein kleines Briefchen hinzu. 24. Er Stiefel anzuziehen, und eilte in den Pantoffeln fort. 11. Seine Kleider fügte mir vorsäßlich dieses Zeit zu ; teßhalb kann ich ihm nicht verzeißen.

waren ganz burchnäßt, deßhalb mußte er sich anders anziehen. 12. Er scßte

diesen Morgen seinen Hut nicht auf, sondern seine Müße. 13. Der Diener EXERCISE 145.

hängte seinem Herrn nicht, wie gewöhnlich, den Mantel um, sondern er warf ihn 1. It pains a father to hear of the wickedness of his son. 2. rich selber um. 14. Vergessen sie nicht, Shren Mantel umzuhängen, es ist Nothing pains more than to be accused innocently. 3. It pains sehr falt und stürmisch. 15. Gängen Sie mir gefälligst meinen Mantel me that so many persons have been found killed by the last um, und seßen Sie mir meinen Gut auf, denn ich ḥabe schon meine tiden storm. 4. I am sorry that you did not find me at home. 5. Pelzhandschuhe angezogen. 16. Er stieg auf den höchsten Baum, damit er The wound which the soldier received in the contest pains him. den König seben fönne. 17. Er war sehr cilig, bamit er die Abfahrt des 6. What ails you, my friend ? 7. Oh, nothing particularly. 8. Postwagens nicht versäumen möchte. 18. Er erzihlte mir dieses, damit ich mir You look very ill, what is the matter with you ? 9. I am not ein Beispiel baran nehmen möchte. 19. Der Schüler entschuldigte sich tamit, well, I have hurt myself. 10. He has fallen out of the window. daß er keine Zeit gehabt hätte, seine Aufgabe zu lernen. 20. In großen 11. This boy lacks understanding. 12. You have been offended Staaten müssen Hunterte hungern, damit Einer prasse und schwelge : by me; I am sorry, for I esteem you much. 13. You dare not Zehntausende werden gedrückt und in den Tod gejagt, damit ein gekrönter lack courage to encounter the contest with your enemy. 14. I Thor ober Weiser seine Phantasien ausführe. lack patience to await the result of this matter.

EXERCISE 147. SECTION LXXVI.-IDIOMS OF VARIOUS KINDS. 1. Will you please to give me a cup of coffee or tea ? 2. Damit (therewith) is often to be rendered by “ in order to, in Since yesterday I have felt myself not quite well. 3. Since he order that, so that," etc., as :--Ich muß eilen, damit ich nicht zu spit quitted his parental house we have not heard anything of him. mfomme, I must hasten, in order not to arrive too late. Idy 4. Since the twelfth year of my age I have not visited my native melte bitten, taf Sie bas thäten, damit ich es nicht thun müßte (Gellert), land. 5. Since he received the intelligence, he has had no I would beg you to do that, in order that I might not be obliged peace. 6. In order that my friend may not come in vain, I to do it.

shall stop at home. 7. I have not seen my friend since he 1. Seittem=since, since then, since the or that time; as : arrived from Germany. 8. Instead of putting on his boots, he Seitdem fie in Deutschland war, spricht sie nichts als Deutsch, since she went out in his slippers. 9. Tell your friend, if you please, he was in Germany, she speaks nothing but German. Seitdem ist er may visit us at any time. 10. Why does he not take advantage slücklich, since then (or that time, he is happy.

of his youth, in order to acquire the knowledge he wants ? 11. 2. Gefälligft, an adverb in the superlative degree, from the ad- How have you been since I saw you last? 12. Finish your exerjective gefällig, pleasing, agreeable, answers to our phrase "please, cise, if you have not yet finished it, then you will not be punished if you please;" as :-Wollen Sie mir gefälligst * sagen, wieviel Uhr es by your master. ijt? will you please to tell me what time it is ? Geben Sie mir SECTION LXXVII.-IDIOMS OF VARIOUS KINDS (continued). gefälligst nieinen Gut, please to give me my hat.

Lieb, beloved, dear, agreeable, may, when applied to persons, VOCABULARY.

be rendered (like gern with haben, Sect. XLIII. 1) “dear;" as :Abfahrt, f. departare. Geschwin'digkeit, f. ce- Seitdem'. (See R. 1, Id habe ihn sehr lieb, he is very " dear" to me. Applied to things, lufseßen, to put on. lerity, swiftness. above.)

lieb with sein signifies to be agreeable, to please, etc. ; as :-Dieses Veispiel, 1. example. Heimath, f. home, na- Stürmisch, stormy.

Eleine Geschent ist mir lieb, this little present pleases (is pleasing) Glen, to hasten. tive place.

ilm hängen, to hang me, or is dear to me. Es ist mir lieb, daß Sie damit zufrieden sind, Elterlich, parental. Hungern, to hunger, round, put on.

I am glad (it is pleasing) that you are satisfied with it. Creigʻnen, to happen, starve.

Umher'irren, to wander

1. Böse auf (literally, bad upon) and böse über (bad over or to. occur. Krönen, to crown. about.

wards) signify, “ill-disposed;" the former being applied chiefly Frienat'niş, f. know. Nachricht, f. intelli- um'werfen, to throw to persons, the latter to things; as :-Warum find Sie böse auf ihn? ledge. gence.

round, put on.

why are you angry at him? Er ist böse über mein lachen, he is (Sect. Pelzhandschuý, m. fur- Versäu'men, to miss, angry at my laughing. LXXXII. 2.) glove. neglect, lose.

2. Kennen lernen (Fennen, Sect. XXV. 3) signifies “to become acbert'eilen, to hasten Phantasie', f. fancy. Vortheil, m, advan. quainted with.”. Wollen Sie ihn fennen lernen? do you wish to away, Post'wagen, m. stage tage.

become acquainted with him? Ich habe ihn schon tennen gelernt, I atemre, f. foreign coach. [dise. Weichen, to give way,

have already become acquainted with him. country, abroad. Prassen, to gorman retire.

VOCABULARY. Shefalligft. (See R. 2, Shwelgen, to revel, Weshalb', why, where- An'treffen, to meet Ein'führen, to usherin, Schmuggler, m. smug. above.) carouse. fore. with. introduce, import.

gler. RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

Befrierrigent, satisfac- Erfolg', m. result. Unmögʻlichkeit, f. im. Die Deutiden fönnen erst über liThe Germans can only (for the Besänf'tigen, to pacify, Gefeß', n. law.

tory.
Gelin'gen, succeed. possibility.

Verbieten, to forbid. teratur urtheilen, seitdem' Tie first) judge of literature,

soften. felbft eine Literatur' haben (Göthe).

Mittheilen, to impart, Vor"stellen, to repr»since they themselves have a

Girgensinnig, stubborn, literature.

sent, communicate, be

introduce,

wilful. Er ist angezogen mit dem Kleite der He is clothed with the garment

stow, give.

personate. Gerechtigkeit . of justice.

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

Es ist ihm fehr lief, das Sie wegen He is very glad that you aro *Note, that gefälligst, unlike the phrase Sect. LXXIV. 1, is employed rieser Sache nicht böse auf ihn not angry at him on account ia soliciting and not in acknowledging a favour.

sind.

of this affair.

gert, away.

lleber was sind Sie so böse? At what are you so angry ? orderly life. 9. But I remind you of his actions in the last war, of Ich habe Herrn .. vo‘riges Jahr I have become acquainted with which he may justly boast. 10. Rejoice at his acquittal, and vouchsafe kennen gelernt'.

Mr. K. (during) the past year. him your friendship. 11. Do not scoff at him because he was in the Wollen Sie mich in diese Gesell'schaft Will you introduce me to this dungeon, but rather pity him and think of his sufferings. 12. Let ein'führen?

every one who laughs at him be ashamed of his own behaviour." 13. company ?

All present rejoiced at this speech, and they instantaneously released Id will Sie meinen Befann'ten vor'. I will introduce you to my ac

the accused man of his fetters. 14. Teach us thy way, O Lord ! and stellen.

quaintances.

deprive us not of thy grace. 15. I intend to visit a watering-place Ich will Sie mit meinen Freunden I will make you acquainted next summer. 16. I cannot by any means be of opinion that one bekannt machen. with my friends.

should not indulge in repose after dinner. 17. He who rejoices at Mein Vetter stellte den Kaiser vor. My cousin represented (perso- life should also remember death. 18. When General Tilly had con

nated) the emperor.

quered the town of Magdeburg, he laughed at the supplicants who beSein Bruder stellte mir vor, daß es His brother represented to me sought him to commiserate them. unrecht sei. that it was wrong.

EXERCISE 97 (Vol. II., page 95).
EXERCISE 148.

1. In früheren Zeiten fonnten die Leute nicht lesen, viel weniger schreiben. 1. Es ist mir lieb, daß ich Sie hier antreffe ; ich habe Ihnen Wichtiges 2. Ich bin Willens, im nächsten Sommer die Bäter Homburg und mitzutheilen. 2. Es ist mir lieb, Šie so wohl zu sehen. 3. Es wäre mir Laubach zu besuchen. 3. Alt Ludwig Philipp, König der Franzosen, seinem lieb, Sie bald wieder zu fehen. 4. Er ist böse über das Betragen seines Throne entsagt vatte, ging er mit seiner ganzen Familie nach England. 4. Neffen. 5. @r ist böse über das Ausbleiben seines Sohnes. 6. Sie ist Einige Könige haben wenig Ursache, sich ihrer Regierung zu rühmen. 5.

6. &s ges böse über sich selbst. 7. Der Freund war böse auf mich, aber ich habe ihn Kaiser Karl V. entsagte seiner Krone und ging in ein Kloster. wieder besänftigt. 8. Die Mutter ist böse auf ihr eigensinniges Kind. 9. ziemt einem Manne besser, auf seine Handlungen aufmerksam zu sein, als fich Ich bin böse auf ihn, weil er mich beleidigt hat. 10. Kennen Sie Heren seiner Fähigkeiten zu rühmen. 7. Ich werte mich aller meiner Geidäfte N? 11. Ja, ich habe ihn lezte Woche in dem Hause Ihrer Frau Tante entledigen, und ein ruhiges Leben genießen. 8. Er freute fich der fennen gelernt. 12. Id lerne ihn mit jedem Tage mehr fennen. 13. Freisprechung der Unschuldigen, und würdigte ste der größten Freundschaft. 9. Man lernt Jedermann eher fennen, als sich selbst. 14. Wo find Sie mit Die Feinde stürmten die Stadt, und lachten der Flehenden, welche sie baten, diesem Herrn bekannt geworden? 15. Wir fennen und von Jugend auf, fid, ihrer zu erbarmen. and lernen uns mit jedem Tage mehr fennen. 16. Kennen Sie Fräu.

EXERCISE 98 (Vol. II., page 118). lein B.? 17. Nein, aber ich hoffe noch mit ihr bekannt zu werden. 18.

1. The old Saxons abjured their gods after Charles the Great Dieser Mann wird durch seine trefflichen Werfe bald befannt werden. 19. had completely vanquished them. 2. Whilst he foreswore this deed Herr N. stellte mich bieser Familie vor. 20. Er wurde der Gesellschaft with a false oath, he denied the immortality of the soul. 3. His burch seinen Bruder vorgestellt. 21. Das Neußere dieses Mannes stellt wickedness is perceptible in his eyes. 4. I have not given up tho nichts vor. 22. Dieser Schauspieler stellte Karl XII. vor. 23. Durch hope of again seeing my relations. 5. I had ordered my servant

6. When I heard myself called, I wen wurden Sie eingeführt? 24. Ich verbanfe (Sect. XLIII. 6) biese turned back immediately. 7. If I were to imitate you, I should soon Ehre der Nichte des reichen Kaufmannes.

25. Der Freund führte mich in have no more money, 8. It has often happened to him already, that die Gesellschaft ein. 26. Der Franzose führte diese neue Mode ein. 27. he looked for his spectacles and had them upon his nose. 9. The king Der Schmuggler führt verbotene Waaren ein.

passes through this town to-day. 10. Steer thy ship through the EXERCISE 149.

raging waves, courageous pilot. 11. A judicious father checks the rade

behaviour of his children in time. 12. I seldom have money, but 1. It would be very agreeable to me if you could leave me to always debts; I wish I only knew how to check this inconvenience. myself. 2. It was very satisfactory to me to see my brother 13. For what does it profit a man if he gain the whole world and lose well. 3. I am very glad to hear that your undertaking has suc his own soul? 14. His strength assisted (him) to endure these sufferceeded. 4. He is angry at the conduct of his brother. 5. My ings. 15. The cook tasted of the dishes. 16. It cost me liberty and brother introduced me to Mr. G. 6. Has your sister already i fatherland. 17. It cost him his first-born son. 18. He assured me of become acquainted with my brother? 7. Yes, she became ac

the truth of this circumstance. 19. They secured the thief. 20. One quainted with him at the last concert. 8. Do you know why should seek to imitate good manners. your brother is so angry? 9. He is angry at me, because I laughed at him. 10. The actor personated Henry IV. very well. ESSAYS ON LIFE AND DUTY.-XIII. 11. That government has introduced good laws. 12. This

ТАСТ. . fashion has been introduced by the French, 13. The import of The word tact comes from the Latin "tactus," simply meaning wine from France is very great.

touch, but from thence is derived the idea of delicate perception

—a peculiar skill or faculty of discernment: and, certainly, if KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN GERMAN. any gift is of greater importance than another, in the general EXERCISE 95 (Vol. II., page 94).

conduct of life, it is the possession of tact. Multitudes who 1. Ich schmeichle mir, daß Sie mich mit einem Besuch beehren werden.

have a large amount of knowledge, and some considerable 2. Er würde mir gewiß schaden, wenn er mir beikommen fönnte.

experience of men and manners, lose their way to the goal of

3. Der Stern der Hoffnung leuchtet dem Menschen selbst in der düstersten Nacht. 4.

success, for want of tact. It may be suggested, however, by Ich werte meinem Freunde beistehen für die Hülfe , welche er mir geleistet something akin to cunning

and craftiness. But it is in no sense

some, that tact is not a very honourable thing—that it means hat

. 5. Der Lehrer hat mir gesagt, er sei mit feinen Sţülern zufrieten; synonymous with these. "It means very much what the Greek fie seien fleißig, und fämen allen seinen Wünschen zuvor. 6. Ich kenne word vous means, a keen perceptivity which acts like an instinct, teinen, welcher den Leidenschaften Anderer so schmeichelt, als er. 7. 68

with quickness and success. The tact to see what onght to be wäre zu wünschen, daß Jedermann den Armen beistehen möchte. 8. done, when it ought to be done, and how it ought to be done, is Schmeichie deinen Kindern nicht zu viel. 9. Napoleon sammelte tie besten often the making of a man.

Masters, tutors, overseers, and seiner Generäle um fich. 10. Nachtem er denselben sein Vorhaben mit. getheilt hatte, erboten fie fich ihm beizustehen.

managers must leave very much to the personal acuteness of

11. Er traute seiner those who are under them; and constant observation soon eigenen Macht, überzog Europa mit feindlichen Truppen, und troßte jeter teaches them who amongst those in their charge have eyes Gefahr. 12. Seiner eigenen Meinung nach war seine Macht unumschränkt, and know how to use them. und er gedachte nicht der Schwierigkeiten, welche ihn umgaben.

The possession of tact is also of vast importance in the EXERCISE 96 (Vol. II., page 95).

common duties and courtesies of life. To see the state of feeling 1. I suppose you still remember the young man who was accused in the mind we are addressing, and to judge the right mode of of robbery last year. 2. He was accused of having robbed a rich ministering to the ease and happiness of our visitors or fellowcattle-dealer of his money on the highway. 3. But they could not travellers; this is surely no light gift: the want of it often mars convict him of this crime. 4. He had already given up all hope of an

some means of good, and weakens the influence which we might acquittal, and abandoned the idea of being declared innocent. The judge, however, relieved him of all anxiety. 6. After he had have exerted over the comfort and weal of others. told the accused man to be of good heart and cast away all sorrow, he doubtful

meaning ; it is confined to the idea of skill

, or dexterity

Tact is not diplomacy. For diplomacy has become a word of with the robbery. 7. For it is not every one who is ashamed of beg. in managing negotiations, and has, therefore, become associated ging, and destitute of all means, that becomes a robber. 8. I can with a sort of clever "dust-throwing” into other people's eyes. speak Lighly of his behaviour, for he has always been addicted to an Our better instincts do not take comfortably to the idea of

5.

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