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words found in English exist almost exclusively combination. Latin Words. Meanings. Stems.

English Words. The combinations in which they appear vary in kind. The com- Clino

I bend, lie

olin

clinical, recline. bination may consist of one word and a suffix, or one word and Clivus a slope

cliv

declivity, acclivity. a prefix; or, again, of two words with or without terminating

Ccelum
heaven

cel

celestial. forms. The combinations require certain changes. The changes Comes (comitis) a companion

Colo
I cultivate inhabit col

colony. are effected by dropping or altering the Latin termination, or by Copia

comit

concomitant.

plenty the substitution of one vowel for another, as i for a, e for a, etc. Coquo

copi

copious. I cook

c00

co(o)k, to cocker. Coctus cooked

coct LATIN STEMS.

decection. Cor(cordis) the heart

cord

cordial, concord. Latin Words. Meanings. Stems. English Words.

Cornu
a horn

corn

unicorn, cornet. Acer (acris) sharp

acri
acrimony.
Corpus

corpus, corpu, corpuscle, corpulent. Ædes a house edi

the body
edifice.
(corporis) )

corpor incorporate. Facio I make

fi, fy
ratification, edify.

Cras
to-morrow

procrastinate. Æquus equal

equo, equi equanimity, equilibrium. Animus mind

cro(e) d.credulous,cel. anim

Credo animosity.

I believe, trust

cred

ible, credit. Libra a poundorbalance libr libration, equilibrium. Cremo

I burn

crem

cremation.
Aer
air

deri
aerial, aeriform.
Crux (crucis) a cross

cruc

crucify. Ævum an age

ev
cooval.

Cubo
Ager (agri) a field

incubation.
agri
agriculture.

I lie
(cumbo)

cumb incumbent. Cultura cultivation cultur culture.

Culpa
a fault

culp

culpable, culprit. Agger a hеар agger exaggerate.

Cura
care, cure

cura, cur {curator, sinecure. Ago I do, act

agent, agency.
act
actor, active.

The meaning of many of the words given as examples the Ala a ning

ali
aliped.

student will either know already or may deduce from the Pes (pedis) a foot

ped
pedestrian.

etymology. In other cases some additional aid may be required. Altus high

altitude, exalt.

That aid I shall supply in quotations and in such remarks as Amicus a friend

amic, imic amicable, inimical. the several topics may seem to require. Amo I love

ami,amor,amat amiable, amorous,amatory. Anima life, the soul anim animate.

“Those milks (in certain plants) have all an acrimony, though one Verto I turn

vert
animadrert.

would think they should be lenitive."-Bacon, “Natural History." Ad to

ad
adequate.

“Most satirists are indeed a public scourge,
Aunus a year
ann, annu, enni annals, annual, biennial.

Their mildest physic is a farrier's purge,
Bis
twice

bi
biped.

Their acrid temper turns, as soon as stirred,
Aqua water
aqua, aque aquatic, aqueduct.

The milk of their good purpose all to curd."-Corper. Ductus a leading

duct

conduct. Arceo I keep off

Acer is properly that which is sharp, as the point of a spear, erce

coerce. Aro I plough

arable.

or the edge of a sword, that which pricks or cuts; whereas an Ars (artis) art

art, ert
artificer, artist, inert,

acerbus (acerbity) denotes that which is bitter to the taste. Artus a joint

crli
articulation.

According to its derivation, edification is house-building. T1:4 Asper rough

0.8 per

asperity, exasperate, spiritual house is intended, the metaphor being borrowed from Audio I hear

audi, audit audience, auditor. the diction of the New Testament. Consult 1 Cor. iii. 9; xiv. 3; Augeo I increase

aug
augment.

Ephes. ii. 21 ; iv. 12, 16.
Auctio an increasing auct

auction. Auctor an originator auth

author.

“So that it is by the equilibre of the muscles, by the aid of a con: Avis a bird

ari
ariary.

siderable and equipollent (equally powerful) muscular force in constart Beatus blessed

beati
beatitude.

exertion, that the head maintains its erect posture."— Paley," Natura! Bellum

belli, bel
belligerent, rebel.

History."
Gero I carry on
ger, gest belligerent, gesture.

"Government has coercion (restraint) and animadversion upon such back, in opposition

repel, repulse.

as neglect their duty."-South. Bellus beautiful

bell
ernbellish, belle.

Articulation is properly the making of articles, that is, sma". Bene well

bone

benediction, Dictio c saying

dictio
malediction.

limbs or joints; hence dividing a flow of sound so as to produce Bibo I drink

vil
wine-bibber, imbibe.

separate and distinct sounds, that is, letters and syllables. This tro, cacle

bin
combination, binary.

power belongs only to man. Accordingly, Milton, that great Brevis short

brev

brevity, abbreviate. master of distinctive and descriptive epithets, gives as the Cado I fall

cad, cid

cadaverous, accident. characteristics of the human race that they articulate. Casus a fall

casunl. Cædo I cut

The first of these, at least, I thought denied cid

homicide. Casus

To beast, whom God on their creation-day cut

cis

incision, precision. Calor

Created mute to all articulate sound." heat

calor

caloric. Candeo I burn

Milton, “Paradise Lost." Cous, cend incense, incendiary. Candesco I begin to burn

“The former (fore) legs of this animal (the elephant) appear, when candesc

incandescence. Canis

he standeth, like pillars of flesh without any evidence of articulation."a dog

cat

canine. Cano, canto I sing

Brown, "Vulgar Errors." cant, cent

canticles, precentor. Capillus

“Père Bougeant's third volume will give you the best idea of the hair

capill

capillary. Caput

Treaty of Munster, and open to you several views of the belligerent and the head capit

capital. (capitis) ) cipit precipitate.

contracting parties." --Chesterfield. Capio I take

| cap, capt, cip capable,capture anticipate, Derivatively considered, to combine is to put things together

cipi, cept recipient, receptive. in pairs, but it is employed without this restriction to signify t» Carcer a prison

carcer

incarcerate. Caro carnis) flesh

put together generally. carni, carn carnivorous, incarnate. Voro I detour

poracious.

“The impediments were — first, the negligence of the pastors; Carus dear

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cas

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car
caress.

secondly, combinations, that is double benefices, when men having two Cedo I give place to

ced
recede.

cures could not sufficiently attend both.”-Hales.
ces
concession, access, success.

"Few painters have obliged us with finer scenes, or have possessed Celer swift

celer
celerity, acc'erate.

the art of combining woods, lakes, and rocks into more agreeable Centum a hundred

cont

century, centennial. pictures than G. Poussin."--Hurd, Cerno I separate, see

discern.

It is curious to see in incubation, the act of the hen in setting Cretus separated

cret

secretion, discre(e)t. Cete a whale

on her eggs, and incumbency, the condition of a clergyman as cet

cetaceous. Cinctus girded

cinct
succinct, precincts.

occupant of a living, how the same stem, and very nearly the Citus quickly mored cit

cite, excitement.

same letters, may come to signify things so very unlike. C'lamo I call out

clam, claim
exclamation, proclaim.

Cadaverous comes immediately from cadaver, a corpse, and Clarus clear

clar
clarify, declare.

denotes the colour or complexion of a corpse. Cadaver, a corpse, Claudo I shut

clud
include, exclule.

by its etymology points out the fact which denotes death, namely, Clausus shut

chaus, clus clause, seclusion. falling, from cado, I fall. A dead body cannot stand.

cein

"The subject of the present chapter will be the offence of homicide, measure subsided. The autographs of the writers of the New Testao destroying the life of man, in its several stages of guilt, arising from ment are not known to exist. The word apology sometimes signifies the particular circumstances of mitigation or aggravation which attend defence rather than excuse. The former is the older meaning of the it."-Blackstone, " Commentaries,”

term. The monuments of Egypt are covered with hieroglyphics.

The hieroglyphics of Egypt have for the most part been at length Homicide, that is, in its corresponding Saxon term, man

deciphered. Exodus is the name borne by the second book in the slaughter, denotes the general act of man-killing, leaving it to be Bible. This name was given to the book because it recounts the decided whether the killing was or was not murder, that is, pre departure of the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt. meditated killing. Unpremeditated man-killing is generally termed manslaughter, as contradistinguished from murder. It

To endeavour to improve yourself in composition, report the deserves attention, that not one of these words, homicide, man. following anecdote, as before, to a child or to a class of slaughter, man-killing, murder (Ger. mord, murder; Fr. mort, children :death; and Lat. mort, death), conveys in itself the idea of

ESCAPE OF THE DUKE OF ALBANY. * malice aforethought." Clinical is a scientific word, and, like most of our scientific Princess of Denmark, having disgusted his proud nobility by patro

King James III. of Scotland, after his marriage with Margaret, words, may have come to us from the Greek; for the Greek nising and receiving into favour many persons of inferior rank, deep klino is the root of the Latin clino, and is similar to it in import and dangerous intrigues were formed against him. By these minions A clinical lecture is a discourse on a disease, delivered by the and upstart counsellors he was speedily made aware that his brothers bedside of the patient. A clinical convert is one that is con- -Alexander, Duke of Albany, and John, Earl of Mar-were forming Terted on his death-bed. In the early history of the churches, conspiracies against him, and that the former aimed at nothing less those were called clinici or clinical, who, wishing to have all than wresting the sceptre from his hand--a fact which has since been their sins washed away at once, postponed baptism till their proved by authentic documents. In 1482, Albany was committed to dying hour. See Gibson's remarks on the delay of baptism by the Castle of Edinburgh, where he was kept a close prisoner by those

who knew that his accession to power would assuredly be their Constantine, miscalled the Great.

destruction. He had not been long in durance until he formed and “Horror stalks around

matured a plan of escape, which, with desperate courage, he executed Wild staring, and his sad concomitant

in the following manner. Terrified by the mysterious fate of Mar, Despair, of abject look."--Philip.

and aware that his day of trial was approaching, some of Albany's “I persuaded her to take, as hot as she could well drink it, every numerous friends in France or Scotland contrived means to acquaint morning, a full draught of the decoction of centaury boiled in beer or him that a small vessel, laden with Gascon wine, lay in the roadstead of ale."-Bayle.

Leith, by which he might escape if he made an effort. The tower in Cordial, of Latin origin, has a corresponding word from the it "arose from the northern verge of the rock on which the castle is

which he was confined was probably David's, for we are informed that Saxon, that is, hearty. This is by no means a solitary case, as founded, where the height of the precipice seemed to bar all possiwill appear from the ensuing list :

bility of escape." He had but one attendant (styled his chamberLatin. Saxon.

Latin.

Saxon, chield) left to wait upon him, and to this trusty follower alone he Timid fearful.

Altitude height. revealed his intention. From the French vessel he received two small Velocity swiftness.

Annual

yearly. ranlets or barrels of wine, which luckily the castle-guard permitted to Effeminate womanish, Aqueous watery. be carried into his apartment untasted and unexamined. On opening Edifice building. Auditor hearer.

them in private the duke found that they contained Malvoisie, and, Paucity fewness.

what was of more importance, a strong rope and a waxen roll inclosing

an anonymous letter, urging him to lose no time in attempting to In incorporate, animadvert, and other words, the student is escape, as the king's minions had determined he should die ere the expected to make use of the information which he has already morrow's sunset ; and the billet ended by an assurance that the boats had supplied to him regarding prepositions in combination, as of the French vessel should await him at the shore of Leith. The well as regarding prefixes and suffixes.

first point to be gained was to lull the suspicions of the captain of the "Cremation, burning, is applied particularly to the ancient custom guard, for which purpose the duke invited him to supper, and by interment of their bodies, make use of trees and much burning, while ing until the hour grew late, Albany found the moment for action had of destroying corpses by fire. The Chinois, without cremation or arnal pressing him and three of his soldiers to drink freely of the Malvoisie,

After gaming and drink. they plant a pine-tree by their grave."-Brown, “ Urn Burial.”

come. Rushing upon the captain he snatched a long dagger from his Capillary signifies that which is like hair ; hence it is applied baldrick, and buried it repeatedly in his breast ; then, quick as thought, to the small vessels of the body, as the ramifications (branches) he dispatched the intoxicated soldiers in the same manner, and, in of the arteries, " the capillaries;” also to tubes; and attraction token of his hostility and contempt (with the assistance of his

chamber-chield), he savagely threw the bodies on the great fire that in tubes as fine as hair, is called "capillary attraction.”

blazed in the stone fire-place of the tower; and there in their armour "A strict and succinct style is that where you can take away nothing they broiled and sweltered like tortoises in iron shells. Having without losse, and that losse to be manifest."--Ben Jonson.

secured the keys of the doors, they locked them as they retired, and "To translate him line for line is impossible, because the Latin is stealthily hurried to the wall, which they prepared to descend at the naturally a more succinct language than either the Italian, Spanish, most retired part. The chamber-chield lowered himself first over the French, or even the English ; which by reason of its monosyllables, is beetling crag, which is two hundred feet in height, but the cord ir the most compendious of them."-Dryden.

proving too short, it slipped suddenly through his hands, he fell to

the bottom, and there lay senseless. We may imagine how the heart The idea in succinct, girded, is taken from the custom prevalent of the blood-stained Albany must have beat at this terrible crisis! among the ancient Greeks and Romans of gathering up and Every moment was fraught with danger, and his death or life were binding around the waist their long flowing robes, when they hanging by a hair. Rushing back to his apartment in the tower, ho were about to apply to any manual occupation. Compare tore the sheets from his bed, twisted them into a rope, lengthened Isa, viii. 9; John xiii. 4, 5.

the cord, looped it around an embrasure, and, lowering himself over

the rampart, and the rugged rocks it overlooked, reached the bottom EXERCISES IN COMPOSITION.

in snfety. There he found his attendant stretched on the ground, Words veith their proper Prepositions to be formed into sentences, with his thigh-bone broken. Unwilling to leave behind him, to the WORDS. FOREIGN REPRESENTATIVES.

mercy of his enemies, one who had been so faithful, Albany, with o Clear of, clarus, bright, distinct.

sentiment of gratitude which seems almost incompatible with his preCoalesce with, coalesco, I grow together.

vious ferocity, lifted him on his shoulders, and, being a man of gigantic Coincide with, cum, in, cado, I fall in with.

stature and uncommon strength, carried him thus with ease to Leith, Commune with, communis, common.

where they embarked without delay; and setting sail before the Commit to, cum, mitto, I send with.

rising sun brightened the German sea, cast anchor under the towers Communicate to, communico, I communicate.

of Dunbar, the patrimovial castle of Albany. During the whola Compare to (in respect to

night nothing was known of his escape; but daylight revealed the quality),

rope and twisted sheets hanging over the northern ramparts; thero Compare with (by way of comparo, I compare, match.

was immediately given an alarm, which the dreadful stench in David's Mustration),

tower must have increased. His flight was discovered, and the half

consumed corpses were found in the fire-place of his chamber. EXERCISE IN PARSING.

Enraged and confounded, James III. refused to credit the intelliSome have termed the "Song of Solomon, or the Canticles," a gence until he had examined the place in person.-Memorials of tho Lebrow Epithalamium. The rage for autographs seems to have in a Castle of Edinburgh, pp. 52-55.

LESSONS IN BOTANY.-XXVIII. sphere vines are planted, and arrive at perfection at the Cape of

Good Hope, on the coasts of Chili, at the embouchure of the SECTION LXIII. --AMPELIDEÆ, OR VITACEÆ, THE VINE Rio de la Plata, and in Australia. It is, however, the south FAMILY,

of France which must be regarded as the especial land of the Characteristics : Calyx free; petals four to five inserted upon vine. the border of a hypogynous, or sub-perigynous disc; æstivation The greater number of the Vitacece contain acids of various valvate; stamens five, opposite to the petals ; ovary two, three, kinds distributed throughout all parts of the plant, and in or six celled; ovules ascendant, erect, or reflexed; berry two various proportions; sometimes in the pure condition, someto six celled; ovule dicotyledonous, straight, very minute, lying times mixed with other principles. In the berry of certain at the base of a fleshy albumen; stem ligneous ; leaves palmi. species is found a kind of sugar named by chemists glucose, lobed, digitate, or pinnate.

otherwise known as grape sugar. It is in consequence of the The Ampelideæ or Vitacece are generally trees or shrubs presence of this sugar that the juice of the berries when er. supplied for the most part with tendrils, containing an abund-pressed ferment and give rise to wine, a drink which we have ance of aqueous juice, and having contorted knotty branches. scriptural authority for saying “rejoices the heart of man." The lower leaves are cpposite the upper ones, alternate; stipules The general theory of wine-making is as follows :—The ripe very small, sometimes absent. The flowers are minute, greenish berries contain glucose, much water, a fermentive principle, in colour, arranged in a multifloral panicle or a corymbiform mucus, tannic, malic, and nitric acids, and bitartrate of potash cyme. Calyx very small, obscurely dentated, and nearly entire, (cream of tartar), in addition to many other salts and coloursurrounded by a disc, on which the petals and stamens are ing matters. The grapes are crushed by the naked feet of borne. The corolla is polypetalous, or almost polypetalous ; workmen in large cisterns of wood or stone. On the expiration style very short, stigma terminating

of a certain time, fermentation in a flattened head. Seeds contained

commences amongst the various in a thorny shell; radicle inferior.

principles of the grape; the mass The Vitaceae inhabit all the inter

becomes hot, owing to certain chemitropical region, and especially that

cal compositions and decompositions of Asia. Beyond the tropics they

which are taking place; sugar beare rare, more especially the Tropic

comes changed into alcohol and carof Capricorn. None are found indi.

bonic acid, and the liquor becomes genous to Europe; and if wild vines

inebriating. A scum now rises, which are found in the forests of this con

is nothing more than the partially tinent, the plant is to be regarded

decomposed ferment, and collects in as having escaped from domesticity.

a thick crust. After the lapse of a The true country of the vine seems

few more days fermentation ceases. to be Mingrelia and Georgia, be.

The wine is now formed, and only tween the mountains of the Cau.

requires to be cleared. Red wine casus, Ararat, and Taurus. The

owes its colour to the presence of a most ancient traditions mention the

blue resinoid principle resident in the vine as having been made use of

pellicle of the fruit. This principle, by man, the culture of which may

insoluble in water, is soluble in alcobe said to be commensurate with the

hol, and therefore colours the wine advent of man upon the globe.

in proportion as the alcoholic ferIf we examine geographically the

mentation has become developed. culture of the vine as at present

The free acids contained in wine circumscribed, we shall find the

cause this blue colour to change to northern limit of the region to be

red. Taking advantage of these prinbounded on the western coast of

ciples, nothing is more common than Europe by the embouchure of the

the preparation of white wine from Loire. This limit, stretching away

dark grapes ; all that is necessary to to the east, approaches still further

effect the result being the removal of towards the north until it attains

the expressed juice from the grape the fifty-first parallel of latitude at

husks before alcoholic fermentation the confluence of the Rhine and

has set in. Moselle. Vines which grow to the

The preparation of sparkling wines north of this limit no longer furnish

is effected by bottling the juice before wine, and scarcely yield decent vine

213. THE CORINTH GRAPE.

fermentation has quite ceased. In gar. The culture of the vine suc

this way a portion of carbonic acid, ceeds in the valleys of the Rhine and Danube. In Hungary which would have escaped under other circumstances, is forcibly it does not prosper north of the forty-ninth degree of north retained and dissolved in the wine. latitude; and in Central Russia it stretches along the northern When grapes are dried they constitute raisins. The drying coast of the Caspian under the forty-eighth parallel. This process is either conducted in the sun or artificially. . Raisins of limit, if viewed in its ensemble, corresponds with an arc, the Malaga, of Damascus, and of Corinth (currants), are all sudextremities of which rest westward on the forty-seventh, east-dried. Valencia and all other raisins are dried by artificial ward on the forty-eighth parallel, and the curve of which rises means. The native American representatives of the vine, Vitis as high as the fifty-first degree of north latitude. This vulpina and Vitis labrusca, are but poor substitutes for the curvature is explained by the fact that more heat in given time species of the Old World, the berries being harsh tasted and is furnished to plants growing inland than to those which sharp in flavour; nevertheless, the American native grape is grow near the sea-coast. Passing on from the Caspian Sea not altogether despicable, although it has gained the name of towards the East, we see that the vine is not unknown in “fox-grape," from its sourness. Bokhara and Northern Persia; but on the southern declivity The varieties of the common vine now known are far too of the Himalaya Range it becomes rare, and altogether dis- numerous for enumeration. Perhaps of all these varieties the appears in the valley of the Indus and the maritime region of one possessing most interest is the little Corinth grape, which Persia. South of the twenty-ninth degree of north latitude it yields our so-called currants—a corruption, by the way, of requires to be protected against the ardour of the sun. Under Corinths. Strange to say, this grape, if planted very far away the tropics the vine is sometimes planted in gardens. It from the Grecian Archipelago, ceases to yield the peculiar grape, grows rapidly, but the fruits always wither before arriving but degenerates, and furnishes grapes of ordinary size and at perfection. In North America the vine is not cultivated character. A representation of the Corinth grape is subjoined beyond the thirty-eighth degree, but many delicious kinds of (Fig. 213). These grapes are extensively cultivated in Zante wine are made in the United States. In the southern hemi- ! and others of the Ionian Islands for exportation,

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SECTION LXIV.-ARALIACEÆ, OR IVY WORTS. four, alternate with the petals; ovary inferior, two to three celled, Characteristics : Calyx adherent to the ovary; petals five or uniovular; ovules pendent, reflexed; style simple; fruit drupaten inserted upon an epigynous disc, sessile ; valvular in æsti- ceous, two or three celled; seeds inverted; embryo dicotyledonous, vation ; stamens inserted with the petals, in number equal to straight in the axis of a fleshy albumen ; radicle superior. the latter, and alternate with them, or double

The Cornacee are generally trees or shrubs their number; ovary inferior, two or more

with opposite, simple, or stipulate leaves. celled, uniovulate; ovules pendent, reflexed;

Flowers disposed in a capitulum, umbel, or styles equal in number to the cells, distinct or

corymb. The Cornacere are allied with the coherent; fruit bacciform, dry, or fleshy ; seed

Caprifoliacec, from which, however, they inverse, dicotyledonous; embryo very small

may be distinguished by their free petals. at the base of a fleshy albumen ; radicle

They are also allied with Araliaceo in their superior.

general aspect, and in the possession of a The Araliaceæ generally possess a woody

similar fructification. stem, and have for the most part alternate or

The Cornaceæ inhabit the temperate and stipulate leaves. Flowers regular, capitular,

cool regions of the northern hemisphere. ambelliferous, or in racemes.

Certain members of the order possess in their The Araliacece are inhabitants of tropical

bark a peculiar bitter principle termed corand temperate regions of both hemispheres.

nüine, also an astringent matter. Some proThis natural order has a certain resemblance

duce edible fruits and oily seeds. The greater to the Umbellifere, both in general aspect

number possess a wood of great hardness. and chemical qualities. In Araliacece, however,

The comel-tree (Cornus mascula) is generally

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214. THE GRAPE VINE (VITIS VINIFERA). 215. THE

216. THE RACEME-FLOWERING ARALIA (ARALIA RACECOMMON IVY (HEDERA HELIX).

MOSA). 217. THE DOGWOOD (CORNUS SANGUINEA). the aromatic resinons principles are masked by

diffused over most parts of the world. The astringent and bitter matters.

Orrnus sanguinea (Fig. 217) produces bitter The common ivy needs no description as to

and nauseous fruits, but the seed yields an oil general appearance. Its leaves, when bruised,

useful for illumination and the fabrication of are aromatic, and their juice, incorporated with fatty matter, soap. The Benthamia fragifera, or strawberry-fruited Benthamia, constitutes a good application to burns. The ginseng (Panax is a shrub of Nepaul and Japan, now generally cultivated in EuroSchinseng) grows in Tartary, China, and Nepaul. Its root con- pean gardens. The name fragifera is given to this plant on actains a bitter, an acrid, and a saccharine matter. The plant count of its bearing a fruit similar in general appearance to a enjoys in Asia an immense reputation as a tonic, and sells for strawberry. The Cornus florida is a North American shrub. It three times its weight in silver. Panax quinquefolium grows possesses an astringent bark, and is employed as a substitute for in North America ; its root is collected and sold to the Chinese quinine by American medical practitioners. The Aucuba

Japonica, as a substitute for the real ginseng. The Aralia nudicaulis, or variegated laurel, is a Japanese shrub, an evergreen with shining a North American plant, is celebrated as a sudorific, and its leaves, opposite, coriaceous, sometimes plumose. Flowers diceroots are used for the purpose of adulterating sarsaparilla. cious, small, axillary, disposed in panicles, four petaloid, four SECTION LXV.-CORNACEÆ, OR CORNELS.

staminiferous. Ovary adherent, unilocular, uniovulate ; ovule Characteristics : Calyx adherent to the ovary ; petals four, pendent, reflexed. Fruit, a berry. This shrub, which is full of inserted upon an epigynous disc, valvate in æstivation ; stamens ramifications and very elegant, is a charming garden ornament.

pen, befall.

LESSONS IN GERMAN.-XXXVIII. fläger ließ ten Angeklagten nicht zu Worte fømmen, sondern fuhr immer

mit seinen Beschuldigungen fort, ohne auf die Entschuldigungen zu bēren. SECTION LXXIV.-IDIOMATIC PHRASES (continued).

24. Der Lärm übertönte die Stimme des Nebenden, und ließ ihn nicht zu Nicht wahr? is it not true (literally, not true?), answers to our Worte fommen. phrases, "isn't it?” “ wasn't it?" " don't they?" etc., after an

EXERCISE 143. assertion; as :-Es ist faltes Wetter, nicht wahr? it is cold weather, 1. Your friend whom we saw the day before yesterday is is it not ? Sie kennen ihn, nicht wahr? you know him, do you not? sick, is he not? 2. It was an agreeable evening, was it not, my Sometimes nicht wahr precedes the assertion, as :-Nicht wahr, Sie friend ? 3. Yes, it was; and I shall never forget the pleasure find müte, you are tired, are you not?

we had. 4. Your brother was also there, was he not? 5. It is 1. Aufwarten (compounded of the particle auf and warten (§ 90) yet early, is it not? 6. No, it is very late, and we must go. signifies to wait upon, to serve, and governs the dative. Ich 7. I have waited already an hour for my friend, but still he has iarte Ihnen auf, I wait upon you. Darf ich Ihnen mit einer Tasse Thee not come. 8. I am waiting for our servant. 9. Do not wait aufwarten? may I serve you with a cup of tea ? Ich danke Ihnen, for him, I have just sent him out. 10. After I arrived in Lon. sometimes abbreviated to Id tanke, means in addition to our “I don, I went directly and waited upon my friend, for whom I had thank you,” also, “No, I thank you,” according to the significa letters of recommendation, 11. May I serve you with a cup of tion intended to be given. Ich bin se frei (literally, I am so free) chocolate ? 12. No, I thank you. 13. Will you not visit us or Ich bitte, is the usual equivalent to our “if you please." Ich before you go to the Continent? 14. Yes, I shall pay you a mache ihn meine Aufwartung, I wait upon him (literally, make visit. 15. May I help you to a glass of ale ? 16. I thank you, my waiting upon him). Warten, when followed by the preposition I never drink it. 17. I have heard the news, but I do not know auf

, signifies " to wait for;" as :-Sch warte auf ihn, I am waiting what to say to it. 18. You speak French and German, do you for him.

not? 2. Sollen (see $ 83 [6] Remark [13]), with an infinitive, is SECTION LXXV.-IDIOMS RELATING TO VERBS. often answered, in English, by the infinitive only, preceded by Schmerzen, to pain, is used like the corresponding English the preposition " to ;” as :-jd weiß nicht, was ich thun soll, I do word; as :-Der Gedanke schmerzt mich, the thought pains me. Te not know what to do.

Wunde schmerzt ihn, the wound pains him. 3. Nicht zum Worte, or, zu Worte fommen, signifies, literally, not

1. Weh (pain), joined with thun (to do, to make), forms the to come to the word, or to words; that is, not to be able to speak. phrase Web thun, to pain, to grieve (literally, to make, or canse VOCABULARY.

pain); as :--Daš thut mir weh, that grieves me (it causes me pain). Nachen, n. Aix-la-, G'benfalls, also, too, | Umsonst', in vain, Gr hat dem Sinte weh gethan, he has hurt the child. Die Sand thut Chapelle. likewise.

vainly.

ihm weh, the hand pains him. Das Kind hat sich weh gethan, the An'tläger, m. accuser, Entschuldigung, f. ex. Berge'bens, in vain, child has hurt itself. impleader. cuse, apology. vainly.

2. Leid thun (literally, to make, or cause pain) is employed to Nuf'warten. (See R.1. Kellner, m. waiter, Vergnügt", cheerful, denote mental sufferings ; sorrow ; as :-Es thut ihm leit, daß er es above.) bar-keeper.

merry, delightful. gethan hat, he is sorry that he has done it. És thut mir leib, ikn Beschuldigung, f. accu- Krõnung, f. corona- Vertreter, m. repre- nicht gesehen zu haben, I am sorry not to have seen him. sation, imputation tion,

sentative.

3. Fehlen, to fail, to miss, to lack, is often used impersonally; Bier, n. beer, ale. Ordnen, to regulate, Widerfah'ren, to hap. as :

-s fehlt ihm an Verstand, he was lacking in understanding. Chocola'de, f. choco order.

So, also, Was fehlt dem Manne? what ails the man? Was fehlt late. Tasse, f. cup, dish. Zunge, f. tongue.

Shnen, what ails you, or, what is the matter with you ?
RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

VOCABULARY.
Ihr Herr Vater ist franf, nicht wahr? Your father is sick, isn't he ?

Ab'weichen, to deviate. Meiden, to avoid, Verfen'nen, to mis

A'bermals, again, once shun, to abstain take, to take for Ich war'tete eine Stunde auf Sie, I waited an hour for you; then

from.

another. dann ging ich, und machte dem I went and waited upon Begegʻnen, to encoun- Nic'terschlagen, to de- Verstimmt', out of Fremten meine Auf'wartung. (called upon) the stranger.

ter, meet. Er machte mich darauf aufmerksam, He reminded me (made me

ject, discourage, humour, out of

dishearten. Ding, n. a thing.

tune. daß die Zeit vorbei' war.

observant) that the time was

Erwer'ben, to earn, Pfad, m. path. Volksliet, n. nations!

past. Er wußte nicht, was er tħun sollte.

get, obtain.

Sagen, to say, tell. song.
He did not know what to do.

Fehl'gehen, to
Die meisten Monar'chen lassen ihrem (The) most monarchs allow their

go Scheiden, to part from Bor'fallen, to happen,

another. Willen freien Lauf.

wrong, to miss the

to come to pass. wills free scope (course). Der Lärm ließ mich nicht zum Worte The noise did not permit me to Gereu’en, to cause to Seeʻlenruhe, f. tran. Wahl, f. choice.

way.

Schmerzen. (See above). Vor'sichtig, carefni. kommen. be understood. (R. 3 above.)

repent.

quillity, peace of Weh. (See Rm 1, EXERCISE 142. Gottlosigkeit, f.wicked mind.

above.) 1. Es war eine schöne Stunde, nicht wahr, mein Freund ? 2. Ja, tas

Streit, m. contest, ' Zufriedenheit, f. conwar es, und nicht so bald werde ich sie vergessen. 3. Nicht wahr, der Hinzu“fügen, to add to, contention.

tentedness. Nachbar war ebenfalls auf dem Feste? 4. Ja, er war dort, und sehr ver. to join, adjoin. Tugent, f. virtue. Zu'fügen, to cause, to gnügt. 5. Nicht wahr, es ist schon sehr spät? 6. Nein, es ist noch ziemleid. (See R.2,above.) In'schuldig, innocent. inflict. lich früh. 7. Nicht wahr, es ist nicht Alles wahr, was die Leute ragen? 8. Nein, nicht alles darf man Ihnen glauben. 9. Ich habe schon eine Es fiel nichts von Bedeu'tung vor.

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. Stunde auf ihn gewartet, und immer läßt er sich noch nicht schen. 10. Gå idhmerzt nichts länger und tiefer Nothing pains longer and more

Nothing important happened. Wir warten auf den aufwartenten Kellner. 11. Wenn Sie es erlauben,

als das Bewußt'sein, seine ($ 135. deeply, than the consciouswerde ich Ihnen heute Nachmittag meine Aufwartung machen. 12. Darf

4.) Jugend in Thor'heiten vergeu' ness of having spent one's ich Ihnen mit einer Tasse Thee oder Kaffee aufwarten? 13. Ich tanke

tet zu haben.

(his) youth in folly. für Thee, aber ich bin so frei, eine Tasse Kaffee anzunehmen. 14. Bei der auf. 15. Umsonst habe ich ihn darauf aufmerksam gemacht; er folgt nur Es fehlt mir an Gebult", das Enbe I lack patience to await the end Krönung der deutschen Kaiser zu Aachen warteten die anwesenden Fürsten Sagen Sie mir

, was Ihnen fehlt

, und Tell me what ails you, and what

is the cause of your tears. feinem Kopfe. 16. Der Lehrer machte die Schüler darauf aufmerksam,

meiner Leiden abʻzuwarten.

of my sufferings. wie wohl und gut Gott Alles in der Welt geordnet habe. 17. Der Richter

Gin Lobspruch, den ich mir nicht zu. A eulogium that I cannot ap. fragte ihn vergebens, warum er dieses Verbrechen begangen habe; ter An.

eignen kann, thut mir weher, als geschuldigte hatte nichts darauf zu antworten. 18. Ich habe das Schreiben

propriate, pains me more than erhalten; allein ich weiß nicht , was ich darauf antworten soll. 19. Ich Mir thut baš schon web, was andern That already pains me which

ein vertien'ter Verweis'.

a merited reproof. wüßte schon, was ich darauf antworten würde, wenn ich an Ihrer Stelle

nur leid thut.

makes others only sorry. wäre. 20. Die Männer, von denen Sie sprechen, find eben nicht die besten Vertreter des Landes. 21. Ich ließ meiner Zunge freien Lauf, und erzählte

EXERCISE 144. bas mir witerfahrene Unrecht.' 22. Gr ließ seiner Rede freien Lauf, und 1. Es schmerzt mich, so viele Menschen unglüdlich zu sehen. 2. Die fagte in seiner Begeisterung mehr, als er ýätte thun sollen. 23. Der An- | Wunde schmerzt ihn mit jedem Tage mehr. 3. Es schmerzt nichts meht,

more.

ness.

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