diplomacy. It is not so, however, with tact. This is the operations into new spheres which would escape the attention of education of our faculties, so that they have a keen edge upon others, and, by the perception of the harmonies in character, it thern, whereby mental vision is brightened, and nature acts with avoids as much as possible the unpleasant discords and turmoils a healthy spontaneity in difficulties. Large classes of people of life. When, however, difficult work has to be done, and can remember what they ought to have said, and what it would cannot righteously be let alone, tact achieves the end in the wisest have been proper to do, hours after the emergency has arisen. and kindest way that the circumstances render possible. Depend They can then give you a sketch of the “position," or state of upon it, that a true inscription over the failures of many who had affairs, and have the key to it in their hands. But, unfortunately glorious faculties and golden opportunities would be "Want of for them, the occasion is lost, and it becomes only a story of tact;” whilst some who had more mediocre abilities, and had a possibilities; the thing to be lamented being irrevocable. They back start in the course, have distanced others in life's race, see noro what they ought to have seen then, and can cleverly and risen above them in its rewards, by the wise and righteous construct an after answer which they ought to have given at the exercise of a clever tact. time. Tact would have laid hold on the best mental resources of the moment, and used them dexterously, however slender

cs_XXVIIT. those resources miya mare been.

HISTURIU SETUAR. A little tact often overcomes difficulties which much earnest endeavour fails to remove. Just as a tiny bolt withdrawn, a

SWISS INDEPENDENCE. gate opens which it would have taken many strong-armed men ONE night in the spring of the year 1307, thirty-three men met to cast down; and a word rightly spoken, though in itself a in a field, known to this day as the Grütli meadow, on a spot overthing little enough, does that which volumes would not accom- looking the Swiss lake of the four cantons, and solemnly sworo plish at another time. Tact is in no sense difficult of attainment; to assert the common cause of the liberties of the three cantons, it needs, however, that its pupils should dispossess themselves Schweitz, Uri, and Unterwald, and yet “ to do no wrong to the of any self-opinionated manners which make them contemptible Counts of Hapsburg!" These men were but the representativos and objectionable to others. If persons will persist in carrying of thousands more who, accustomed ever since human memory with them an ungainly self-consciousness, a determination to be reported anything of the history of the country to share the heard by every one, and to be believed in by every one, and to freedom of the air they breathed, were moved to the very bottom lord it over every one, they will soon be consigned to the limbo of their hearts by the appearance of an oppression which of unprepossessing and unpopular people, who forget that the threatened to go the length of enslaving them. What came of outside world contains wiser and better people than themselves. their vow thus made will be declared in this sketch, but let us Tact is quick to learn, quick to discern when it ought to be first see what the circumstances were under which they felt conailent, as well as when it ought to speak. In this sense it is strained to bind themselves by the oath at all, and what claim consistent with true humility, and with a wise recognition of the Counts of Hapsburg had to be so considerately treated in individual imperfection. The victories of several of the greatest this purely non-aggressive sort of rebellion. generals in history have been achieved by the sense of knowing When, about the middle of the eleventh century, Europe in when they were, for the time, beaten, and having the tact to all its parts was beginning to settle down out of the confusion retreat for the hour, and gather up their broken forces, rather resulting from the overthrow of the western Roman Empire into than risk all upon a last struggle with superior strength; and a general state of feudalism, there was one country among the some of the most successful statesmen have been characterised rest where the feudal conditions could not be enforced with the by a tact which knew how to speak right words at right seasons, customary severity. That country was Switzerland. There was who possess very slender powers of oratory indeed.

not found among the warrior chiefs who carved duchies, counties, Some there are who slight tact, because of its seeming lack and kingdoms for themselves out of the débris of the empire, of superiority over the endowments of others. They never one bold enough to try his hand at subjugating Switzerland for like to overcome difficulties so much by skill as by force. A his own possession. The mountainous character of the ground, victory is nothing to them unless it be achieved by a hotly the utter absence of communication from place to place, except contested battle; a success loses its honour unless it be the by paths dangerous to any but expert climbers, the unattractiveresult of strong competitive forces; but in reality they are ness, unrichness of the land, and the stubborn, independent mistaken, for in quiet skill there is as much manifestation of character of its inhabitants, suggested to princes on the lookpower as there is in hand-to-hand tussles with our compeers. out to go further afield, and no one pretended to claim rights of

Some there are who not only depreciate tact, but positively sovereignty there. The Emperor of Germany claimed a sort of despise it. They are, for the most part, what may be called supremacy over it, but he did not practically urge it, and the plain-spoken persons; and a very offensive class they are. It is people, of whom the majority never heard of his pretension, particularly obvious that they bruise people's feelings without went on without consulting him or troubling their heads about compunction, and it is equally clear that they have a parti- him. But though there was not any actual King of Switzerland, cnlar dislike to being themselves treated to homilies by other the country was included within the kingdom of Arles or Burplain-spoken persons. They are happier as speakers than gundy, and the Dukes of Burgundy down to Charles the Bold hearors! Tact! what do they care for tact? they have truth to claimed lordship over it, a claim that was allowed to about the tell, and isn't it right to tell it? With such like sophisms they same extent as that of the emperor's was to be feudal lord parasmother over the fact that even truth must be spoken in love, mount. In the country, however, there had established them. and that the how and when to speak it are amongst the most selves many soldier chiefs, who built castles on their estates, important considerations that can occupy the minds of kind and and kept up some feudal rules, governing within their own thoughtful persons. There is a tact even in telling the most domain almost as sovereign princes, but acknowledging for disagreeable truths, and that man is little to be envied who themselves allegiance to no one. Some of the ecclesiastical despises a skill which, whilst it preserves the manliness which dignitaries came within this category. They had enormous dares to speak the truth, also preserves the gentleness which estates belonging to their convents, and they governed as lords desires to spare the feelings.

over such parts of God's inheritance as came under their power, Tact has no one special department of life or duty to call its though there existed at the same time in the breasts of the own; but it bas to do with all spheres of life, with trade and people a spirit of original independence which tempered the commerce, with domestic arrangements, with the conquest of severity of the feudal régime. In the towns also thọ spirit of difficulties, and with all the civil and social relations of mankind. freedom burned with considerable brilliancy, at least until the It need not be disguised that there is a danger of tact descending aristocratic element imparted by the country nobles invaded to unworthy compromise and crafty management. But these are them, and even then there were found many hundreds of men in no sense the necessary or natural uses of so valuable a gift. who never bowed the knee save to God only. We may well reply to this supposed difficulty, that almost every Chief among the lay nobles of the country were the Counts of good may be perverted, that the abuse of a faculty is no Zahringen, Toggenburg, Kyburg, and Hapsburg; while their argument against its use, and that tact has its uses, wide and ecclesiastical rivals in power and influence were the Bishop of manifold, the whole history of mankind abundantly proves. Coire, the Abbot of St. Gall, and the Abbess of Seckingen. Tact saves time and labour ; it not only expedites business that Besides these, there were many lesser nobles who depended on the has to be done, but it seizes opportunities for extending greater, or professed a sort of informal allegianco direct to the

imperial crown; but all of these, the greater and the less, had was by its nature, with studied harshness and brutal indifference been wise in time, and had at their own solicitation become to the popular feelings; they set aside the customary laws of “ citizens" of some one or other of the towns, which in return the district, and introduced their own, which they administered often conferred upon them the honour and title of their “advo- in the most tyrannical fashion. The people were required to cate” or protector. The religious houses adopted the like perform acts of homage to the Counts of Hapsburg which would method to obtain the protecting services of some great noble. have been reckoned degrading to “villeins” born and bred to The existence of the "noble" class on the basis mentioned feudalism; they were made to yield obedience to commands above was not found to be inconsistent with the existence of a which were an affront to their free understandings, and to conpurely democratic class in the towns. On the contrary, the tribute towards the expense of riveting the imperial yoke upoa modified character of the aristocracy, the community of interests their own necks. It was under these circumstances that the between it and the democracy, proved to be a source of strength meeting took place in the Grütli meadow, and that Stanffacher of to both parties, and a strong love of country, which was common Schweitz, Furst of Uri, and Melchthal of Unterwald, bound them. to both classes, prevented that strength ever being used in the selves and their friends by the simple, solemn oath to do themwrong direction. By degrees the woulthier twoman aagumad coloso richt oma tha Mount nf Wahrrg no wrope.

The people the rank, though not the title, of nobles, and extended yet of the three districts flew to arms, and with an ease they little farther the element of democratic aristocracy. Switzerland was expected, considering the "tall talk" in which their oppressors not, however, a united country in the sense of being one indulged, drove the emperor's bailiffs out of the country, dominion; it was not governed by any one set of laws, nor This unlooked for success did not make them too confident. bound together by any formal ties or treaties ; each town, each They knew the power and the malice of the Duke of Austria, village, each noble, was self-governing and independent; the and that he would be likely to bring the whole force of the bond which knitted the several parts into a whole was the empire upon them. They immediately entered into a connatural bond of necessity, which operated without any prescribed federacy or union of the three cantons, by the terms of which form.

each canton, while reserving its right of self-government, was The Counts of Hapsburg were the most considerable of the bound to make common cause with the others whenever sumSwiss nobles, and by virtue of their rank were appointed moned to do so. They were the forest cantons, the hard, “advocates” of many religious houses. They possessed large ragged, naturally independent districts, that first set an example estates themselves, not only in Switzerland but on the Rhine of federation upon special, recognised conditions. Fortunately also, so that what with their own property and that which they for them their enemy, Count Albert, was soon afterwards assasheld in trust for the convents, they wielded a formidable in- sinated by his nephew, so that they had leisure to consolidate fluence either for good or evil. For many years this influence their union. The prince who succeeded Albert on the imperial had never been used but for the furtherance of Swiss prosperity, throne was not unfriendly to the Swiss ; but Leopold of Austria

, and the people having learnt to love their strong counts, placed Albert's son, thinking to punish the “cowherds and dairymen themselves to some extent in their hands ; or to speak more who had dared to rebel against his father, led a considerable precisely, the people of Schweitz and of part of Unterwald body of troops into the forest cantons: the Swiss, however, united had made them their “ advocates," an office which necessarily as one man, inflamed with anger at the assumption of lordship bestowed upon them the right to interfere in the administration over them, and goaded to fury by the desperate nature of their of affairs, though it did not convey any proprietary or sovereign case, met the Austrians at Morgarten, opposed untrained valour right.

and unarmed bodies to skilled courage and armour-covered Rudolph of Hapsburg had carried the fortunes of his family men-at-arms, and utterly defeated their enemies with dreadful to their maximum height, and was possessed unquestionably of slaughter (November 16, 1315). the ascendancy in Switzerland, when he was chosen by the This victory, which has been called the Marathon of Switzerelectors to fill the vacant throne of the empire. This was in the land, secured the independence of the three cantons, and atyear 1273. It so happened that at this time the right of suc- tracted, after some delay, the contiguous district of Lucerne, cession to the Duchy of Austria, with several other valuable which was incorporated with the confederacy. About thirty political fees, became for disposal, and the new emperor, with years later Zurich, Glaris, Zug, and Berne joined the league, the consent of the other princes of the empire, gave the Duchy and these eight cantons remained till the Swiss revolution in of Austria to his own son Albert.

1830 to enjoy privileges and even sovereignty over many of the Duke Albert was for some reason or other, which appears to surrounding districts. Zurich and Berne were already indepenhave been warranted by facts, hated by the Swiss. He was dent and republican in their form of government before the forinsolent, overbearing, and disposed to plume himself upon his mation of the union, but they secured additional strength not family grandeur and his wealth rather than upon his Swiss only for the maintenance of their existing power, but also for the nationality. The Swiss held him to be not their friend, and it object which they now proceeded to execute, that of curtailing was with lively concern that they saw him about to succeed to the influence of the rural nobles. Small wars, having this aim his father's Swiss estates while he lived in his new duchy, in view, were carried on between the towns and the nobles, in uncontrolled by residence among his countrymen, and powerful which the latter fared badly, the wisest among them making to do them harm by means of his German subjects. It was their peace betimes by consenting to sink their rank and dignity, probably at his suggestion that the defunct claim of the Imperial and to secure their property by identifying themselves as Diet or Parliament to bind Switzerland by its laws was revived “citizens" of the dominant towns. For eighty years there during Rudolph's tenure of the throne. Certain it is that after was not any attempt from without to destroy the palladium of his own election* to the empire, on the death of his father's liberty which was being reared among the mountains of Hel. successor, Adolphus of Nassau, he tried to assert the imperial vetia. The nations had other things to do than to attend to so supremacy over Switzerland as part of Germany, and, abusing seemingly insignificant a place, and even the Dukes of Austria, the privileges which, as Count of Hapsburg and as “advocate " while retaining for a time their Swiss hereditary possessions, did of certain convents, he possessed, he sent imperial commissioners not find it convenient to cross swords with their co-protectors into the valleys of Schweitz, Unterwald, and Uri, to administer after the battle of Sempach (July 9, 1386). In this, the last of criminal justice and to act as stewards on his own and the con- a series of encounters with the Austrians, all of which had been vents' behalf. These persons were not native Swiss, but Germans bloody and none inglorious for Switzerland, the Austrian knights who had no sympathy with the people, who despised the sim- dismounted and presented their lances as a steel hedge of pricks plicity of their life and manners, and who made no secret of to the Swiss. It was necessary to break their line, and Winkelried their contempt for them generally,

of Unterwald, seeing no other way, commended himself to It was not likely such men would get on with the free Heaven, and his wife and children to his country, and gathering minded, high-spirited, and dominion-hating mountaineers. They as many lances' points as he could embrace, received them in did the work with which they were charged, disagreeable as it his body, and so opened a way to the ingress of the Swiss with

their five-feet-long swords. The Austrians were overthrown, and The imperial dignity in Germany was elective, the principle of in the end the dukes alienated to the Swiss the lands and lordships hereditary succession not being recognised. Generally

a German was of the Counts of Hapsburg. During this time power had become elected, but not always. Francis I. of France and Henry VIII. Of consolidated, and when the attention of surrounding nations was England were both candidates in their time.

drawn to the country, by the prompt resentment of some injury

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done to its people, by the fearless, or as it was then called, LESSONS IN CHEMISTRY.-XVII. insolent, way in which the Swiss threw back a rebuke or threat,

BORON-SILICON--THE METALS. it was found that the people were a sort of human conglomerate, hard and strong flints from which fire might be struck, but

BORON (SYMBOL, B; COMBINING WEIGHT, 11). aguinst which it would be unwise to hurl oneself. Nevertheless, BORON and silicon are often classed with carbon, for each of about the year 1440 it seemed good to the despots and autocrats these elements is capable of being produced in three statesof the day to undertake the destruction of the home of liberty, amorphous, crystalline, and crystallised. as being too near their own dominions to be safe. The princes The element boron is procured by the action of sodium on of Western Germany formed an association, which had the boracic acid, thusapproval of the enrperor, for the purpose of subjugating Switzer

B,03 + 6Na = 3NaO + 2B. land, and, the Duke of Burgundy having declined the use of his Thus obtained it is a dull greenish powder, slightly soluble in army, applied to the King of France for help. The King of water, from which solution it is precipitated unchanged by salFrance was only too glad of a pretext for getting rid of the ammoniac. It does not oxidise in the air, but readily with nitric numerous bands of adventurers who filled every one of his cities | acid. At a very high heat it takes fire, burning into boracic with cumar. men who were the novourings and the refuse of tecia (BO). the Anglo-French wars. He raised a large army, ini which all The other two kinds of boron are exhibited by its action on these cut-throats were enrolled, and put it under the command melted aluminum. of the Dauphin. Away the French prince marched, and laid siege The crystals of boron are as hard as the diamond, to Basle before the Swiss knew he was coming. The men of Basle Boracic Acid (B,03).-At Monte Cerboli and Monte Rotondo, defended themselves as best they could, and sent off messengers in Tuscany, exist “fumeroles," that is, jets of steam escaping to the Swiss army for help. Help came in the shape of 2,000 from the ground. This steam is mixed with sulphuretted men, who did not hesitate to engage an army of which the ad- hydrogen, but holds in solution free boracic acid. The vapour vanced guard was ten times more numerous than they. The is directed into small lagoons, where it is condensed, and apon. Swiss fought with desperate valour (26th of August, 1444), and evaporating the water crude boracic acid is obtained, which is were cut to pieces on the ground where they stood; but the the chief source of the borax of commerce. This acid combined victory cost the Dauphin (afterwards Louis XI.) 8,000 of his best with soda is found in the tineal from Thibet, and a borate of lime troops, and made such an impression upon him that he made and magnesia is found on the west coast of South America. peace and retired, and subsequently, when he came to the throne, Boracic acid imparts a green tint to the flame of alcohol. Its he entered into alliance with his former foes.

great value lies in the fact that it imparts to its salts ready In 1476 the last grand attack was made on Switzerland with fusibility; hence in the manufacture of porcelain and in metalthe view of bringing her again under feudal bondage. Charles lurgy borax is used as a flux. the Bold, the last Duke of Burgundy, proposed the task to him. The crude boracio acid, procured as above, is really the self, both because the Swiss were allies of his inveterate enemy, hydrio borate or 3II,OB,O3, which is usually written H,B0g. Louis XI., and because he hated the bare idea of popular free Borax is the biborate of soda. dom. With a splendid army of 36,000 men, furnished with Boric Chloride (BC1) is obtained by passing dry chlorine everything necessary for the campaign, he marched into the through a red-hot porcelain tube containing a mixture of boracio country and laid siege to Yverdun. The garrison cut their way acid and charcoal. It is a gas which condenses into a mobile oat and retired to Granson, whither Charles proceeded, and liquid below 18° Cent. It is decomposed by contact with water, having, after a desperate resistance, induced the garrison to thus

BC1, + 3H,0 = H,BO, + 3HCI. offer to capitulate, he murdered in cold blood the governor and 200 of his officers who had put themselves as a sign of good

Boric Fluoride (BF) is procured by heating fluor spar and faith within his power.

boracic acid. It is a gas which combines with water, thusEvery man in Switzerland took up arms, and when, shortly

BF: + 38,0 = SH,F BO., after the bloody deed just recited, the Swiss came upon the forming hydro-fluo-boric acid. Burgundian army in the mountain passes near Neuchatel, they Boric Sulphide (B,$) is produced when boron is burnt in stnote them hip and thigh to the shout of "Granson ! Granson!” sulphur. so that the splendid army melted like snow off the mountains. Boric Nitride (BN).-Like titanium, boron combines with nitroNumbers were slain in the battle or in the pursuit, and all the gen at a red heat, forming a white powder, which has a “greasy duke's

's camp equipage, his artillery, treasures, jewels, everything feel. When melted with potash it becomes ammonia and boracic except his person, fell into the victor's hands. Charles strained acid, thus every nerve to retrieve his loss. He procured money from

2BN +3(H,OK,0) = 36,0 + B,0, + 2NH,, Flanders and Brabant, melted church bells to make cannon, and when heated in a current of steam it is resolved into and hired troops from anywhere to assist him; but it was not ammonium borate. till many weeks after his defeat that he was able to take the field, and then it was to make a gambler's last desperate throw. SILICON (SYMBOL, SI; COMBINING WEIGHT, 28). In May, 1476, he laid siege to Morat, the key of Berne and the In combination with oxygen as silica it is one of the chief comdoor to Switzerland. He pressed the garrison so hard that they pozants of the earth’s crust. The element may be insulated by were about to surrender, when the Swiss army came to their submitting a mixture of equal weights of potassium and the relief. A furious battle ensued, in which rivers of blood were Auosilicate of that metal to a red heat in a platinum crucible. spilt, and in the course of which many valiant souls of heroes Silicon and potassium fluoride are the result, and the latter is were freed from the trammels of the flesh. The work of Granson washed out by water. and Neuchatel was finished here. The Burgundian army was Thus obtained, it is a brown amorphous powder. When utterly destroyed, for the Swiss refused to give quarter. Charles heated in oxygen it becomes silicic acid. fied, and from that day forth abandoned his warlike intentions No acid affects it except hydro-fluoric, by which action the against the cantons. Not they theirs against him. In January terfluoride of silicon is formed, as was noticed, in the etching of of the following year (1477)

they joined the Duke of Lorraine in glass. rexisting an attack which Charles was making on his province, The "graphatoid" and crystal forms of silicon have been oband on the 4th of that month they had the satisfaction of again tained. beating their enemy at the battle of Nancy, where also the Silicic Acid (SiO2, silica, or silex).- It corresponds in its comduke's dead body “larded the plain."

position to carbonic dioxide (CO). It is found pure in quartz, In the year 1499 the independence of the Swiss cantons was when it appears as rock crystal; it is nearly pure in flint, formally recognised by the emperor, and since that time it was chalcedony, agate, opal, etc., and it constitutes the main ingrenever impeached till Napoleon overran the country, as he did dient of all sandstones. Silex can only be fused by the oxyall other countries in Europe, and revolutionised its institutions. hydrogen blow-pipe. Water has no action on it; but with The political constitution now in force is that which was settled steam at a high temperature, it seems to be dissolved. This in 1830, when the lesser cantons were admitted to equal rights accounts for the concretions of silex in the throats of furnaces. with the greater, and certain mediæval privileges and customs However, it can be rendered soluble. If rock crystal be beated whick savoured of injustice and obsoletism were swept away. to redness, and then suddenly cooled in water, it can be easily

Iridium 91.1

reduced to powder in an agate mortar. An alkaline silicate placing a wire of platinum in the axis of a bar of silver, and then is formed when this powder is heated with three times its weight in the usual way—that is, by drawing it through holes in a steel of sodium or potassium carbonate. If this be added to an plate---procured a very fine wire, the centre of which was one much excess of diluted hydrochloric acid, the acid combines with the finer of platinum. By melting the silver off with nitric acid this metal, and although the silica is thus ejected from its combina- was exposed, and found to be both of an inch in diameter. The tion, it does not precipitate; but if heat be now applied, when foregoing qualities are greatly dependent on the texture of the the solution has reached a certain point of concentration, the metal, and the requisite texture, by various manipulations, may silex is again rendered insoluble, and becomes a gelatinous mass. be procured. Thus cast-iron is brittle, so is hard steel; yet By still continuing the heat until much of the water is driven steel is capable of being made into watch-springs, and iron can off, then the chloride of the metal may be washed out, and the be drawn into very fine wire. pure silex again remains in its insoluble form. When rendered Specific Gravity is the relation which the weight a body bears anhydrous, it is a white, light powder.

to the weight of an equal volume of water. The metals differ All spring or well waters contain silica, either in a free state greatly in their specific gravities :or in solution as an alkaline silicate, and by this means it enters Platinum, 21-5. Silver, 10-53. Arsenic, 5.96." into many vegetable and animal organisms.

Osmium, 21.4. Diemnth. 970 Aluminum, 2.56. Silicon Chloride (Sici.). ---As the corresponding boror. com.

Copper, 8-95.

magnesia, 174, pound, this is got hy heating cilica mixed with carbon in a cur. Gold, 19:34. Cobalt, 8-95. Sodium, 0-972. rent of chlorine. It is a liquid, and has the same remarkable Mercury, 13-59. Iron, 7.84,

Potassium, 0-865. action with water as the boron chloride, being decomposed into

Lead, 11:36.
Tin, 7:29.

Lithium, 0-593. hydrochloric acid and silicio acid.

Zinc, 7.14. Silicic Fluoride (SiF) is the gas by the formation of which, The lightest metals are the most easily attacked by oxygen. with hydrofluoric acid, the etching of glass is effected.

Fusibility.—The following table gives the “ melting points" There is also a sulphide of silicon, which is a solid. When of the chief metals :thrown into water it decomposes, sulphuretted hydrogen Mercury,-39°4' Cent,

Tin, 28

Copper, 1091o escapes, and soluble silicic acid is taken up by the water.

Potassium, 58°

Lead, 3250

Gold, 1102

Sodium, 9706'

Zinc, 412°

Cast-iron, 1530°

Silver, 10230 GENERAL PROPERTIES, ETC., OF METALS. It was stated in an early chapter that the distinction between while platinum requires the intense heat of the oxyhydrogen

blow-pipe. a metalloid and a metal was not very decided. Perhaps the definition of a "metal,” which will be finally adopted, will be off in vapour at certain temperatures. Mercury, arsenic, tellu

Volatility is the property which some metals exhibit of going that it is "a body which, when in solation, is carried with an rium, zinc, cadmium, potassium, sodium, can all be distilled from electric current which traverses that solution;" but on referring their compounds. to the analysis of water by the voltameter, it will be noticed that hydrogen passes with the current; hence it is necessary, if

Alloys.—When metals enter into combination, "alloys" are

formed. this definition be adopted, to class that gas among the metals.

The union is now generally considered to be There is no reason for doubting that if hydrogen could be con

“chemical.” The various alloys will be treated of under their densed into a solid it would exhibit metallic lustre and the metals. An "amalgam ” is an alloy in which one of the metals other properties common to all metals.

is mercury. The chief properties which characterise metals are

The Appearance of Metals in the Earth's Crust.-Gold, plaMetallic Lustre.—This lustre, however, is not peculiar to the in an uncombined form ; but the last-named three are also found

tinum, silver, mercury, and copper are found "native"—that is, class, for it is shared by iodine and graphite. Moreover, if most metals be procured in a state of fine sub- buted in nature. Lime is the oxide of calcium. The tint of the

assores. Next to silica, metallic oxides are most widely distridivision they are lustreless. This is prominently the case with sandstones is due to the oxide of iron. The granite rocks congold, which, when painted on china, in a chemical solution, and tain many oxides, while the waters of the ocean are rendered then burnt, comes out of the furnace dull green, and the well bring with their salts. known lustre of gold does not appear until the painted portions large quantities we seek from masses of their ores, which are

But the metals which we require in have been burnished.

Opacity.---Metals are usually considered opaque, but this is found in mineral veins. It often appears that the older rocks not absolutely true, for gold, if not more than oth of an inch have, in the convulsions of Nature, been rent into fissures. thick, permits green light to pass through it, and other metals with

molten basalt, trap, etc., thus forming dykes, they have

When these openings have not been filled up from below exhibit

a similar imperfect opacity when reduced to very thin been filled up with metallic ores, which seem to have been leaves.

Hardness.-Steel, which is a compound of carbon and iron, is usually deposited from above. These constitute “lodes.” The the hardest of the metals, and the rest pass through every degree lodes of a neighbourhood generally run in the same direction, down to potassium, which may be moulded by the fingers as if and, strange to say, if this direction be altered, the ore geneit were putty. The hardness of a metal may be greatly in rally alters its character, and frequently its chemical constitucreased if its temperature be raised to a certain point and then tion. . This and other reasons have led to the belief that suddenly cooled by plunging it into water. Many of the hard electricity has been the chief agent in depositing metallic veins. metals are sufficiently elastic to be sonorous when


It sometimes happens, as in the case of the iron beds in our Brittleness and tenacity are closely connected. Many of the own country, that the ore is found in strata, occupying the metals, such as bismuth, antimony, arsenic, are so brittle as to position of a layer of rock. admit of being pounded in a mortar, and many, such as steel,

DIVISIONS OF THE METALS. iron, copper, can be made brittle by suddenly reducing their

1. Metals of the Alkalies. temperature. Others, again, exhibit this quality only at certain


Sodium. 1 Lithium. temperatures : for instance, zinc, which cannot be bent without danger of cracking, is readily worked at a temperature of about

2. Metals of the Alkaline Earths. 115o Cent. ; and on the other hand, brass—an alloy of zinc and


Calcium. copper—becomes brittle as it approaches a red heat.


Magnesium. Tenacity is the property which gives to metals their power of

3. Metals of the Earths. supporting a strain. Iron possesses it in the most eminent


Erbium. degree, hence the great value of this metal.


Terbium. Malleability and Ductility.—Possessing the one property, the


Cerium. metal may be beaten or rolled into very thin leaves; with the


Lanthanum. other, it admits of being drawn into wire, Gold, silver, copper,


Didymium. and platinum are very malleable. Gold may be beaten out into

4. The Metals Proper. leaves so thin that 280,000 only make an inch. These metals, The last division is subdivided into classes of metals which and iron, are the five which are notably ductile. Wollaston, by exhibit certain similar features.


whether it is easier or more difficult depends upon the inclination

of the mind, the practical experience, or, speaking more exactly, MATERIALS—CHOICE OF SUBJECTS, ETC.

the kind of experience the pupil has been accustomed to. If the In our Lessons in Drawing, to be found in the previous pages grammar of the art has been well learned, the pupil will find of the POPULAR EDUCATOR, we have endeavoured to place that a very considerable amount of the knowledge he has before our pupils the general principles which belong to and acquired whilst drawing from the flat will be of the greatest are applicable to the practice of drawing from the flat (that is, service when drawing from nature. from copies), and also those principles which guide us in drawing We have frequently met with portrait painters who have had frem the object. We now undertake a more direct application of to make duplicates of their pictures, and who have said they the instruction therein given, for the purpose of introducing our would much rather paint them again from the sitter than copy popils to that very interesting and delightful practice of them from the original picture : only those who have experienced drawing, usually termed "sketching from nature ; " we mean it can fully understand how much more feeling and life can be by this, the taking up a few simple materials and seeking our imparted to the work when nature is the guide, than when they subjects out of doors. The phrase "sketching from nature” have to depend upon the limited expression of a copy. So with is a very convenient one, and is generally understood, therefore landscape: we have frequently been more pleased with the

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we will retain it, although we prefer the expression “ drawing ; " original sketch,” taken upon the spot, than with the finished from nature," as it implies greater care and attention to details picture painted from it in the studio at home. Although the than the term sketching in its usual sense. A loose habit of - original sketch” was not so highly finished as the picture, drawing may be called sketching, and if this were all that is yet it had the stamp of nature and freshness upon it, which understood by it, the practice wonld be a dangerous one for a could best be caught from the scene itself, and which it is diffi. beginner ; but as we have already given sufficient cautions upon cult to impart at second hand. As the eye of the student this point in the lessons upon Drawing, we will only repeat one becomes more and more accustomed to Nature, and keener to piece of advice and pass on—“ Learn to draw first; sketch detect and appreciate her beauties, he will discover much of afterwards.” In the course of these lessons we shall find it which a common observer has but an imperfect perception; to necessary occasionally to refer back to the lessons in Drawing the latter, a landscape is the same to-day as it was yesterday, already given, as our object is to apply practically the principles he can only see trees, buildings, and other objects abstractedly which have been there stated. How many times has the ques. through one and the same medium; while the eye of the artist tion been asked, “Do you draw?" And what is the reply in is continually discovering something fresh, perhaps principally the great majority of cases ? “Yes, but only from copies; I caused by the successive changes of light, or from the positions have never attempted to do anything from nature, having always of objects in relation

to each other, and their contrasts in both considered it so much more difficult.” Now, there are those colour and form. The tree before him in the morning may who maintain the reverse, namely, that drawing from nature is certainly be the same that he sees in the evening, but how very easier than copying pictures. Certainly the former is much different is the effect, and what a multitude of details with all more pleasant, and more satisfactory, as all must acknowledge; their beauties, which were imperceptible in the morning, are VOL. III.


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