ページの画像
PDF
ePub

USED

TO

CHANGES

IN

BARO

THE
USED

TO

useless. The buildings of the fifteenth century, therefore, were of proportion, and many of the square and ugly brick buildings characterised by a refinement previously unknown. The old of the last century can boast little in common with the Italian manor-houses were transformed into mansions, and the castles, plan. In the present century Palladianism has declined, and & when not allowed to fall into ruin, became stately abodes. The disposition has been shown to revert to old English forms in exteriors were often handsomely embellished; the castellations, their best examples, and even to escape entirely from the which had formerly a warlike use, now became a mere ornament; thraldom of precedent, either in external or internal arrangeand the growing taste for privacy and comfort led to the ment. gradual formation of a convenient plan for a wide range of Italian architecture, however, in one or other of its forms apartments. We give an illustration of a portion of Haddon and adaptations, still prevails to a considerable extent, although Hall, in Derbyshire, as one of the finest examples of the Tudor the purely classic system of Palladio has lost favour. The period, which embraces the latter part of the fifteenth and a great club-houses in Pall-mall have all more or less of the style portion of the sixteenth centuries. The general style is sup- known as the Palatial Italian; and Bridgewater House, Piccaposed to have been suggested by the Perpendicular Gothic, dilly, the residence of the Earl of Ellesmere, is considered which was now in vogue in church architecture, and to this it to be perhaps the most perfect example of this style in will be found to bear many traces of resemblance.

England. The Rural Italian, very similar in its details, but At the beginning of the sixteenth century, ecclesiastical without the same uniformity of elevation-is also greatly in architecture was dying out, and vigorous attention began to be favour, and is especially adapted to picturesque situations. In bestowed on the domestic architecture of the country. The this style the marine residence of Her Majesty at Osborne middle of the century brings us to the Elizabethan age, when House was erected by the choice of the late Prince Consort, and the nation had a long period of comparative repose, and was an idea of its effect will be gathered from our illustration of rapidly accumulating wealth. The power of the nobles had a portion of that building. been greatly limited, and they no longer surrounded themselves by troops of retainers, who were sheltered and fed within castle and manor house walls. In the reigns immediately

PNEUMATICS.-IV. preceding, these attendants had been gradually dispersed to engage themselves in peaceful arts, to the great advantage of THE

BAROMETER (continued)-HOW

FORETELL the country. The residences of the nobility were now occupied

WEATHER-SELF-REGISTERING entirely by themselves and their domestics; and, as a conse

METER-HOW

MEASURE HEIGHTS-SPEEXGEL quence of this progressive change, we find a total revolution in the domestic manners of the time, which produced a corre- HAVING seen the mode of construction of the barometer, and sponding effect in domestic architecture. The large common the precautions which are taken to ensure its accurate reading, hall, hitherto the most important feature in the abodes of the we must now see the way in which it is employed to foretell great, had fallen into insignificance as regards its actual uses. change in the weather, or to show the elevations of different Additional chambers and private apartments were added, and places. English architects, some of whom had studied in Italy, devoted The barometer itself simply informs us what is the pressure themselves to the convenient and harmonious arrangement of exerted by the air at any time and place. This pressure is the whole. In Hatfield House, Hertfordshire, we have one of found to exhibit very great variations from time to time, and the finest examples of the style of the Elizabethan age, and its one of the causes of these is the moisture or dryness of the air. façade, or front, approached by a fine avenue of trees, forms one Moist air---that is, air charged with watery vapour-is found to of our illustrations. Many other specimens of the substantial weigh less than an equal bulk of dry air. This seems strange, and commodious architecture of the period exist in various but the barometer shows us that it is so; and we have a further parts of the country, among which we may mention Longleat, proof of the fact if we observe the smoke from a chimney. On Wilts, remodelled early in the present century by Sir Jeffrey a fine day the air is heavy, and buoys it up in an almost straight Wyatt; Burleigh House; Charlton House, near Blackheath; line, while on a damp day it falls heavily. When, therefore, the and a part of Hampton Court.

PUMP.

air is charged with vapour, its pressure diminishes, and the The architecture of the Elizabethan age has been considered barometer therefore falls. We have thus this general rule:an attempt to combine the Italian style with the Tudor Gothic. When the barometer is low, wet or windy weather may be es. The numerous perpendicular windows, the galleries and corridors, pected; and, on the contrary, when it is high, the weather will the ornamental gables or level balustrades which took the place not improbably be fine. of them, and the twisted chimney-shafts, are among its more This rule, however, is very vague; and if taken by itself will conspicuous features ; but its immense superiority over the often mislead. The words“ much rain," "rain," " change," building of preceding ages was shown chiefly in its commodious “fair," etc., usually inscribed on the dial of a wheel barometer

, internal arrangements, which for the first time made the abode are also almost useless, as no correct inferences can be drawn of a gentleman replete with comfort and convenience.

from them, the actual height at which the barometer stands The interior of the mansion having now been entirely re- being a far less certain guide than the fact of the column being modelled, its exterior shortly underwent another change, in the in a rising or falling state, as shown by the convexity or concagradual adoption throughout England of the Italian style, by vity of its surface. which the Tudor and Elizabethan were finally superseded. The There are three things which mainly affect the height of the Italian style was a revival of classic architecture, to which the mercury. These are works of Palladio were mainly instrumental, and hence it is 1. The force of the wind, which produces variations occafrequently called the Palladian school. The term Cinque sionally amounting to as much as two inches. Cento is also applied to it, from its revival in Italy after the 2. The amount of moisture in the air. The variations from year 1500-cinque, fifth, being used as an abbreviation of this cause amount to about half an inch. fifteenth century. It was introduced into this country by Inigo 3. The direction of the wind; a north-east wind having . Jones, and it soon became the fashion to adopt it. The peculiar tendency to cause a rise, and a south-west wind a fall. These

features of this style were the range of classic columns used as variations likewise amount to about half an inch. . a portico, and sometimes on each face of the edifice, which was From this it will be seen that wind affects the barometer

square in form, and often surmounted by a cupola. In interior much more than moisture does. It is important, then, to notice, arrangements a change was made by allotting the ground floor, together with the height of the barometer, the direction of the in large establishments, chiefly to the domestic offices, the wind, and likewise the temperature at the time of taking the dwelling-rooms and principal apartments being placed on the observation. floor above, and over these the bed-chambers. A central Space will not allow us here to give full instructions as to in. saloon, the height of the entire building, took the place of the terpreting the barometer. We subjoin, however, a few general hall of former times, and was surrounded by the other apart. rules, and also the instructions drawn up by anthority of the ments.

Board of Trade, and usually engraved on seamen's barometers. With various adaptations of this style to English taste, it Those who require fuller rules should procure a small pamphlet continued in vogue throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth called the “ Barometer Manual," compiled by the late Admiral centuries. In the hands of many architeots it lost its fairness Fitzroy for the Board of Trade :

The barometer rises for northerly The barometer falls for southerly by clockwork to prick a hole at regular intervals in a ruled card, wind (including from north-west by wind (including from south-east by moved slowly under the point. The line joining these marks the north to the eastward), for dry the south to the westward), for wet shows the changes in the height of the column. or less wet, for less wind, or for weather, for stronger wind, or for

Most mechanical arrangements for registering readings are, more than one of these changes; more than one of these changes;

Except on a few occasions when Except on a few occasions when however, liable to get out of order, and have the disadvantago rain or snow comes from the north- moderate wind with rain or snow of marking the height at stated intervals only, instead of giving ward with strong wind. comes from the northward. a continual line, and thus many minor variations are lost. The

aid of photography has, therefore, been called in, and this diffiA barometer, it should be borne in mind, shows what weather culty obviated. The barometer is placed in a darkened room, may be expected, and not what is present. A rising column and a small mirror is so arranged that it is turned by the rising usually indicates fair weather ; a falling column, foul. In both and falling of the column. A small ray of light is admitted by cases, the more gradual the rise or fall, the longer continuance an opening in a shutter, or, as is more commonly the case, the of the weather may be looked for.

light of a powerful lamp is concentrated by a lens, and the ray Frequent fluctuations in the height are usually a sign of un- of light from this falls on the mirror. A sheet of sensitised paper settled and changeable weather. A rapid rise also indicates un- is so placed as to receive the reflected ray, and as this paper is settled weather, while a rapid fall frequently presages a storm. slowly and evenly moved on by means of clockwork, a faint

A high south-west wind nearly always causes the mercury to trace is left on it, which accurately shows every variation, howstand very low, even if no rain ensue; a north-east wind pro- ever slight, in the height of a column. The trace on the paper duces the contrary effect.

can afterwards be developed and fixed, so that it may be kept There are two corrections which have to be introduced into as a permanent register of the varying pressure of the air. As the readings of barometers if we would compare them with the ray answers the purpose of a long lever without weight, variathose of others at different places. The first is a correction for tions of tho of an inch may be distinctly recorded in this way. the height above the level of the sea at half tide. This is taken Having now seen something of the way in which the baroas the standard height; and it is clear that if the barometer is meter is used as a weather-glass, we must just glance at the other raised above this level, a portion of the atmosphere is left below important use to which it is applied, viz., as a means of ascerit, and the pressure is therefore less by this amount.

taining the elevations of mountains or other eminences. This It is found that an elevation of ninety feet caases a diminu. was the first use to which it was put, and its indications in tion in the height of the column of about it of an inch, and this respect are more to be depended on than in forotelling the this amount must therefore be added to the observed reading. weather. Pascal's celebrated experiment showed the principle, This fact in itself shows how worthless the words on a weather- though he did not understand the mode of caloulation. glass are, for in a valley it may stand at "fair," while on an If the atmosphere were of equal density throughout, there elevation near by it points to "rain." The fact of its being on would be no difficulty whatever in the matter, for then the the ground floor or at the top story of a house is quite sufficient diminution in the length of the column of mercury supported to alter the reading if the barometer be a good one.

would be exactly proportional to the elevation attained, and as we The second correction that has to be made is for temperature. have already seen that an elevation of ninety feet causes a fall Mercury is very sensitive to heat, and expands considerably by of about to of an inch, we should merely have to allow 900 feet it, thereby becoming lighter; a longer column will, therefore, be for every inch, and should thus ascertain the elevation. sustained by the pressure of the air. The difference caused by This, however, is not the case, for every portion of the air is this is found to be about tê of an inch for every 10° above compressed by the weight of that above it, and thus the density freezing-point, or 32°, and this amount must therefore be diminishes rapidly as we ascend. It is usually reckoned that deducted from the observed reading.

one-half of the entire atmosphere is passed at an elevation of a Apart from the irregular fluctuations which we have been con- little less than three miles, though its extreme limit is supposed sidering, there is a regular daily variation arising from tides in to be at an elevation of not less than forty-five or fifty miles, and the atmosphere, for the aërial ocean, like the aqueous, has its perhaps more. periods of ebb and flow. The tides, however, are solar tides, The exact calculation of height by means of the barometer is being apparently caused rather by the heat of the sun than by a rather complicated process, and involves higher branches of its attraction of the air, and hence they occur at a regular time mathematics than we can well introduce here: the following simple every day, and are always of one uniform height, the phenomena rule will, however, give a very close approximation to the true of spring and neap tides not being observed.

height, especially if it be not greater than 5,000 or 6,000 feet:In temperate climates this fluctuation is but little noticed, as Ascertain the height at which the barometer stands at the it only amounts to do or of an inch, and is therefore hidden level from which the measurement is to be taken, and also note by the larger fluctuations before mentioned ; if, however, we the reading at the highest point attained, the height will then take the average of a continued series of hourly observations, be shown by the following rule of three sum :--As the sum of wo shall find that the daily maximum height is attained about the two readings is to their difference, so 52,000 feet is to the nine o'clock in the morning, and the same hour in the evening, height required. Suppose, for example, that the barometer at while the time of least elevation is about three o'clock.

the level of the sea stands at 29.76 inches, and at the summit In tropical regions the accidental variations of the baro- of the mountain at 26-18, we have the sum of the readings, or meter are very slight, as the wind and the moisture there 29.76 +26-18 = 55:94, and their difference = 3:58, the equation are not subject to the variations they exhibit in temperate will therefore stand thus :climates. Its fluctuations, therefore, occur with the utmost

As 55.94 : 3:5 :: 52,000 : 3,327. regularity, and range over about be of an inch; and it is of little use there in foretelling the weather, except at rare intervals, The height of the mountain is therefore 3,327 feet. when a sudden and great fall of the mercury is the precursor of As, however, the temperature usually diminishes as we ascend, a terrible storm or hurricane.

this will interfere a little with the result. We must therefore In many places daily registers are kept of the variations in notice also the temperature at each place, and allow for the the barometer, the wind, and the temperature

, and careful difference as before, by deducting from the reading at the level observers are needed in other places, as, by comparison of such where the temperature is lower ido of an inch for every ten detables, many important meteorological questions may not im- grees difference in temperature. probably be solved. The height at noon is usually about the If the weather be at all variable, or the ascent occupy a little average of that during the day; if, therefore, only one observa- time, it is far better to have another observer at the level of the tion can be taken, it should be at that hour; but if two observa- ground, and thus let two simultaneous observations be taken, tions can be taken, it is better, and then nine and three are as all risk of variation is thus avoided. about the most favourable times.

As there is a difficulty in carrying an ordinary barometer from In observatories where it is required to keep a record of these place to place, several special arrangements have been planned variations

, a self-registering apparatus is employed. This is for the purpose. An ordinary cistern barometer is often emusually adapted to a wheel barometer, the float being attached ployed, in which the cistern is attached firmly to the end

of the to the shorter end of a light and well-balanced lever. The tube, and made

with leather sides, so that by turning the screw longer end of this sometimes carries a pointer, which is caused at the bottom, the tube is completely filled, and thus the risk of

E

breakage is much diminished. The tripod from which it hangs it will condense the vapour within, and the pressure being thus is also so constructed as to form a safe case for the instrument removed, ebullition will immediately commence again. This on the journey.

experiment is a striking one, as the cold water has the effect of Still, even the best of these arrangements is heavy and awk making that in the flask boil. ward to carry about, and therefore an entirely different kind of Having thus seen the effects of the pressure of the air, and barometer is usually employed for this purpose.

the mode in which the barometer serves as a means of mea. Till recently, barometers containing liquid, whether mercury suring it, we shall understand better the principle of the or water, were universally employed, but now dry or solid common pump, and why water cannot be raised by it to a barometers are coming rapidly into use, on account of their greater height than about thirty feet. We shall also see the much greater portability. These are called aneroid barometers, mode in which the pressure-gauge of an air-pump, shown at G and consist of an exhausted chamber, the increase or diminution in Fig. 2 (Vol. II., page 304), acts. It is simply a straight glass of the pressure on which causes a slight variation in its size, and tube, dipping at the lower end into a cup of mercury, and comthe alteration being magnified by means of a series of levers, municating at its upper end with the exhaust pipe of the moves the hand over a graduated dial-plate.

receiver. As the air is removed the mercury rises, and the In outward appearance the instrument closely resembles a difference between its height in this tube anà that at which it watch, and some are now made no larger than this, and may stands in an ordinary barometer shows the amount of air left in therefore be easily and safely carried about in the pocket. the receiver. With a pump of the common description there is

The first mode of making these was with a flat circular box, usually about one inch difference, but if it be very carefully made of some elastic metal, and having the flat sides corrugated, made, this may be reduced to less than half an inch, showing that to increase the elasticity. This pressed on one side against the less than a of the original volume of air remains in the receiver. point of a screw, by means of which it could be adjusted so as to There is, however, another piece of apparatus, known as the correspond with the reading of a standard mercurial barometer. Sprengel pump, by which a much greater degree The other side of the case was pressed upon by a small pointer, of exhaustion may be obtained; and though it attached to the shorter end of a lever, which moved the hand. An is seldom if ever used to exhaust a large reimprovement on this form was, however, effected by M. Bourdon. ceiver, it is frequently employed in chemical He found that if a thin metallic tube be exhausted and curved researches, especially as it has the additional ad. into a circular form, any increase of pressure on the outside vantage of rendering it easy to collect the air tends to curve it more, while a diminution of pressure straightens or gas removed from any vessel. The principle it. A flat tube is accordingly taken, and, having been ex. of this pump is very simple and yet very ingehausted and hermetically sealed, it is curved round into a cir- nious, a drop of mercury being made to take cular form. Fine wires or cords pass from the ends to a small the place of the piston in the ordinary pump. lever on the axis of the needle, and thus, when the pressure The annexed diagram (Fig. 13) will show its diminishes, the tube opens a little, drawing these wires, and thus construction and mode of action. A piece of moving the hand on the dial-plate to one side. A small spiral stout glass tubing, A B, about five feet long, and spring is also placed in the case, so that when the pressure having a bore about to of an inch in diameter, again increases, and the wires are slackened by the tube curving, is taken, and a funnel is fixed to the upper end. this may pull the hand back to its place.

Usually it is melted on so as to form all into The chief practical difficulty in the construction of this instru- one piece. The lower end B turned up a ment arose from want of elasticity in the tube. If it could little. A glass stop-cock, c, is also fixed a little have been made of tempered steel it would have answered; below the funnel, and a few inches lower anothis, however, was impracticable, but a flat spring placed inside ther glass tube, D E, opens into A B. The tube the tube is found to answer nearly as well, and aneroid baro- or vessel to be exhausted is then fixed tightly to meters can now be obtained so well made, that if they are the end E. This may be done by a good piece of occasionally adjusted by a standard barometer, they will serve india-rubber tubing, if the joint be kept under for most purposes.

water. The funnel is now filled with quickA new form of self-registering barometer has recently been silver, and a vessel is placed at B to catch all brought out by M. Breguet, of Paris, in which three or four of that runs down. The whole of the apparatus the corrugated circular boxes are placed one above another, and is usually fixed to a piece of board to guard the expansion of these moves a series of levers. At the further against breakage. end of one of these is a pencil which traces a line on a cylinder The tap is now turned on, and the mercury, driven by clockwork, and thus gives a continuous record of all when it comes to D, is caused by the shape of

Fig. 13. changes in the pressure.

the tube to fall in a series of drops, each of There is another plan of ascertaining heights, which may be which acts as a piston, and carries down with it a portion of the mentioned here as being of easy application, and depending on air from E, and in this way a nearly perfect vacuum may be obthe pressure of the air. It is by means of a thermometer. If tained. If a straight tube be fitted on E, the lower end of which we place a cup of warm water under the receiver of an air-pump dips into a cup of mercury, the mercury will rise in it till it stands and exhaust the air, we shall soon find the water rapidly boiling, at almost the same height as in a barometer placed by it. In even though its temperature is not higher than may be com- fact, the difference in height is often almost imperceptible. fortably borne by the hand. When a liquid is exposed to a In order to collect the gas or air, the end B must dip into a source of heat, the portions of it nearest the flame have a vessel of mercury, and the gas will bubble up through it into a tendency to assume the state of vapour, and they do this as soon vessel placed to receive it, and may thus be saved for analysis. as their tension becomes equal to the pressure on the liquid. If, therefore, we diminish the pressure, a less tension will be required,

LESSONS IN GERMAN.-XLV. and therefore ebullition will ensue at a lower temperature.

The temperature, then, at which ebullition ensues varies with SECTION XCV.-IDIOMATIC PHRASES (continued). the pressure, and hence is an indication of it just as the height Werth (worth), like its equivalent in our language, is used in of the column in the barometer is, and by means of tables con- designating the value of things ; as :-Dieses Pferd ist treihundert structed for the purpose we can tell the pressure from the Gulben werth, this horse is worth three hundred florins. When, temperature at which water boils, and thus deduce the height as however, the amount of one's wealth is referred to, some phrase before. As a rough guide, it may be stated that each 600 feet like the following is employed :-Er hat ein Vermögen von zehn in elevation lowers the boiling point one degree on the Fahrenheit Tausend Gulben; or, Er hat zehn Tausend Gulden im Vermögen, he is scale.

worth ten thousand florins. Another simple experiment, illustrating the fact of water 1. Ausfommen (a coming or getting out), with haben, forms the boiling at a lower temperature if the pressure be diminished, can phrase, Gin Austommen haben, " to have a competency or subsisbe easily tried. Procure a flask, and having partly filled it with tence ;” as : In diesem fante hat der Arbeiter ein gutes Nuffommen, water, place it over a lamp, and when the water is boiling, cork während er in den meisten Ländern Europa's nur ein nethvürstiges Hat, in the flask tightly, and remove it from the lamp. The air has this country the labourer has a good subsistence, while in (the) now been driven off, and if we pour cold water over the outside most countries of Europe he has only a scanty (one).

m.

sence.

more

2. llaterfommen=coming under, that is, a lodging, a shelter ; | ployment. 6. Those who have a scanty competency are somealso, an employment; as :-Wir suchten in irgend einem der vielen times the tools of the greatest crimes. 7. My brother bids me Gastbäufer dieser Stadt vergebens ein Unterkommen, we sought in vain, to be patient and forbearing. 8. He seeks my forgiveness, and in any one of the many inns of this town, a shelter. Der Fleißige therefore I cannot longer be angry with him. 9. Necessity refiatet überall ein Unterkommen, the industrious finds everywhere em- quires that we should sometimes grant our body relaxation. 10. ployment.

As he forgot to pay for his coat, the tailor requested him to pay. VOCABULARY.

SECTION XCVI.-IDIOMATIC PHRASES (continued). Aus'fommen. (See R. Menschlich. human, Unmöglichkeit, f. im

Bemühen=to trouble. Sich um Etwas, or für Jemand bemühen, I above.) founded in human possibility.

" to give one's self trouble about, to take pains, strive about Gins, one thing. nature.

Interkommen, to find Grho'lung, f. refresh- Nachsicht, f. forbear. employment, shel- any thing, or for any one;" as :-Darf ich Sie bemühen, mir das

Buch zu reichen? may I trouble you to reach me that book? Dil ment, recreation. ance, indulgence. ter, etc. (See R.

bemühst Dich zu viel um eine so geringe Sache, you trouble yourself too Fert'gehen, to go away. Noth'türftig, scanty, 2, above.)

much about so trifling a thing. Ein Freund sollte sich für einen Cinnen, to grant, fa necessitous, needy. Verle-ben, to live,pass, Freund bemühen, a friend should take pains for a friend. 68 giebt

vour, permit. Schein, shine, spend. Hernie'terkommen, to light.

gewisse gutmüthige Leute, tie sich mehr für andere, als für sich selbst be Verzei'hung, f. pardon,

mühen, there are certain good-natured people who take more come down. Stören, to trouble, forgiveness.

pains for others than for themselves. Kreis, m.circle,sphere. disturb.

Vor'fallen, to hap

1. Zeitvertreib (from Zeit, time, and vertreiben, to drive or pass Manchmal, often, fre- Trost, m. consolation.

pen.
away) signifies “a pastime;" 23:-Waß ihm Zeitvertreib ist

, macht quently,

some- Troß, in defiance, in Warnen, to warn of, mir Langeweile, what to him is pastime, causes me weariness. Sich times. spite of.

admonish against.

tie Zeit vertreiben, "to spend, or pass one's time;" as :-Wie ver RÉSUMÉ Or EXAMPLES.

treibt er sich die Zeit ? how does he pass his time? Er vertreibt fic Sin Fluger Feldherr gönnt seinen A judicious general sometimes tieselbe mit Sagen und Fischen, he spends it (the same) in hunting

Solta'ten zuwei'len eine Erho's grants his soldiers (a) recrea- and fishing.
lung.
tion.

VOCABULARY Einmal hat der Schiffer eine ru's At one time the mariner has a Abʻwesenheit, f. ab. Etwa, about, nearly, Verfolgen, to pursue, bige, dann wieder eine für'mische quiet (pleasant), then again

perhaps.

persecute. Reise. a stormy voyage.

Ausbruch, m. breaking Fechten, to fight. Verstei'gerung, f. aucEr þat fein Vermöʻgen dazu, um He has no fortune by which out, eruption. Grimm, m. fury, rage,

tion. tiesen Aufwand lange Zeit be. (thereto) to be able (for a) Bemer'fung, f. remark, wrath.

Bor'wagen (sich), to streiften zu können. long time to afford this ex notice.

Geb'fuchen, m. ginger hazard, venture penditure. Berühmt', famous, bread.

(out). Weisheit ist mehr werth, als Reich. Wisdom is

valuable renowned, cele- Nürnberg, n. Nurem. Borstellen, to reprethum. (worth more) than riches. brated.

berg.

sent, introduce, 3n der Schweiz hat der Bauer ein In (the) Switzerland the peasant Blatt, n. paper, leaf. Revolution', f. revolu personate. besseres Aus'kommen, als in dem has a better subsistence than Durch'lesen, to read tion.

Zeit'vertreib, m. (See grö'geren Theile Ita'liens.

in the greater part of Italy. orer, peruse. Scherzen, to jest, joke, R. 1, above.) Bei Einbruch ber Nacht suchte er in On the approach (invasion of

sport. einem Fleinen Dertchen ein Un'a the night, he sought shelter

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. terfommen.

in a little hamlet (little place). Der Kaufmann hat dem Capitän' The merchant has already paid zum Zeit-vertreib begießt sie ihre For pastime she waters her bereits' die Fahrt bezahlt'. the captain (for) the passage. Blumen im Garten.

flowers in the garden. Mich þat þerzlich verlangt“

, was I have heartily desired to eat Durch diese Mittheilungen machte Through these communications D'sterlamm mit euch zu essen this passover with you (Luke

er seinem gepreß'ten Herzen Luft. he gave his oppressed heart (Cucas xxii. 15). xxii. 15, marginal reading).

vent. Das verlassene Sind verlangt nach The forsaken child longs for Nußland hat sich nicht vergeblich Russia has not striven in vain seiner Mutter. (after) its mother. bemüht', die Bewegungen in Gu to suppress the agitation in

Europe.
EXERCISE 184.

roʻpa zu unterbrü'den.

Die Leipʻziger Messe ist eine der bes The Leipsic fair is one of the 1. Gs giebt im menschlichen Leben zuweilen trübe Augenblice. 2. Man

Deu'tendsten in ganz Deutschland. most important in all Germuß zuweilen tem Geifte eine Erholung gönnen. 3. Er ist schon manch.

many. mal hier gewesen. 4. Schon manchmal habe ich dieses gesagt. 5. Manch. mal mißlingt es auch. 6. Es ist jeßt feine Zeit bazu, spazieren zu gehen.

EXERCISE 186. 7. Gr bat heute noch hinlängliche Zeit dazu, diese Arbeit zu vollenden. 8.

1. Bei dem Ausbruche der Revolution in Berlin wurde bis in die Nacht Er hat an einem andern Tag mehr Zeit

, sich zu besuchen. 9. Dieses hinein gefochten. 2. Er gab ihm das Buch mit der Bitte, eg rein all Haus ist tausend Thaler werth. io. Mein Rock ist zehn Thaler werth. halten. 3. Es ist ihm gestern ein Brief zugeschict worden. 4. Ich zeinua 11. Žener Mann besikt fünf hundert Thaler. 12. Er besikt zehn tausend ihm die neuen Gemälde, die ich auf der Versteigerung gekauft hatte. Thaler. 13. Diese Familie hat ihr gutes Auskommen. 14. Sener arme Musit ist sein liebster Zeitvertreib. 6. Er singt, scherzt und lacht zum Zeu Taglöhner hat nur ein nothdürftiges Auskommen. 15. Es famen so vertreib, anstatt fich mit ernsten Dingen zu besch-ftigen. 7. Ich gehe e viele politische Flüchtlinge an, daß sie nicht alle unterkommen fonnten. 16. Morgens (Sect. XXXIV. 3), Mittags und Abends spazieren. 8. Sie vx. Die Soldaten fanden alle in den Scheunen und Ställen der Bauern ein folgten ten Feind bis an (Sect. LVII. Note) die Grenzen des Panto linterkommen. 17. Gestern habe ich dem Kaufmanne seine Rechnung be 9. Bis an diese Stelle hatte sie das Buch durchgelesen. 10. Vis an rief. zahlt. 18. Gr hat dem Schneiter den Roc noch nicht bezahlt. 19. Er Ort wagten sie sich vor, aber weiter nicht. 11. Gr bemühte sich vergeben pergab dem Schuhmacher die Stiefel zu bezahlen. 20. Der Kranke ver- tie Frage zu lösen. 12. Sie bemühten sich um die Gunst ihres Hertil langt ein Glas Wasser. 21. Mich verlangt zu wissen, was an der Sache 13. Er bemüht sich Reichthümer zu erwerben. 14. Ich bin etwa fü ist. 22. Mich verlangt eine heitere Stunde im Kreis ter lieben Meinen zu Jahre hier (in dieser Stadt). 15. Ich bin seit einer halben Stunde b: verleben 23. Ich verlange das Buch, das fort liegt. 24. Gins bitte ich (in tem Zimmer). 16. Ist Iemand während meiner Abweserheit bu tid: sei rorsichtig in der Wahl seiner Freunde. 25. Der Mann bat um gewesen ? 17. Gerr N. war hier und wollte Sie sprechen. 18. 61 Gebulb und Nachlicht. 26. Da er ihn um Verzeihung bat, so konnte er Berliner Blatt macht uns folgende interessante Mittheilung. 19. 1 nicht länger zürnen. 27. Ich bitte Sie um ein Glas Wein.

Nürnberger ($ 11, Note) Lebkuchen sind durch ganz Deutschland berühm

20. Das Geidelberger Faß ist wegen seiner Größe bekannt. 21. Ich eu. EXERCISE 185.

fehle mich Ihnen, mein Herr. 22. Empfehlen Sie mich Ihrer Famil: 1. My house is worth a thousand francs, but that of my 23. Er empfahl sich der Gesellschaft. 24. Da der alte Jager seine brother fifteen hundred. 2. That banker is worth a thousand Grimm nicht anders Luft zu machen wußte, so schlug er seine Hunde. pounds more than that sum. 3. Contentment is of greater value than all the riches of the world. 4. We could not any.

EXERCISE 187. where find shelter on our arrival in America, as all the inns 1. My friend sent me a book, with the request to peruse it." were full. 5. Every one who goes to Australia may find em- I have perused your book as far as the second chapter. 3.

[ocr errors][merged small]

parcel was sent to me yesterday. 4. Study is my most agree. daß mein Freund mit dem Dampfboote ankommen würde, so holte ich ihn ven able pastime. 5. In the morning I study, and in the evening I bem Landungsplaße ab. 22. Ich habe diesen Brief heute Morgen von der teach my scholars. 6. We need not trouble ourselves on ac- Post abgeholt

. 23. Ich sprach auf meiner Reise in verschiedenen Wirtha. count of our friend: he does not need our assistance. 7. During Häusern ein-aber id fann feines derselben besonders loben. 24. Ik the absence of our teacher we played instead of learning. 8. spreche gewöhnlich bei meinen Freunden ein, wenn ich in die Statt gehe. How long have you been in London? 9. I have been nearly

EXERCISE 189. three years here. 10. Was my brother here during my absence? 11. No, he was not here. 12. May I trouble you to write me

1. I made better progress in the German language after I had this letter ? 13. A diligent boy strives to acquire knowledge.

mastered the first rudiments. 2. The uncle seeks to usurp the

fortune of his cousins. 3. Is it long since your brother was SECTION XCVII.-IDIOMATIC PHRASES (continued).

taken ill? 4. No, it is not more than a few days since. 5. Reißen=to tear, to rend, also, to draw, etc. ; hence, an fich Will you stop at home till I call on you? 6. It is more pleareißen, “ to draw towards, or to one, to usurp, seize upon;" as:= sant to me to take a walk in the country than to sit at home. Der Sturm riß ganze Bäume aus der Erde, the storm rent whole 7. When I go to town, I generally call on some of my friends. trees from the earth. Er hat das Vermögen seines Bruters an fich 8. He prefers studying to all other employments. 9. I prefer gerissen, he has nsurped the fortune of his brother.

walking to riding, and riding to driving. 10. During the battle Sich um Gtwas reißen=to strive, contend for anything; as :- the general rode along the ranks to encourage his soldiers. 11. Die Räuber rissen sich um die Beute, the robbers strove for the booty. It is healthful to children when they can take a walk after

1. Einsprechen (literally,“ to speak in")=to inculcate by words, school. 12. The robbers strove for the booty which they had to influence by speaking. Einem Muth, Troft, etc., einsprechen, "to taken from the citizens. speak courage, consolation, etc., to one," i.e., to encourage, to console, etc.; as :

-Der tapfere General besuchte täglich die Schanzen, um ben Soldaten Muth und Troft einzusprechen, the valiant general

LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.XLVII. visited the redoubts daily, in order to encourage and console the soldiers.

MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES (continued). 2. Bei Jemanden einsprechen=to call on one, to give one a call ; 53. A and B rent a field for £60. A puts in 10 horses for 14 as :-3 sprach auf einige Augenblide bei dem Herrn Pfarrer ein, I called months, 30 oxen for 2 months, and 100 sheep for 3 months ; for a few moments on the pastor.

B puts in 20 horses for 1 month, 40 oxer for 14 months, and VOCABULARY.

200 sheep for 4 months. If the food consumed in the same time Abʻrufen, to call, call Ein'sprechen. (See R. Kugel

, f. bullet, ball. by a horse, an ox, and a sheep be in the ratio 3 : 2:1, find the away, recall.

1, above.) Panódungsplap, m. land portion of the rent of the field which each must pay. Anffangögründe, first Fortschritt,m.progress. ing-place, place of

54. A fraudulent wine merchant sells as brandy a mixture of principles, rudi- Gelassenheit, f. tran- descent.

brandy and rum at £2 5s. a gallon, which is the proper price of ments, elements. quillity.

Reißen, to tear, seize. his brandy; that of his rum being a guinea a gallon. If oneBehagʻlich, pleasing, Oreis, m. old man. (See above.)

third of the mixture be rum, what does he gain per gallon agreeable, com- Haus'geräth, n. house- Un'behaglich, unplea- by his dishonesty ? fortable. hold furniture. sant, comfortless.

55. A Jew discounts a bill of £180, drawn at 4 months, at 60 Besonders, particular Herrschaft, f.dominion, Wiege, f. cradle.

per cent. per annum, and insists on giving in part payment 5 ly, especially. mastery, domina- Wirthshaus, n. inn, dozen of wine which he charges at 4 guineas a dozen, and a Cigar're, f. cigar. tion.

public-house.

picture which he charges at £19. How much ready money does

he pay ? Résumé OF EXAMPLES.

If the cost to the Jew of the wine and the picture be only one Wer ein Vorrecht hat, sucht auchy He who has one privilege seeks fourth of the sum he has charged for them, what is the real noch an'dere an sich zu reißen. (to seize to himself) to usurp interest the Jew has been charging ? others.

56. Any sum of money may be expressed in pounds, twelfths Wollen Sie über Havre reisen? Will you go (travel) viâ Havre? of a pound, and a proper fraction of a twelfth ; and 5 per cent. Ich habe nichts dage'gen, wenn Sie I have nothing against it, if on the same may be immediately obtained by considering the es vorʻziehen.

you prefer it.

pounds as shillings, and twelfths as pence, and the fraction of Wir ziehen es vor, zu Hause zu blei. We prefer to stay at home. à twelfth as the same fraction of a penny. (1.) Explain the ben.

reason of this. (2.) Hence find 5 per cent. on £621 13s. 8d. Der Flei'fige macht bef'sere Fort'. The industrious (man) makes (3.) Deduce 44 per cent on the same amount. schritte, als ter faule.

better progress than the idle. 57. An American dollar at par of exchange is worth 4s. 6d. Rußlant, Destreich, unb Preußen Russia, Austria, and Prussia of our money. What is the value of 642 dollars when the er

rissen sich um das un'glüdlide contended about (the) un change is 7 per cent. in favour of England ?
Polen.
happy Poland.

58. A tax of 7 d. in the pound produces £336,000; if it be EXERCISE 188.

increased to 35 per cent., what is the increase in the revenue ? 1. Trotz der Mühe, welche sich der Lehrer gab, wollten die Kinder feine Cent. Consols, so as to gain £150

when the price has increased

59. A person lays out £1911 in the purchase of Three per rechten Fortschritte machen. 2. Er machte bedeutente Fortschritte in der 67. Find the price originally paid, allowing $ per cent. for teutschen Sprache

, nachdem er die ersten Anfangegründe überwunden hatte. brokerage. If Consols fall again to the original price, and the 3. Er entbehet ter nöthigsten Bücher. 4. Gine arme Familie entbehrt oft money be again invested, determine the increase of income. der nothwendigsten Hausgeräthe. 5. Die Gelassenheit dieses Angeklagten beruht auf dem Bewußtsein feiner Unschuld. 6. Der Capitän erzählte uns persons, so that A shall have one-fifth, B half as much as A, C

60. A legacy of £658 178. 6d. is to be divided among four gestern, daß sich der junge Italiener eine Kugel durch den Kopf geschossen one-third as much as A, and D the remainder. Find their babe. 7. Er schoß dem Bären eine Kugel durch den Kopf. 8. 3ch ziehe es vor über Bremen oder Hamburg, anstatt über Havre zu reisen. 9. Ich

respective shares. ziehe das Reiten dem Gehen, und das Fahren dem Reiten vor.

61. A box 5 feet long, 3 feet broad, and 2 feet 6 inches high,

10. Es ist mir in einer warmen Stube behaglicher

, als in einer falten. 11. Gå ift ihm is made of wood 1 inch thick; what is it worth, supposing wood am behaglichften, wenn er nach dem Essen seine Cigarre rauchen kann." 12. inch thick to cost 9d. a square foot ? Knaben ist es am behaglichsten und auch am gesündesten, wenn sie nach dem

62. Determine the value of 3

to 4 places of Effen eine halbe Stunde spazieren gehen. 13. Ich hatte den ganzen Mor. decimals.

9.869604 gen über ein unbehagliches Gefühl. 14. Die Fürsten Deutschlants haben 63. A person buys a quantity of goods, and sells them at von Neuem bie Herrschaft an sich gerissen. 15. Der Oheim wußte nach und such a price that he receives for of them sufficient to pay for nach das Vermögen seiner Neffen an sich zu reißen. 16. Gå ist schon lange the whole. What does he gain per cent ? her, tak ich ihn gesehen habe. 17. 3ft ex lange, daß er frank ift? 18. 64. A merchant, sending goods by sea, insures them at an Ja, es sind schon mehr ale trei Wochen. 19. Bleibe zu Hause, bie ich zu amount sufficient to cover the interest to be expected on the tir fomme ; ich werde dich zu einem Spaziergange abholen. 20. Der Tod venture (10 per cent.)

and the cost of insurance (5 per cent.). ruft nicht nur den Greis, sondern auch gar oft den Mann in seinen besten The whole amount paid to him on a total loss is 2504 18s. Jahren, den Jüngling und das Kind in der Wiege ab. 21. Da ich wußte, Find the cost of the goods.

« 前へ次へ »