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2. llaterfommen=coming under, that is, a lodging, a shelter ; | ployment. 6. Those who have a scanty competency are somealso, an employment; as :-Wir suchten in irgend einem der vielen times the tools of the greatest crimes. 7. My brother bids me Gastbäufer dieser Stadt vergebens ein Unterkommen, we sought in vain, to be patient and forbearing. 8. He seeks my forgiveness, and in any one of the many inns of this town, a shelter. Der Fleißige therefore I cannot longer be angry with him. 9. Necessity refiatet überall ein Unterkommen, the industrious finds everywhere em- quires that we should sometimes grant our body relaxation. 10. ployment.

As he forgot to pay for his coat, the tailor requested him to pay. VOCABULARY.

SECTION XCVI.-IDIOMATIC PHRASES (continued). Aus'fommen. (See R. Menschlich. human, Unmöglichkeit, f. im

Bemühen=to trouble. Sich um Etwas, or für Jemand bemühen, I above.) founded in human possibility.

" to give one's self trouble about, to take pains, strive about Gins, one thing. nature.

Interkommen, to find Grho'lung, f. refresh- Nachsicht, f. forbear. employment, shel- any thing, or for any one;" as :-Darf ich Sie bemühen, mir das

Buch zu reichen? may I trouble you to reach me that book? Dil ment, recreation. ance, indulgence. ter, etc. (See R.

bemühst Dich zu viel um eine so geringe Sache, you trouble yourself too Fert'gehen, to go away. Noth'türftig, scanty, 2, above.)

much about so trifling a thing. Ein Freund sollte sich für einen Cinnen, to grant, fa necessitous, needy. Verle-ben, to live,pass, Freund bemühen, a friend should take pains for a friend. 68 giebt

vour, permit. Schein, shine, spend. Hernie'terkommen, to light.

gewisse gutmüthige Leute, tie sich mehr für andere, als für sich selbst be Verzei'hung, f. pardon,

mühen, there are certain good-natured people who take more come down. Stören, to trouble, forgiveness.

pains for others than for themselves. Kreis, m.circle,sphere. disturb.

Vor'fallen, to hap

1. Zeitvertreib (from Zeit, time, and vertreiben, to drive or pass Manchmal, often, fre- Trost, m. consolation.

pen.
away) signifies “a pastime;" 23:-Waß ihm Zeitvertreib ist

, macht quently,

some- Troß, in defiance, in Warnen, to warn of, mir Langeweile, what to him is pastime, causes me weariness. Sich times. spite of.

admonish against.

tie Zeit vertreiben, "to spend, or pass one's time;" as :-Wie ver RÉSUMÉ Or EXAMPLES.

treibt er sich die Zeit ? how does he pass his time? Er vertreibt fic Sin Fluger Feldherr gönnt seinen A judicious general sometimes tieselbe mit Sagen und Fischen, he spends it (the same) in hunting

Solta'ten zuwei'len eine Erho's grants his soldiers (a) recrea- and fishing.
lung.
tion.

VOCABULARY Einmal hat der Schiffer eine ru's At one time the mariner has a Abʻwesenheit, f. ab. Etwa, about, nearly, Verfolgen, to pursue, bige, dann wieder eine für'mische quiet (pleasant), then again

perhaps.

persecute. Reise. a stormy voyage.

Ausbruch, m. breaking Fechten, to fight. Verstei'gerung, f. aucEr þat fein Vermöʻgen dazu, um He has no fortune by which out, eruption. Grimm, m. fury, rage,

tion. tiesen Aufwand lange Zeit be. (thereto) to be able (for a) Bemer'fung, f. remark, wrath.

Bor'wagen (sich), to streiften zu können. long time to afford this ex notice.

Geb'fuchen, m. ginger hazard, venture penditure. Berühmt', famous, bread.

(out). Weisheit ist mehr werth, als Reich. Wisdom is

valuable renowned, cele- Nürnberg, n. Nurem. Borstellen, to reprethum. (worth more) than riches. brated.

berg.

sent, introduce, 3n der Schweiz hat der Bauer ein In (the) Switzerland the peasant Blatt, n. paper, leaf. Revolution', f. revolu personate. besseres Aus'kommen, als in dem has a better subsistence than Durch'lesen, to read tion.

Zeit'vertreib, m. (See grö'geren Theile Ita'liens.

in the greater part of Italy. orer, peruse. Scherzen, to jest, joke, R. 1, above.) Bei Einbruch ber Nacht suchte er in On the approach (invasion of

sport. einem Fleinen Dertchen ein Un'a the night, he sought shelter

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. terfommen.

in a little hamlet (little place). Der Kaufmann hat dem Capitän' The merchant has already paid zum Zeit-vertreib begießt sie ihre For pastime she waters her bereits' die Fahrt bezahlt'. the captain (for) the passage. Blumen im Garten.

flowers in the garden. Mich þat þerzlich verlangt“

, was I have heartily desired to eat Durch diese Mittheilungen machte Through these communications D'sterlamm mit euch zu essen this passover with you (Luke

er seinem gepreß'ten Herzen Luft. he gave his oppressed heart (Cucas xxii. 15). xxii. 15, marginal reading).

vent. Das verlassene Sind verlangt nach The forsaken child longs for Nußland hat sich nicht vergeblich Russia has not striven in vain seiner Mutter. (after) its mother. bemüht', die Bewegungen in Gu to suppress the agitation in

Europe.
EXERCISE 184.

roʻpa zu unterbrü'den.

Die Leipʻziger Messe ist eine der bes The Leipsic fair is one of the 1. Gs giebt im menschlichen Leben zuweilen trübe Augenblice. 2. Man

Deu'tendsten in ganz Deutschland. most important in all Germuß zuweilen tem Geifte eine Erholung gönnen. 3. Er ist schon manch.

many. mal hier gewesen. 4. Schon manchmal habe ich dieses gesagt. 5. Manch. mal mißlingt es auch. 6. Es ist jeßt feine Zeit bazu, spazieren zu gehen.

EXERCISE 186. 7. Gr bat heute noch hinlängliche Zeit dazu, diese Arbeit zu vollenden. 8.

1. Bei dem Ausbruche der Revolution in Berlin wurde bis in die Nacht Er hat an einem andern Tag mehr Zeit

, sich zu besuchen. 9. Dieses hinein gefochten. 2. Er gab ihm das Buch mit der Bitte, eg rein all Haus ist tausend Thaler werth. io. Mein Rock ist zehn Thaler werth. halten. 3. Es ist ihm gestern ein Brief zugeschict worden. 4. Ich zeinua 11. Žener Mann besikt fünf hundert Thaler. 12. Er besikt zehn tausend ihm die neuen Gemälde, die ich auf der Versteigerung gekauft hatte. Thaler. 13. Diese Familie hat ihr gutes Auskommen. 14. Sener arme Musit ist sein liebster Zeitvertreib. 6. Er singt, scherzt und lacht zum Zeu Taglöhner hat nur ein nothdürftiges Auskommen. 15. Es famen so vertreib, anstatt fich mit ernsten Dingen zu besch-ftigen. 7. Ich gehe e viele politische Flüchtlinge an, daß sie nicht alle unterkommen fonnten. 16. Morgens (Sect. XXXIV. 3), Mittags und Abends spazieren. 8. Sie vx. Die Soldaten fanden alle in den Scheunen und Ställen der Bauern ein folgten ten Feind bis an (Sect. LVII. Note) die Grenzen des Panto linterkommen. 17. Gestern habe ich dem Kaufmanne seine Rechnung be 9. Bis an diese Stelle hatte sie das Buch durchgelesen. 10. Vis an rief. zahlt. 18. Gr hat dem Schneiter den Roc noch nicht bezahlt. 19. Er Ort wagten sie sich vor, aber weiter nicht. 11. Gr bemühte sich vergeben pergab dem Schuhmacher die Stiefel zu bezahlen. 20. Der Kranke ver- tie Frage zu lösen. 12. Sie bemühten sich um die Gunst ihres Hertil langt ein Glas Wasser. 21. Mich verlangt zu wissen, was an der Sache 13. Er bemüht sich Reichthümer zu erwerben. 14. Ich bin etwa fü ist. 22. Mich verlangt eine heitere Stunde im Kreis ter lieben Meinen zu Jahre hier (in dieser Stadt). 15. Ich bin seit einer halben Stunde b: verleben 23. Ich verlange das Buch, das fort liegt. 24. Gins bitte ich (in tem Zimmer). 16. Ist Iemand während meiner Abweserheit bu tid: sei rorsichtig in der Wahl seiner Freunde. 25. Der Mann bat um gewesen ? 17. Gerr N. war hier und wollte Sie sprechen. 18. 61 Gebulb und Nachlicht. 26. Da er ihn um Verzeihung bat, so konnte er Berliner Blatt macht uns folgende interessante Mittheilung. 19. 1 nicht länger zürnen. 27. Ich bitte Sie um ein Glas Wein.

Nürnberger ($ 11, Note) Lebkuchen sind durch ganz Deutschland berühm

20. Das Geidelberger Faß ist wegen seiner Größe bekannt. 21. Ich eu. EXERCISE 185.

fehle mich Ihnen, mein Herr. 22. Empfehlen Sie mich Ihrer Famil: 1. My house is worth a thousand francs, but that of my 23. Er empfahl sich der Gesellschaft. 24. Da der alte Jager seine brother fifteen hundred. 2. That banker is worth a thousand Grimm nicht anders Luft zu machen wußte, so schlug er seine Hunde. pounds more than that sum. 3. Contentment is of greater value than all the riches of the world. 4. We could not any.

EXERCISE 187. where find shelter on our arrival in America, as all the inns 1. My friend sent me a book, with the request to peruse it." were full. 5. Every one who goes to Australia may find em- I have perused your book as far as the second chapter. 3.

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24. 3o

parcel was sent to me yesterday. 4. Study is my most agree-daß mein Freund mit dem Dampfboote ankommen würde, so holte ich ihn von able pastime. 5. In the morning I study, and in the evening Idem Landungsplaße ab. 22. 3d habe diesen Brief heute Morgen von der teach my scholars. 6. We need not trouble ourselves on ac- Post abgeholt. 23. Ich sprach auf meiner Reise in versdiebenen Wirthi count of our friend: he does not need our assistance. 7. During Häusern ein--aber ich fann feines derselben besonders loben. the absence of our teacher we_played instead of learning. 8. (preche gewöhnlich bei meinen Freunden ein, wenn ich in die Stadt gehe. How long have you been in London ? 9. I have been nearly

EXERCISE 189. three years here. 10. Was my brother here during my absence? 11. No, he was not here. 12. May I trouble you to write me

1. I made better progress in the German language after I had this letter ? 13. A diligent boy strives to acquire knowledge.

mastered the first rudiments. 2. The uncle seeks to usurp the

fortune of his cousins. 3. Is it long since your brother was SECTION XCVII.-IDIOMATIC PHRASES (continued).

taken ill? 4. No, it is not more than a few days since. 5. Reißen=to tear, to rend, also, to draw, etc. ; hence, an sich Will you stop at home till I call on you? 6. It is more pleareißen, “ to draw towards, or to one, to usurp, seize upon;" as:- sant to me to take a walk in the country than to sit at home. Der Sturm riß ganze Bäume aus der Erde, the storm rent whole 7. When I go to town, I generally call on some of my friends. trees from the earth. &r hat das Vermögen seines Bruters an fich | 8. He prefers studying to all other employments. 9. I prefer gerissen, he has usurped the fortune of his brother.

walking to riding, and riding to driving. 10. During the battle Sich um Etwas reißen=to strive, contend for anything; as :- the general rode along the ranks to encourage his soldiers. 11. Die Räuber rissen sich um die Beute, the robbers strove for the booty. It is healthful to children when they can take a walk after

1. Einsprechen (literally, “to speak in")= to inculcate by words, school. 12. The robbers strove for the booty which they had to influence by speaking. Ginem Muth, Trost, etc., einsprechen, “to taken from the citizens. speak courage, consolation, etc., to one,” i.e., to encourage, to console, etc.; as :--Der tapfere General besuchte täglich die Schanzen, um den Soldaten Muth und Trost cinzusprechen, the valiant general LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.-XLVII. visited the redoubts daily, in order to encourage and console the soldiers.

MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES (continued). 2. Bei Iemanden einsprechen=to call on one, to give one a call; 53. A and B rent a field for £60. A puts in 10 horses for 1} as:—Id sprach auf einige Augenblicke bei dem Herrn Pfarrer ein, I called months, 30 oxen for 2 months, and 100 sheep for 3 months ; for a few moments on the pastor.

B puts in 20 horses for 1 month, 40 oxer for 13 months, and VOCABULARY.

200 sheep for 4 months. If the food consumed in the same time Ab'rufen, to call

, call Gin'sprechen. (See R. Kugel, f. bullet, ball. by a horse, an ox, and a sheep be in the ratio 3 : 2:1, find the away, recall. 1, above.) Pan-dungsvlak,m. land- portion of the rent of the field which each must pay. An'fangsgründe, first Fortschritt,m.progress.

54. A fraudulent wine merchant sells as brandy a mixture of

ing-place, place of principles, rudi. Gelassenheit, f. tran

brandy and rum at £2 58. a gallon, which is the proper price of

descent. ments, elements. quillity.

Reißen, to tear, seize. his brandy; that of his rum being a guinea a gallon. If oneBehagʻlich, pleasing, Greis, m. old man. (See above.)

third of the mixture be rum, what does he gain per gallon agreeable, com Haus geräth, n. house- Un behaglid, unplea- by his dishonesty ? fortable. hold furniture. sant, comfortless.

55. A Jew discounts a bill of £180, drawn at 4 months, at 60 Besonders, particular. Herrschaft, f.dominion, Wiege, f. cradle.

per cent. per annum, and insists on giving in part payment 5 ly, especially. mastery, domina- Wirthshaus, n. inn, dozen of wine which he charges at 4 guineas a dozen, and a Cigar're, f. cigar.

tion.

public-house.

picture which he charges at £19. How much ready money does

he pay? RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

If the cost to the Jew of the wine and the picture be only one Wer ein Vorrecht hat, fucht auch He who has one privilege seeks fourth of the sum he has charged for them, what is the real noch an-dere an sich zu reißen. (to seize to himself) to usurp interest the Jew has been charging ? others.

56. Any sum of money may be expressed in pounds, twelfths Wollen Sie über Havre reisen? Will you go (travel) vill Havre? of a pound, and a proper fraction of a twelfth; and 5 per cent. Ich habe nichts tage-gen, wenn Sie I have nothing against it, if on the same may be immediately obtained by considering the es vorʻziehen. you prefer it.

pounds as shillings, and twelfths as pence, and the fraction of Wir ziehen es vor, zu Hause zu bleia We prefer to stay at home. a twelfth as the same fraction of a penny. (1.) Explain the ben.

reason of this. (2.) Hence find 5 per cent. on £621 138. 8d. Der Fleißige macht bessere Fort'. The industrious (man) makes (3.) Deduce 4. per cent. on the same amount. schritte, als der Faule.

better progress than the idle. 57. An American dollar at par of exchange is worth 4s. 6d. Rußlant, Destreich, unb Preußen Russia, Austria, and Prussia of our money. What is the value of 642 dollars when the ex

rissen sich um das un'glüdlidye contended about (the) un change is 7 per cent. in favour of England ?
Polen.
happy Poland.

58. A tax of 74d. in the pound produces £336,000; if it be EXERCISE 188.

increased to 33 per cent., what is the increase in the revenue ? 1. Troß der Mühe, welche sich der Lehrer gab, wollten die Kinder

feine Cent. Consols, so as to gain £150

when the price has increased

59. A person lays out £1911 in the purchase of Three per rechten Fortschritte machen. 2. Er machte bedeutende Fortschritte in der 67. Find the price originally paid, allowing $ per cent. for teutschen Sprache, nachdem er die ersten Anfangegründe

überwunden hatte. brokerage. If Consols fall again to the original price, and the 3. Er entbehrt der nöthigsten Bücher. 4. Eine arme Familie entbehrt oft money be again invested, determine the increase of income. der nothwendigsten Hausgeräthe. 5. Die Gelassenheit dieses Angeklagten beruht auf dem Bewußtsein seiner Unschuld.

60. A legacy of £658 178. 6d. is to be divided among four

6. Der Capitän erzählte uns gestern, daß sich der junge Italiener eine Kugel durch den Kopf geschoisen persons, so that A shall have one-fifth, B half as much as A, C habe. 7. Er schoß dem Bären eine Kugel durch den Kopf.

one-third as much as A, and D the remainder. Find their

8. Ich ziehe c8 vor über Bremen oder Hamburg, anstatt über Havre zu reisen. 9. Ich

respective shares. ziehe das Reiten dem Gehen, und das Fahren dem Reiten vor. 10. Es ift is made of wood 1 inch thick ; what is it worth, supposing wood

61. A box 5 feet long, 3 feet broad, and 2 feet 6 inches high, mir in einer warmen Stube behaglicher, als in einer falten. 11. Es ist ihm inch thick to cost 9d. a square foot ? am behaglichsten, wenn er nach dem Essen seine Cigarre rauchen kann. 12. Knaben ist es am behaglichsten und auch am gesündeften, wenn sie nach dem

62. Determine the value of N 6 to 4 places of ssen eine halbe Stunde spazieren gehen. 13. Ich hatte den ganzen Mor: decimals.

9.869604 gen über ein unbehagliches Gefühl. 14. Die Fürsten Deutsdlands haben 63. A person buys a quantity of goods, and sells them at von Neuem die Herrschaft an sich gerissen. 15. Der Oheim wußte nach und such a price that he receives for of them sufficient to pay for nach das Vermögen seiner Neffen an sich zu reißen. 16. Es ist schon lange the whole. What does he gain per cent P her, daß ich ihn gesehen habe. 17. 3ft ex lange, daß er frank ist? 18. 64. A merchant, sending goods by sea, insures them at an Ia, es sind schon mehr als trei Wochen. 19. Bleibe zu Hause, bis ich zu amount sufficient to cover the interest to be expected on the tir fomme ; ich werde dich zu einem Spaziergange abholen. 20. Der Tod venture (10 per cent.) and the cost of insurance (5 per cent.). ruft nicht nur den Grcis, sondern auch gar oft den Mann in seinen besten The whole amount paid to him on a total loss is £504 185. Jahren, den Jüngling und das Kind in der Wiege ab. 21. Da ich wußte, Find the cost of the goods.

2. 24000.

16535

65. The average weight of 69 persons is 11 stone; of 70 and the interest on the same sum for the same time is £28 3s. 9d. persons, 11 stone 1 lb. What is the weight of the 70th ? Find the rate per cent., and the sum.

66. To pay a bill of £300 three months before date, a person 84. A person's income is derived from the proceeds of £4550 sells 33 per cent. stock at 90. Discount being allowed at 4 per at a certain rate per cent., and £5420 at 1 per cent. more than cent. per annum, how much stock must he sell, and what does the former. His whole income is £453. Determine the rates. be gain or lose by paying at once ?

85. One clock gains 4 minutes and another loses 4 minutes 67. A shilling weighs 3 dwt. 15 grains, and is ad fine. What in 12 hours. Find the time indicated by each clock, when one is the value of (1) a pound Troy ; (2) a pound avoirdupois of appears to have gained 164 minutes upon the other, supposing pure silver ?

them to start together at noon. 68. A person had two-fifths of a coal mine; he sold three 86. The gold coinage of one country contains 1 part silver to fourths of his share, and divided the remainder between his two 11 parts of gold without alloy, that of another 1 part of alloy to sons, giving four-fifths to the elder and £200 to the latter. 23 parts of gold. It is found that 46 of the first weigh as much Find the value of the mine.

as 88} of the second. The intrinsic value of silver is sth that 69. By selling tea at 58. 4d. a pound, a grocer clears one of gold. Find the par of exchange. eighth of his outlay; he then raises the price to 6s. What does 87. A man insures his life to the extent of 10 per cent. upon he clear per cent. at the latter price ?

his whole income; after deducting this, he pays 8d. in the 70. If a pipe of 6 inches bore discharges a certain quantity of pound income tax on the remainder. His net income is £957. water in 4 hours, in what time will 3 pipes of 1, 2, 3 inches bore Find his gross income. respectively discharge the same quantity, the water flowing in 88. A can do a piece of work in 6 days, which B can destroy each case with the same velocity ? [N.B. The bores of the in 4. A has worked 10 days, during the last 5 of which B has pipes are proportional to the squares of their diameters.] been destroying ; how many days must A now work alone in

71. A piece of work must be finished in 36 days, and 15' men order to complete his task ? are set to do it, working 9 hours a day; but after 24 days it is 89. A and B lay out equal sums in trade. A gains £100, found that only of the work is done. If 3 additional men be and B loses so much that his money is now only of A's. But then put on, how many hours a day will they have to labour in if each gave the other of his present sum, B's loss would be order to finish the work in time?

diminished by one-half. What had each at first ? 72. Seven men had water enough for 13 days, allowing 11 90. On certain goods the import duty is 150 per cent. on pints per man daily. After 5 days some water escaped, and one their prime cost. The duty is reduced one-half, but the cost of man died, and the water lasted the 13 days. How much was production increases 10 per cent. Determine what would have lost?

been the price of goods sold now at £46 4s., allowing 20 per 73. A has twice as much money as B. They play together cent, profit in each case. for a certain stake. At the end of the first game B wins from A one-third of A's money. What fraction of the sum B now KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.-XLVI. has must A win back in the second game, that they may have

EXERCISE 64. exactly equal sums?

1. 15.
22, 2s. 4d.

38. 3011' cubic yds.; 74. If 5 pumps, each having a length of stroke of 3 feet,

23. 7 weeks altogether. working 15 hours a day for 5 days, empty the water out of a 3. 12 stone.

24. £20 6s. 018 d. 39. £20 6s, 3d. mine, what must be the length of stroke of each of the 5 pumps, 4. £286492500. 25. 88 oz. £343 108.3ja. 40. 876, 99.54 yards which, working 10 hours a day for 12 days, would empty the 5. 33} per cent. 26. £47 5s.

approximately. same mine, the strokes of the former set of pumps being per

41. 41 of £1215 and

7. 83148.8. formed four times as fast as those of the latter ?

28. 18; £223.

$5 of £1245 respec

8. 17317 acres. 29. 895 and 11277, or tively. 75. From 1797 to 1821 cash payments were suspended.

9. 02031.

1611 and 6265. 42. 8853't. Before that time the value of gold was £3 17s. 10d. per oz. ; 10. 15 and 180. 30. The first way is 43. 212123's yards. but in 1815 it rose to £4 13s. 6d. per oz. How much per cent. 11. 914 yds. 1 ft. 9 in. the cheapest. 252 44. £52 10s.; £58 68.8d. had the currency depreciated ?

£15681 155. 43 d. quintals.

more income. 76. Two clocks, one gaining 3 min. and the other losing 2 12. 18 per cent. 31. £38 Os. 5d.

45. 2.80335 acres. min. a day, are set right at noon. What is the time by the 13. 8d.

32, 3045 sequins. 46. £l lls. 4 d. first clock when the second indicates noon a week afterwards ?

14. £394 Os. 8 d.ş. 33. The second way is 47. 19041 francs 59

120 the eheapest.

cents, 77. A trader fits out 4 ships in succession to run a blockade: 15. 114 paper gulden.

16. £375.

quintals. he reckons the total outlay on each ship after the first to be 8

48. 372. 17, 352 persons. 34. 2250.

[10s. 49. 2.97d. per cent. more than on the one that preceded it. The first and 18. 7-060002.

35. 3 per cent. £54330 50. In 6 years. third get into port, and he gains 160 per cent. on their cost, 19. 139 inches. 36. 16720 tons.

51. The ratio of 3 to 7. while the second and fourth are taken. What is his gain per 20. £1060. [13s. 37. 729, 432, 3348, 27 52. £4 48., £2, £1 165. cent. on the whole ?

21, 65 per cent. £574) respectively.

respectively, 78. The price of raw cotton being 5d. a pound, and of cleaned cotton 6d. a pound, how much per cent. in weight must be lost in cleaning, the cost of cleaning being neglected ?

LESSONS IN BOTANY.-XXXV. 79. The regulations respecting Great Exhibition tickets, from the opening, on Thursday, May 1, to Saturday, October 18, were

SECTION CVI.—THYMELACEÆ, OR DAPHNADS. as follows:-Three guinea season tickets alone admit to the

Characteristics : Perianth tubular, petaloid ; stamens perigyopening. £1 was charged on May 2nd and 3rd, and on three nons, their number equal to the divisions of the perianth, occaexceptional days (not in May, nor shilling days). From May 5th sionally donble or fewer; ovary free, uni-locular; ovules pendent; to 17th the charge was 58., and for the rest of the month 28. 6a., fruit drupaceous or in nuts, ordinarily one-seeded, exalbuminous; except one day in each week, when the charge was 58. After stem usually ligneous ; leaves simple. May the charge for admission was 1s. on four days of the week.

All the species of the genus Daphne contain an acrid principle, If of the remaining days 18 were 5s. days, and the rest 28.

63. which gives them a vesicating property. The Daphne Fortuni days, estimate the saving, by taking a season

ticket, of a person is a very beautiful plant; it was brought from China by Mr. who proposed to be a daily visitor.

Fortune, some years ago, and is now cultivated in England. 80. If 5 per cent. be lost by selling a horse for £38, at what This gentleman also introduced the golden-flowered Edgeworthia, price must three others, which cost each the same as the first, or the Edgeworthia chrysantha (Fig. 265). It is a very beautiful be sold, in order to gain 10 per cent. on the whole ?

member of the Daphne genus, and must not be confounded 81. What would be the value of 135-74, if the local value of with the Reptonia, which was originally called Edgeworthia. the digits increased eightfold from right to left ?

SECTION CVII.-LORANTHACEÆ. 82. How many plots of ground of 33, square yards can be cut Characteristics : Calyx adherent to the ovary ; petals free or from a field containing 4 acres, 3 roods, 9 poles, 191 square coherent, epigynous, four, six, or eight, valvate in wstivation ; yarda, whose breadth is 135 yards ? and what will be the stamens opposite to the petals or to the divisions of the simple width of the remaining strip, after the plots are marked off ? perianth ; ovary nni-locular; ovule pendent; berry one-seeded;

83. The discount on a certain sum for one year is £27 105., | embryo placed at the surface of an abundant fleshy albumen;

6. 512.

27. 9216.

small dichotomous shrubs, always parasite; leaves opposite, flowers complete, or polygamous, or diccions; embryo insepeentire ; flowers sometimes diæcious.

rable. Members of this natural family inhabit the intertropical re The most remarkable species of this class is the Rafflesia gions. Their bark contains adhesive material, like birdlime, Arnoldi (Fig. 267), a native of Sumatra, where it grows on the intermediate in its general nature between wax and caoutchouc. trunk of a cissus, and bears a single flower no less than nine.

The mistletoe (Viscum album, Fig. 266) is the only species feet in circumference. Its nectary has a capacity of twelve which represents the family in our land.

pints, and its weight is not less than fifteen It is a diæcious plant, with thick fleshy

pounds. Before its expansion the floral leaves, greenish flowers scarcely apparent,

bud appears like a great cabbage; the and sessile. The mistletoe was much re

bracts soon expand, and the perianth beverenced by the ancient Druids, who attri

comes developed. Its fleshy colour and buted to it various mysterious properties.

cadaverous odour attract flies and other Even at this day the inhabitants of Java en

insects, which are necessary to the process tertain a superstitious respect for the Ficus

of its fecundation. This curious member religiosa, upon which an individual of the

of the vegetable world has been described natural family Loranthaceæ grows. They

at length in Vol. I., page 185.

[graphic]

265. EDGEWORTHIA CHRYSAN

THA. 266. THE MISTLE-
TOE (VISCUM ALBUM).
267. RAFFLESIA AR-
NOLDI.

268. RAFFLES'S PITCHER-PLAST

(NEPENTHES RAFFLE SIANA). 1, THE LEAT; 2, THE MALE FLOWER;

3, THE FRUIT. believe that the shades of

SECT, CIX.–NEPENTHAtheir ancestors wander

CEÆ, OR NEPENTHS. under the vaulted canopy

Characteristics : Sub-ligformed by these curious

neous plants of tropical Asia trees, and are gladdened

and Madagascar; flowers by a view of the para

in racemes, diæcious; pesites.

rianth"herbaceous, four

partite; stamens sixteen, SECT. CVIII.-HYDNORA

coherent in a central coCEÆ, RAFFLESIACEÆ,

267 CYTINACEÆ, APODAN

lumn; ovary free, fourTHACEÆ, AND BALA

celled; capsule localicidal

. NOPHORACEÆ.

The Nepenthes, type of this These five natural orders constitute a group of plants which leaves, the petiole contracted at its base, but further on expanding

family, possesses alternate have been collectively termed Rhizogens or Rhizanthex from into a flat limb, but its mid-rib is prolonged, and bears a new fosome Greek words which mean “ flower-producing roots.” They liaceous expansion like a pitcher in form, supplied with a cover are supposed to constitute an intermediate but distinct class attached by a kind of hinge, on which it opens and shuts. The between the Phanerogamia and the Cryptogamia. The following pitcher closed at night is open during the day, and secretes are their leading characteristics : — Plants composed of cellular on its interior a fluid, insipid in some species, slightly

saccharing tissue, pervaded by a few vessels; parasites upon the roots or in others. The largest and finest species was discovered about stems of other plants ; leaves reduced to mere scales, never thirty years ago at Singapore

by Sir Stamford Raffles

, and Las zreen, deprived of stomata, and vessels, generally imbricate ; received the name of Nepenthes Raflesiona (Fig. 268).

EARLY HISTORY

LESSONS IN ASTRONOMY.-I.

remote than any other science, many important discoveries

having been made in it at a period anterior to all written history. OBJECTS AND

OF THE SCIENCE EARLY In the book of Job, which is usually admitted to be the most ASTRONOMERS : THALES, HIPPARCHUS, PTOLEMY.

ancient book in the world, we find reference to Arcturus, Orion, Or all the sciences which arrest the attention and engage tho and the Pleiades, showing that, even at this early period, names thought of mankind, the science of astronomy is assuredly the had been given to some of the constellations and stars. most grand, the most ennobling, and the most sublime. Most We can easily understand why this should be so. Every one others, though they tend greatly to expand and enrich the mind, of us, when walking alone on a clear night, when the moon has chain it down to the earth; but this lifts it up, and carries it set, and the whole concave of heaven is studded with innumerable away far beyond the boundaries of the finite, till it is almost stars, must have felt an anxious desire to know something of the lost in the illimitable void of space.

history and motions of those bodies. This desire was felt in the Astronomy seems to lift man out of himself, and to place him early ages of the world, and in the East, where the science seems on a standpoint far removed from the world he inhabits, which to have had its origin, the settled weather, the clearness of the it reduces to a mere unit in the glorious whole; and as he air, and the cloudlessness of the sky, would all render these beholds the unaltering regularity and unceasing motion of the observations more easy. In those early ages, too, men lived far heavenly bodies by which he is surrounded, and by slow degrees more in the open air than in the present day. Shepherds, for comes to perceive that all their varying and apparently compli- instance, often watched with their flocks during the whole night, cated motions resolve themselves into the most beautiful and thus they would have frequent and favourable opportunities simplicity, and are all governed by a few plain and simple laws, for watching and noticing the movements of the stars. This he is led to see fresh proofs of the power and wisdom of Him occupation, too, would serve well to beguile the otherwise tedious who by His word called them into being, and launched them hours of night, and we find accordingly that shepherds were the forth in space.

first astronomers. By this science the student learns the hard lesson that the Another reason why the science attracted so much attention evidence of the senses is not always to be depended on; that the was its great practical importance. Men soon noticed the apparently immovable earth is in reality in a state of continual regular changes of the seasons. They would see that at one motion, both on its own axis and around the sun ; and that the time winter cold seemed to reign over all, and apparent death real movements of the heavenly bodies are quite different from held all the vegetable world. Spring then followed, with its those which are apparent. He learns, too, that this world, which fresh leaves and opening flowers, and summer and autumn with he has always been accustomed to regard as the largest and their fruits and stores of grain ; and they naturally inquired the most important body in existence, is classed among the orbs of reason of all these changes. They would notice likewise that heaven, and even among the smallest of them; that it is, indeed, during the summer months the sun was absent from them for bat a speck in creation, quite invisible from the nearest of those only a short time, and at noon attained a greater height above fixed stars which stud the sky; and thus he is led to feel his own the horizon than he did in the winter months, when the night insignificance. And yet when he finds that the motions of all was long and the hours of daylight but few; and they would these bodies can be accurately determined, that their sizes and thus come to connect the changing seasons with the motions of even their weights can be measured, that some of the elements the sun, which were accordingly noted with greater accuracy. which enter into their composition can be told, and that their In a similar way the changes of the moon, from the first narrow distances can be ascertained, though so great that light, with all crescent of light to the full round orb, and then back again, its spsed, takes thousands of years to cross the chasm that would early be remarked. separates them from us, he sees something of the immense power One other cause for the study of this science is found in man's with which the human mind has been endowed.

innate craving for the supernatuml, or something beyond him. As he advances he finds that the sun and moon, which appear self. The apparent immutability of the heavenly bodies, the like small bodies performing their journeys round the earth, are purity of their light, the regularity of their motions, and, above in reality worlds, the former of them greatly exceeding in size all, the mystery which enveloped them, excited his admiration that on which he lives; that the stars, which he has looked upon and reverence; and hence we find that they early became objects 23 mere points in the sky, are in reality suns, with systems of their of worship to the ignorant, and therefore superstitious, people of own revolving around them--the "contres of life and light to that time. The study of their motions was therefore usually myriads of unseen worlds;" and that these suns, with their pursued for some religious or astrological purpose, and the chief attendant worlds, are all revolving in mighty orbits around one astronomers were priests or professional diviners. common centre, and forming one grand cluster.

We can easily understand why this was the case. It was seen The telescope still further extends his view, for by its powerful that the succession of the seasons and the alternations of day and aid he discovers here and there faint nebulo, or patches of cloudy night were caused by the motions of the most important of the light, scattered among the stars; and those at length resolve heavenly bodies, and hence it was supposed that all the rest themselves into complete clusters, similar to that which is made exerted their influences over other matters that were going on up of our car and all the other stars around us. But here the in the world, and that by the careful study of their motions and power of his instrument fails him, and the distances and magni. changes future events in the history of men and nations might tude of these systems are such as to baffle all computation or easily be predicted. We find, accordingly, that astrologers were thonght. Man can only stand on the verge of the infinite, and consulted before any great or important work was undertaken, wonder and adore the glories of Him who filleth all space. and their advice was usually very strictly adhered to.

We must therefore come to the study of this science with a The question as to what nations first cultivated this science mind specially prepared for the reception of its truths, being cannot be definitely settled. It seems probable, however, that ready, on the one hand, to receive all truths which shall be the earliest systematic observations of the stars were made by shown to be fully supported by careful observations and proof, the Chaldæans. even though they appear to be sometimes almost contrary to the The path of the sun among the fixed stars was very early svidence of the senses; and, on the other hand, to dismiss all discovered, and these stars were arranged into the twelve con. those crude notions previonsly formed in the mind which, upon stellations, known as the signs of the zodiac, long before the consideration, are not found to be supported by facts, and which historical era. Many of the other constellations were also named, tend, therefore, to hinder and mislead us in our inquiries. The but some were afterwards altered by the Greeks and Romans ; importance of this latter point will be clearly seen when we and even in modern days a few additions have been made, as, for notice how, in the early ages of astronomy, all true progress was instance, the Shield of Sobieski and the Heart of Charles I. effectually checked by the firm hold which certain preconceived It must not be supposed that any resemblance can be traced notions had acquired over the human mind; and how, when at between the shape marked out by the stars and the figures they last the fact of the earth's motion was discovered, and the com- are supposed to represent. The original idea seems to have plicated and cumbrous systems previously believed in wore thas been merely to map out the sky into convenient portions for at one stroke swept away, perseontion and opposition of every examination, and at the samo time to immortalise certain real kind Tere heaped upon the men whose intellect had thus solved or mythical heroes ; but as the system became adopted unithe difficulties of ages.

versally, it has been retained to the present day, and serves The science of astronomy dates from an antiquity far more as a ready means of distinguishing and registering the stars.

VOL. I.

80

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