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EXERCISE 29. ON THE ABBREVIATING HOOKS, ETC., IN LESSON VIII. To be written by the pupil in Phonography, and in longhand.

N Hook. 1. cone, town, deign, chin, Jane, pine, bean, run (upward r). 2. cones, towns, deigns, chins, Jane's, pines, beans, runs (upward 3. shine, then, fawn, vein, lawn, carn (downward r), known, moar 4. shines, fawns, veins, lawns, leans, earns, man's, moons.

FOR V Hook. . 5. dove, devour (upward r), divide, above, approve, brave, chafi.. 6. groore, rough, pave, scoff, serve, tough, turf, serf, surf, crave. 7. rife, achieve, brevity, advent, advert, defer, derive, deprave. 8. divine, divinity, dovetail, defend, refer, reference, proft, mischi

-TION Hook. 9. anction, addition, additional (downward 1), admission, admoniti 10. affliction, aggravation, animation, anticipation, approbation, 11. commendation, compassion, confession, confusion, considerata 12. temptation, pension, nation, mansion, invention, intention.

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HAEvIxG PRINCIPLE, ADDING TOR D.

AU RESTE. 13. ask, askel; aim, aimed; attack, attacked ; avail, availed.

C'est ce qu'il y a de plus sage; au This is the wisest way; besides, it is 14. bake, baked; bath, bathed; bawl, bawled; boil, boiled.

reste, c'est aussi ce qu'il y a de also the most just.

plus juste. 15. calm, calmed; cheer, cheered; chip, chipped; deem, deemed.

CAR. 16. elope, eloped; envy, envied ; fail, failed; fear, feared ; fill, filled.

Voilà les périls, voici le moyen de Those are the dangers, this is the way 17. glue, glued ; guide, guided; howl, howled; her, heard (tick h).

les éviter ; car enfin, le bras de of avoiding them ; for in fact, the 18. jump, jumped ; keep, kept; knock, knocked; kneel, kuelt.

Dieu n'est pas raccourci.

influence of God is not less power. 19. leaf, left; loathe, leathed ; lodge, lodged ; laugh, laughed.

ful. 20. maim, maimed; move, moved; match, matched ; nip, nipped. Le peuple se figure une félicité The people picture to themselves an 21. ooze, oozed; pair, paired; pick, picked; pitch, pitched.

imaginaire dans les situations imaginary happiness in elevated 22. quill, quilt; reach, reached; rob, robbed ; rock, rocked.

élevées, où il ne peut atteindre, stations which they cannot reach, 23. save, saved ; shame, shamed ; spare, spared; subdue, subdued. et il croit (car tel est l'homme) and thoy believe (for such is man) 24. touch, touched ; thaw, thought; thatch, thatched; wage, waged.

que tout ce qu'il ne peut avoir, that all that they cannot obtain,

c'est cela même qui est le bon forms the very happiness which ST AND STR LOOPS.

heur qu'il cherche.

they seek.

COMME-QUE. 25. abased, abreast, attest, boast, bust, cast, chaste, crust, durst, dust. 26. fast, fist, ghost, grist, infest, iomost, jest, just, last, list, lost. Comme l'ambition n'a pas de frein, As ambition has no limits, and as 97. mast, mist, most, next, nest, oppressed, paste, pest, post, quest.

et que la soif des richesses nous the thirst of riches devours us all,

consume tous, it én résulte, que the result is, that happiness avoids 28. request, roast, stage, steal, steam, suggest, text, trust, utmost.

le bonheur nous fait à mesure us, as we proceed in our search 29. castor, Chester, faster, fluster, Leicester, Manchester, minister.

que nous le cherchons.

after it. 30. monster, muster, poster, punster, Ulster, Winchester, youngster. La reconnaissance est le plus doux, Gratitude is the sweetest as well as S-TION HOOK.

comme le plus saint des devoirs. the holiest of duties.

Comme il sonna la charge, il sonne As he sounded the charge, so he 31. decision, disposition. vexation, possession, position, opposition. la retraite.

sounds the retreat. 32. esposition, physician, compensation, organisation, transition.

DONC. (In the last three words, twn the ns circle on the left.) Votre maitre vous aime; donc, Your master loves you ; therefore you

vous devez l'aimer.

should love him. LENGTHENED CURVE, ADDING THR, DER.

Je suis donc un témoin de leur I am, therefore, a witness of their 33. asunder, founder, slander, provender, thither, father, thunder. peu de puissance.

want of power. 34. adventure, mother, matter, September, November, December. Et d'où peut donc venir ce change- Whence, therefore, can this extreme 35. temper, neither, another, dissenter, laughter, rafter, letter.

ment extrême !

change proceed ? 36. latter, alter, fetter, fender, order, salter, smatter, weather, wither. Si ce n'est toi, c'est donc ton frère. If it is not you, then it is your

-Je n'en ai pas.-C'est donc brother. -I have none. --Then it EXERCISE 30.

quelqu'un des tiens.

must be some one of your family.

" Allons donc !" répondit-on, et la “Well done!" replied they, and the (To be written in Shorthand.)

transaction n'eut pas lieu. affair did not take place. Do as you wish others to do to you. When you feel angry, it

DE MÊME QUE. is well to think long before you speak. Try to do that which is De même que le soleil brille sur la As the sun shines upon earth, so will right, and avoid that which is wrong. There is a time for play,

terre, de même le juste brillera the just shine in heaven. and there is a time for work; a time to think, and a time to talk;

dans les cieux. a time to keep silence, and a time to speak. When you speak,

ET. think to whom you speak, of whom you speak, and say only that c'est être faiblo et timide que To bo inaccessible and proud is to do which you know to be just and right.

d'être inaccessible et fier.

weak and timla. Une famille vertueuse est un vais- A virtuous family is a vessel

seau tenu pendant la tempête par strengthened during the tempest by The pupil should now test his progress, by submitting his work to deux ancres, la religion et les two anchors, religion and morals, the examination of a competent phonographer. He is recommended to send a shorthand transcript of Exercise No. 30, (with interlined Quel carnage de toutes parts ! What carnage on all sides ! longband, leaving a blank liue under every two lines thus filled, for On égorge à la fois les enfants, les They murder at once the children and. corrections,) to some first-class member of the Phonetic Society for Et la seur et le frère,

the old men, the sister and the bro

ther, the daughter and the mothor, examination, and correction if necessary. His request will be cheer. Et la fille et la mère,

the son in the arms of his father, fully complied with, and he will be invited to forward other exercises Le fils dans les bras de son père. for correction. The lesson should be accompanied by a stamped and directed envelope for its retnrn. A List of the Society for the cur. Lorsque l'innocence habitait la When innocence inhabited the earth.

LORSQUE-QUAND. rent year may be obtained through any bookseller, of Mr. F. Pitman, 20, Paternoster Row, London, or of Mr. Isaac Pitman, Bath, by post, Quand vous me haïriez, je ne m'en If even you hated me I would not

terre. price 20.

plaindrais pas.

complain. Quand nous n'aurions égard qu'au If even we considered merely the re

repos seul de notre vie, quand pose of our lives, if even we haal LESSONS IN FRENCH.-L.

nous n'aurions point d'autre no other interast here than to preSECTION XCIX.-EXAMPLES ILLUSTRATING THE VARIOUS

intérêt ici-bas que de nous pró. pare for ourselves happy days, USES OF THE PRINCIPAL CONJUNCTIONS.

parer des jours heureux, quel what happiness it would be to pre

bonheur de prévenir d'avance et vent beforehand, to stifle in their À MOINS QUE.

d'étouffer dans leur naissance birth, so many violent passions. Il n'en fera rien, à moins que vous He will do nothing of the kind, unless

tant de passions violentes.

MAIS. you speak to him. À moins que vous ne preniez bien Unless you choose your time well, c'étnit déjà la puissance impériale It was already the imperial power of votre temps, vous n'en viendrez you will not accomplish it.

qu'on lui a vie depuis, mais avec which we have since seen him pos. pas à bout.

l'assentiment universel des pen sessed, but with the consent of the Quel indigne plaisir peut avoir What unworthy pleasure can avarice ples, avec des formes moins people, with forms lass regal, but offer?

royales, mais plus dignes peut perhaps more worthy. Et que sert d'amasser, à moins What is the use of hoarding up unless être. qu'on en jouisse ? we enjoy ?

L'harmonie de frappe pas simple. Harmony does not only strike the car

ment l'oreille, mais l'esprit. but the mind: AUSSI.

C'est un parti sage à la guerre de To keep on the defensive is a wise Agesi ils n'ont aucune force pour Therefore, they have no strength to le posséder sûrement.

de tenir sur la défensive, mais ce reolution in war, but it is not the possess it safely. n'est pas le plus brillant.

most brilliant, a douleur serait trop médiocre, si My grief would be too trißing if I 11 n'y a point de mais qui tienne; There is no "but” in the matter ; je pouvais la dépeindre; aussi could depict it; so that I will not je de donnerai point ma fille à I will not give my daughter to a je ne l'entreprendrai pas. undertake it. un muet.

mute,

meurs.

ne lui parliez.

l'avarice?

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NI.

formant d'une même boue, la from the same earth, human vanity Heureux celui qui sait se contenter Happy is he who can content himself vanité humaine ne peut souffrir cannot bear that equality. de peu! Son sommeil n'est with littlo! His sleep is disturbed

cette égalité. troublé ni par les craintes, ni par neither by the fear, nor by the Quoi que vous écriviez, évitez la Whatever you may write, avoid rul. les désirs honteux de l'avarice. shameful desires of avarice.

bassesse.

garity. Vous perdez ainsi la confiance de You lose thus the confidence of your Quoi que ce soit qu'elle dise, elle ne Whatever she may say, she will not vos amis, sans les avoir rendus friends without having rendered

me persuadera pas.

persuade me. ni meilleurs ni plus habiles. them either better or more skilful.

SI. On n'est jamais si heureux, ni si We are never so happy nor so unhappy Si vous le vouliez, nous partirions If you wished it, we would go to. malheureux qu'on se l'imagine. as we fancy.

ensemble.

gether. Cette loi sainte ne connait plus That holy law knows no longer either si vous le prenez sur ce ton, je If you go on in this way, I withpi pauvre, ni riche, ni noble, ni poor of rich, noble or plebeian, me retire,

draw. roturier, ni maître, ni esclave. master or slave.

Nul empire n'est sûr, s'il n'a No empire is safe unless it has affecOR.

l'amour pour base.

tion for its basis. Or sus, mettons-nous à l'ouvrage. Nou then, let us go to work.

S'il le faut, nous partirons. If it must be so, we will go. “Or çà, Gil Blas,” me dit-il un jour, "Now then, Gil Blas," said he to Votre esprit a toujours en réserve your mind has always in reserve “le temps de ton enfance est me one day, “the time of your

quelque si, quelque mais. some "if," some passé." childhood is over,"

SINON. ou.

Ils répondirent, qu'il fallait rétablir They replied that it was necessary to La fortune, soit bonne ou mauvaise, Fortune, be it good or bad, be it l'équilibre européen rompu, qu'il re-establish the disturbed European

soit passagère ou constante, ne transient or constant, has no power fallait le rétablir sinon sur le balanco; that it was necessary to peut rien sur l'âme da sage. over the soul of the wise.

continent, où il était tout à fait restore it, if not on the continent, La liberté de publier ses pensées, The liberty of publishing one's détruit, au moins sur l'Océan. where it was entirely destroyed, at ou la liberté de la presse, doit thoughts, or the liberty of the press,

least on the ocean.
être réglée sur la liberté même should be regulated upon the liberty
d'agir.
of action itself.

SOIT.
PARCE QUE.

Soit qu'il le fasse, soit qu'il ne le Whether he does it, whether he does it
fasse pas.

not. Les grands hommes entreprennent Great men undertako great things soit la hardiesse de l'entreprise, Be it the boldness of the enterprise,

de grandes choses parcequ'elles because thoy are great; and fools soit la seule présence de ce grand be it the presence alone of this great sont grandes, et les fous parce- because they believe them easy. homme, soit la protection visible man, be it the visible protection of qu'ils les croient faciles.

du ciel, il étonne par sa résolu- heaven, he astonishes by his resoLA tout est beau, parceque tout est Everything there is beautiful, because tion.

lution. vrai. everything is true.

Soit en bien, soit en mal, mon ami, Be it for good, be it for evil, the POURTANT.

la prudence dit, qu'il faut rare- friend, prudence says that we meist Le style le moins noble a pourtant The least elevated style has, neverthe. Vous le voulez ? ainsi soit-il!

ment juger sur l'apparence. rarely judge from appearances.

You will have it so! So be it! sa noblesse.

less, its clevation.

Un mal funeste et contagieux se A fatal and contagious disease spread PUISQUE.

répandit dans les principales in the principal cities of Nore

villes de la Normandie , soit que Pourquoi le demander, puisque Why ask about it, since you know it ?

mazdy; be it that the inclemency vous le savez ?

l'intempérie des saisons et of the season had left in the air Ne vous lassez jamais d'examiner Never be weary of examining into

laissé dans les airs quelque ma- some malignant impression, be it les causes des grands change- tho causes of great changes; for

ligne impression, soit qu'un com- that a fatal commerce had brought ments; puisquo rien ne servira nothing will ever be of so much

merce fatal eût apporté des pays from distant countries, will perisht jamais tant à votre instruction, service to your instruction.

éloignés, avec de fragiles rich- able riches, the seeds of diæase and Paisque vous le voulez, jo vais Since you will have it so, I will

esses, des semences de maladie death, be it that the angel of God changer de style change my style.

et de mort, soit que l'ange de had stretched forth his hand tu

Dieu eût étendu la main pour smite that unfortunate province. QUE.

frapper cette malheureuse proJamais on ne vit an si grand ex- Never was such a strieing example

vince, emple, que le courage n'est point seen, that courage is not incom- SECTION C.- A LIST OF THE USUAL ABBREVIATIONS EN

incompatible avec la mollesse. patible with effeminacy. Nous n'avons que peu de temps å W. have but little time to live, and

PLOYED IN FRENCH. vivre, et loin d'en profiter, nous instead of improving it, wo only

The following is a list of the most usual abbreviations en ne cherchous qu'à lo perdre. seek to raste it.

ployed in French : À quoi vous servira d'avoir de of what use will be your moit, if l'esprit, si vous ne l'employez you do not employ it, and do not

ABBREVIATIONS.

MEANINGS, pas, et que vous ne vous appli. apply yourselves ?

A. P. À protester.

To be protested. quiez pas ?

A. S.P. Accepté sous protét. Accepted under protest. Toutefois, que sert-il de me justi. However, what is the use of justifying A. S. P. C. Accepté sous protot Accepted under protest of astount. fier ? myself?

pour à compte. Qu'il fasse ce qu'il lui plaira. Let him do what he pleases.

Bon Baron.

Baron, Que le monde est grand ! Qu'il How great is the world! How mag

Cer. Chevalier.

Cheralier, knight, sir. est magnifique !

nificent !
cte. Comte.

Count.
Que de beaux jours n'ont pas de How many fine days have not beauti- Ctesse. Comtesse.

Countess, beaux soirs ! ful evenings ! Dr. Docteur.

Doctor, Suis-tu quelque chose de plus ? Do you know anything more?

D. Mn.

Docteur-médecin. Doctor of medicine.
Oh! que oui.
That I do!
E. Est.

East.
C'est une maladie d'esprit, que de Wishing for impossible things is a

J. C. Jésus-Christ.

Jesus Christ. souhaiter des choses impossibles. disease of the mind.

LL. AA. II. Leers Altesses Im. Their Imperial Highnesses. Il n'y aura jamais de meilleur di- There will never be any better guide

périales. rectenr que l'Evangile.

than the Gospel.

LL. AA. RR. Leurs Altesses Their Royal Highnesses. La véritable conversion du cour The true conversion of the heart Royales.

fait autant aimer Die qu'on a makes us love God as much as we LL. AA. SS. Leurs Altesses Séré. Their Most Serene Highnesses. aimé les créatures. have loved the creatures.

nissimes. Crois-tu que dans son coeur, il ait Do you believe that he has sworn

LL. Em. Leurs Eminences. Their Eminences. juré ta mort?

your death in his heart ?

LL. Ex. Leurs Excellences. Their Excellencies. Ce n'est pas que j'ousse mieux It is not that I might have done better LL.HH. Leurs Hautesses, Their Highnesses. frit que vous.

LL. MM. Leurs Majestós. Their Majesties. Il a fallu que mes malheurs m'aient It was necessary that my misfor. LL. MM. II. Leurs Majestés Their Imperial Majesties.

instruit, pour m'apprendre ce tunes should instruct me, to teach Impériales. que je ne voulais pas croire. me that I would not bolievo.

LL. MM. RR. Leurs Majestés Their Royal Majesties.

Royales.
QUOIQUE-QUOI . . QUE.

M. ou Mr. Monsieur.

Sir, Mr. Quoique Dieu et la nature aient fait Allhough God and nature have made Mtre. Maitre.

Master. les hommes égaux en les all men equal in forming them (M. A. Maison assurde.

House insured.

than you.

I. A.C.I. Maison assurée contre House insured against fire.

GEOMETRICAL PERSPECTIVE.—XIII. l'incendie, Md. Marchand. Dealer, shopkeeper, m.

Ar the foot of the enunciations of several of the problems, we Nde. Marchande, Dealer, shopkeeper, f.

have proposed a scale of some defisite number of feet to the Arte Mademoiselle. Miss.

inch. Beginners, no doubt, will have found this convenient in MEC Monseigneur.

My lord. Mis. Marquis. Marquis.

assisting them to determine the size of the drawing they may Mise. Marquise. Marchioness.

be about to make. We hope by this time they clearly understand M. Messieurs. Messrs., Gontlomon.

that upon the scale depends not only the arrangement and proMme. Madame. Madam, Mrs.

portions of the parts of the drawing throughout its construction, YSL Manuscript. Manuscript.

but also its requisite size upon the paper, to allow sufficient room N. B. Nota bene. Nota Bene.

to ensure a clear representation of all minor details. Therefore it N.-D. Notre-Dame. Our Lady.

matters little whether the scale is half an inch or one inch to N-N.-E. Nord-nord-est. North-north-east.

the foot, so long as it is sufficiently large to admit of all that we N.-N.-O. Nord-nord-ouest. North-north-west.

wish to introduce. Most of the figures attached to our problems Nt. Négociant.

Merchant, a. Ne. Négociante. Merchant, f.

are upon a very small scale, for the purpose of economising No Numéro. Number.

space; but we advise our pupils to make their drawings from N. 8. Notre-Seignenr. Our Lord.

these figures on a larger scale. We have drawn Fig. 61 in the N. S. J.-C. Notre-Seigneur Jésus. Our Lord Jesus Christ.

proportion of 3 feot to an inch; a scale of a foot to 1 inch would Christ.

be better for copying it. This brings us to a difficulty which 0. Ouest. West.

is not unfrequently a stumbling-block to many young students 0-N. Ouest-nord. West-north.

in geometrical drawing. We will make use of Problem XXXVII. 0.-S. Ouest-sud. West-south.

and its Fig. 61 to assist us in explaining it. It will be scen that P.S. Post-scriptum.

Postscript.
E. P. Révérend père.
Reverend father.

in the statement of the problem there are but two measurements S. Sud. South.

named; all the rest are referred to the scale of 3 feet to the inch, S. A. I. Son Altesse Impériale. His or Hor Imperial Highness,

from which the parts must be measured. The difficulty we 8. A. R. Son Altesse Royale. His or Her Royal Highness. allade to is—How are the proportions of the other parts to be 8. A. 8. Son Altesse Sérénissime. His Most Serene Highness.

obtained upon an increased scale? First, the scale of 3 feet to 8. E. Sud est. South-east.

the inch must be made, and also another and corresponding 8. Em. Son Eminence. His Eminence.

scale of 1 foot to the inch; the parts of the Fig. 61 may be & Ex. Son Excellence. His Excellency.

measured by the scale of 3 feet to the inch, and the same figures 8. G. Sa Grandeur.

His Grace (to a Bishop). S. H. Sa Hautesse.

His Highness (the Turkish Sultan). applied to the 1 inch scale for the drawing in hand. If these 8. M. Sa Majesté. His or Her Majesty.

simple directions for making a drawing upon increased proporS. M. B. Sa Majesté Britannique. His or Her Britannic Majesty.

tions are exactly followed, it will save much time and space in 8. M. C. Sa Majesté Catholique. His Catholic Majesty.

giving the stated measurements of every part of our subjects; 8. M. I. Sa Majesté Impériale. His Imperial Majesty.

and as we have drawn them to a scale, the additional trouble S. M. R. Sa Majesté Royale. His Royal Majesty.

of making a scale to work from will be but trifling. We proS. M. S. Sa Majesté-Suédoise. His Swedish Majesty.

pose now to apply the rules and conditions of Problems XXXV. 8. M. T. C. Sa Majesté Très-Chró. His Most Christian Majesty.

and XXXVI. The first relates to additional picture-planes; the tienne. S.M.T.F. Sa Majesté Très-Fidèle. His Most Faithful Majesty.

second to the use of the diagonal in perspective representation. 8, 0. Sud-ouest. South-west.

PROBLEM XXXVII. (Fig. 61).—Draw the perspective view of 8. P. Saint-Père. Holy Father.

a pedestal, as shown in the plan and elevation A and B. The SS. PP. Les Saints-Pères. The Holy Fathers.

height of the eye to be at two-thirds of the height of the pedestal. S. S. Sa Sainteté. His Holiness.

Nearest angle, 1 foot within the picture, and 2 feet to the right of S.S. E. Sud-sud-est. South-south-east.

the eye ; one side is inclined to the picture-plane, at an angle S. S. 0. Sud-sud-ouest. South-south-west.

of 350; other conditions at pleasure. Scale, 3 feet to an inch.

As there is no necessity to explain all the process of conKEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN FRENCH. struction from the commencement, we will merely refer to the EXERCISE 149 (Vol. III., page 29).

leading lines and their positions, with whatever additional in1. Does that arrangement suit you ? 2. It does not suit me, but it struction may be necessary for this particular class of subjects. suits our relation.' 3. Does not that displease the painter ? 4. Your ab two feet to the right of the eye; b c one foot within; eo conduct displeases him much. 5. Do you not fear abusing your the retiring diagonal line, o its vp and do its distance-point. friend's patience ? 6. I fear to abuse it. 7. Do you never think of Let the line of contact be drawn from e, the point of contact of your duties ? 8. I think of them every day. 9. Have you thought of the diagonal line, because all the heights of the parts of the bered his goodness. 11. Has he taken care of his father, and has he pedestal must be measured upon it and drawn towards its VP; obeyed him ? 12. He obeys him constantly. 13, Has he never dis- that is, they are to be taken from the elevation, B, on the line en, obeyed him? 14. He has disobeyed him several times, but he grieves where all the lines of the mouldings are produced for this pur. for his fault. 15. Do you not thank them for their kindness ? 16. I pose, and then transferred to the line of contact, e n, of the perthank them with all my heart. 17. Has the saddler congratulated you spective view. It will be noticed that the horizontal projections for your success? 18. He has congratulated me. 19. Have you not of the mouldings beyond each other are bronght down by perlaughed at our misfortune? 20. We have not laughed at it; we never pendicular lines to the plan, A; these must be taken from the laugh at the misfortunes of others. 21. Do you not remember the plan, commencing at the outer angle, d, along the diagonal line, news which I have told you ?

and repeated upon the PP thus :-Draw a line from do through EXERCISE 150 (Vol. III., page 29).

w to the PP in d, make d m equal to d m of the plan, and rule 1. N'avez-vous pas abusé de la complaisance de votre ami? 2. Jo from m back again to DO; from where this line cuts the n'ai pas abusé de sa complaisance, j'ai abusé de sa patience. 3. Votre diagonal, draw a perpendicular ; this will give the near angle of plait pas. 5. Pourquoi n'avez-vous pas obéi à M. votre père ? 6. Je the faces of the pedestal. Let this be considered as a rule, lui ai obéi. 7. N'avez-vous pas ri de mes erreurs ? 8. Je n'ai pas ri that all the various projections of mouldings, of whatever kind, de vos erreurs. 9. Le jeune homme a-t-il ri des erreurs du peintre are brought down to the diagonal of the plan, and treated as we 10. Il n'a pas ri de ses errenrs. 11. Votre sellier a-t-il ri des malheurs have shown by the construction from m. The upper pp must be de votre cousin ? 12. Il n'a pas ri de ses malheurs. 13. Riez-vous drawn through n on the line of contact, and all the points of jamais des malheurs d'autrui ? 14. Nous ne rions jamais des malheurs measurement that have to be made upon it, together with all do notre prochain. 15. Vous souvenez-vous de la leçon que vous avez the lines to be drawn from these points, must be produced and apprise hier? 16. Je ne m'en souviens pas. 17. Cette demoiselle carried out precisely in the same way as when they are arranged Avez-vous remerció votre ami de sa complaisance? 20. Je len ai upon and taken from the PP of the base

. remercié. 21. Mme. votre mère vous a-t-elle défendu de lire ce livre ?

Our next consideration, which is also an important one, 22. Elle me l'a défendu. 23. Pourquoi ne pardonnez-vous pas à vos will be the use of half-distance points. It not unfrequently ennemis ? 24. Je leur pardonne de tout mon cmur. 25. Ne pensez-occurs that the lengths of the lines representing the object vous pas à vos devoirs ?

are so great that we are unable, from want of sufficient room on

the paper, to mark them on the PP for the purpose of cutting parallel with the ul) to meet the corresponding retiring lines of them off their respective vanishing-lines, guided by their true the opposite retiring wall; thus will be determined the further distance-point. When such is the case, we have recourse to the end upon which are fixed the folding doors A and B. How to use of half-distance points. Our pupils are aware how a distance find their vanishing-points and cut off their widths, we trust it point is found for any given vanishing-point. If the space on will not be necessary to repeat, but merely remark that vpl is the HL between the ve and its pvp be bisected, the middle point the vp for the door a, vpå for the door B, and ypt for c. To thus found will be the half-distance point. To explain and illus- ascertain the vanishing-point for the retiring thickness of a trate the construction and application of this very useful prin. door, it will be found by drawing a line from 3 to the al at a ciple in perspective, we have employed only a single line. right angle with the line of its VP; for example, vp is the VP

PROBLEM XXXVIII. (Fig. 62).--On reference to the figure, it for the retiring thickness of the door A. With regard to drawwill be seen that cd is the perspective view of a line at an angle ing the true position of the door at the side, there may be a of 350 with the pp, the real length of which is a b, from which difficulty not yet explained. Here is a case, which frequently lines are drawn in the usual way to the Dip, to determine c d on occurs, of a line or plane at an angle or inclination with somethe vanishing-line. Find the half-distance point by the bisection thing else than the picture-plane. In the case before us, a door explained above, mark it } DVP, and draw from it a line through is stated to be at a given angle with its wall, whilst at the same c to n; take half the length of the given line to be represented, time the wall is at a right angle with the PP. The difficulty is and set it off from n to f, rule from f to DVP. It will be seen how to find the vp for the door. The proposition states that it that the two lines from n and f pass through the same points is at an angle of 40° with its own wall. The difficulty will not c and d to the DVP, which were originally found by the two be great if we know the angle to the PP of the intermediate lines from a and b to the dyp. Snppose it were necessary to plane to which the given object is inclined; because, if the represent a line double, or of a greater length than a b; in this wall D (see Fig. 64) npon which the door swings is at a right instance we will take double the length to show the advantage of angle with the wall F, and c, the door, is at an angle of 40° with

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this principle of construction. Make f m equal to f n, and rulo D, therefore c will be at an angle of 50° with r; but r is from m to the } DVP, it will cut the vanishing line in e; ce will parallel with tho PP, therefore the door c will be at an angle of then be the perspective length of a line equal to twice a b. Our 50° with the Pp. Consequently, we shall find the vp of the pupils will see that it is impossible, from want of space, to door (Fig. 63) by drawing a line from E at 500 with the pr double the length of a b on the PP, and so carry a line from the producing vp. To find its distance from the corner of the extreme to the DVP; had there been sufficient room to mark room at n, mark the point e 5 feet from c, rule from e to DI the full length, w would have been the line to the DVP to deter- and where this line cuts the line from a to ps will be found the mine the length of ce. As we shall have occasion to avail position of that side of the doorway upon which the doo ourselves of the half-distance point in some of our future ques. swings: the heights of the doors are set off from o. Lions, we advise our pupils to exercise themselves in this PROBLEM XL. (Fig. 65).-- A box 6 feet long, 3 feet wide, an problem, employing various lengths of lines at various angles. 1 foot 6 inches high, inclined to the picture at an angle of 874

PROBLEM XXXIX. (Fig. 63).-The interior of a room in parallel The lid is open and thrown back at an angle of 45° with the pa perspective; the retiring portion in view is 16 feet long, 19 feet pendicular. Thickness of wood, 2 inches. Depth of lid, 6 inche wide, and 12 feet high. Distance of the eye from the picture Distance of the eye from the picture-plane, 6 feet, and its heigh plane 12 feet, and its height from the ground 4 feet. At the further from the ground 2 feet 6 inches. The nearest angle to touch ti end are folding doors 10 feet high, and 4 feet wide ; also a single picture-plane. Seale, i inch to the foot. door at the side, the height and width of which are the same. The If the lid is at an angle of 45° with the perpendicular, it w door A is at an angle of 32° with the connecting wall, the door B be at the same angle with the horizon ; therefore, as vp is ui at an angle of 67°, and c at an angle of 40° with its wall, and vp for the end of the box, the angle of inclination must be ma 5 feet from the further corner of the room. In this case the Ps from DVP?. To cut off the retiring length of the lid, the line will be the vp for the retiring walls on both sides; the width of contact must be drawn from c n to b, and then from Dyp dra the room is marked off from a to b on the pp and ruled to the a line through the corner of the box joining the lid to a; ma Ps; the height is a d and bf; the depth to be represented, a b equal to the width of the box, and rule from 6 back again viz., 16 feet, is set off from a to c, and a line from c to DE will cut the DVp. For the depth of the lid draw from pvp to n ont off the length of the room in the point n on the line from a to line of contact ; make n c equal to the depth 6 inches, and dr ps: from this point n a perpendicalar line is to be drawn to re- back again as before. As the other parts of the construeti

. - corner of the room, to meet the lines from d and f are the same which have been repeatedly explained in previe

from this perpendicular draw lines across (that is, problems, we leave the remainder as an exercise for practice.

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