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rise or fall in the limb, A B. Beth are graduated by comparison Latin Nouns. Derived Adjectives. Saxon Nouns. with a standard thermometer. These instruments are highly vacca

vaccine sensitive to slight changes of temperature; they are, however, morbus, morbi

morbid

discase. affected by the height of the barometric column, and therefore a canis

canine

dog. certain amount of uncertainty is introduced into their indica- auris

auricular tions.

finis
final

end.
hostis

hostile The law showing the relation between the temperature ard

oculus

ocular the volume of any gas was discovered by Dalton, and has been

ager, agri
agrarian

field. checked by many philosophers since that date. It may be stated

grex, gregis
gregarious

Mock. as follows:

tutelary

guardianship. If any gas be allowed to expand freely under a constant pres- manus

manual

hand. sure, its increase of volume when raised from 32° to 2120 will caput, capitis

capital

Tread, be equal to 0-366 of its original volume, and this law of increase merces

mercenary
equestrian

horse. holds true in the same proportion for intermediate temperatures. equus, or eques

domus
domestic

home. Now, there are 180° between these two temperatures; the ex

insula
insular

island. pansion for each degree is, therefore, Tło of 0-366, or about a, culina

culinary

kitchen. and this fraction is called the co-efficient of expansion. A gas, lax, lucis

lucid

light. then, expands ia of its volume at 32° for each degree that it is pulmo

pulmonary

lungs. raised above that point. This rule enables us to make the cal- mens, mentis

mental

mind. culations we required, for 492 cubic inches at 32° will occupy pecunia

peouniary

money. 493 at 33°, 510 at 500, 520 at 60°, and so on. Suppose, then,

luna

lunar we have the following question :- A quantity of gas is measured os (oris)

oral

mouth, at a temperature of 76°, and is found to occupy 427 cubio

nasal locus

local inches; what is its volume at 600 ? We first find the proportion

place. vulgus vulgar

Tabble. between the space a gas occupies at 60° and at 76°, and, as we annulus (annus) annular

a ring. have seen, 492 cubic inches at 32° will occupy 520 at 60°, emulus

emulous

a rival. and 536 at 76o. The volumes are therefore in the proportion radix, radicis

radical

root. of 520 to 536, and the following rule of three sum will there- regula

regular

rule, fere give us the required volume :

mare, maris

maritime pastor pastoral

shepherd. As 536 : 520 :: 427 : 4144.

humerus
humeral

shoulder. Very often in chemical experiments corrections have to be latus, latèris

lateral

sido. made for pressure as well as for temperature. The process is,

visus
visual

sight. howerer, the same, and each correction may be made separately.

miles, militis
military

soldier.

vernal The following examples will give the student good practice in

spring. sol

sun.

solar the application of these rules :

furtum
furtive

theft.
EXAMPLES

femur, femoris
femoral

thigh. 1. If the barometer stands at 29-04, what is the pressure of the air dens, dentis

dental

tooth. on a surface measuring 5in, x 6}in.?

fodus, fodëris
federal

treaty. 2. In Fig 15, if the length of the graduated portion of the shorter The similarity which exists between the Latin and the correlimb be 10 inches, and the mercury rise in it to a height of 5} inches, sponding English affords the student aid either to learn the at what height does the mercury stand in the other limb, the barometer words which are of Latin extraction found in English, or to being at 29in. ? 3. A volume of gas measures 219 cubic inches when the barometer for instance, that you meet with the word lateral, and know, or,

become acquainted with the Latin vocabulary itself. Suppose, stands at 28-7. How much will it measure at the standard pressure ?

4. Some gas at a temperature of 155o measures 1 cubic foot ; how not knowing, ascertain, that it is a word of Latin origin which much space will it occupy when cooled to 600 ?

signifies that which pertains to the side. Having this informa5. 140 cubic inches of air at 609 is heated till it occupies 215 tion, you are enabled to remember that latus, the noun cubic inches; what temperature has it attained ?

whence lateral comes, denotes the side. Or if you know that 6. When the barometer was standing at 28-78, and the thermometer latus means the side, then you readily infer that lateral means at 71°, a quantity of gas was found to measure 158 cubic inches. that which pertains to the side. In this way, you may make the How much would it occupy at the standard pressure and tempera- Latin roots with which you have become acquainted teach you ture!

the import of scores, nay, hundreds, of derivatives.

And observe, too, the specific service which the Latin element LESSONS IN ENGLISH.-XXXVI. renders. We have the noun side, but we have no corresponding LATIN STEMS (concluded).

Saxon adjective. The want is supplied by the Latin. SOME Latin stems supply us only in part with derivatives, giving, correspond. Thus ager, field, and agrarian do not strictly corre

In meaning, these nouns and adjectives do not always strictly for instance, the noun, and leaving the Saxon to furnish the spond; I mean, you cannot infer the exact meaning of agrarian, adjective; or giving the adjective, and leaving the Saxon to for instance, from the meaning of ager. You are thus taught that furnish the noun. Such a fact illustrates the composite cha- it is an intelligent, not a slavish, study in which you are engaged. racter of our present English tongue. If it be a token of perfec- Rules are not chains, but guiding-posts. tion in a language that it is produced and evolved out of its own Some of the words in the last lists, and in previous lists, elements like a tree, with its stem, branches, and leaves, the which appear as Latin or Saxon, are not exclusively of Latin or English has little claim to perfection. But a perfection of this Saxon origin. To wade, given as a derivative of vado, is a Saxon kind is only theoretical. That is the best language which most root, being common to both the Latin (Celtic) and the Saxon

answers the purpose of speech. Thus viewed, the tongues., Waddle, a diminutive of wade, is also Saxon. Rule English possesses very high qualities. In virtue of the facts and regula may be considered as the same word in different just mentioned, examples of which I am about to append, the forms; also oculus and eye; so insula and island ; leo and lion ; English possesses a most desirable variety, which adds not only mens and mind. Similar facts abound in our language, and to the colouring and polish of our style, but also to its capability show that in order to know one language well you must study

several, and that the proper way to study languages is to study LATIN NOUNS WITH THEIR DERIVED ADJECTIVES, AND COR- them in their mother tongues--in the primitive groups or classes RESPONDING SAXON NOUNS.

where they are found, and whence they shoot and branch. Derived. Adjectives. Saron Nouns.

I subjoin a list in which the richness of our language is still
initial
beginning.

more exemplified :-
pectoral
breast.

Latin Nouns. Latin Adjectives. Saxon Adjectives. Saxon Nouns. cadaver cadaverous carcass, corpus, corporis corporeal bodily

body,
felin
cat.
puer, pueri puerile

boyish

boy.

effectually

and force.

Latin Nouns. initiam pectus, pectoris

felis

icy

Latin Nouns. Latin Adjectives. Saron Adjectives. Saxon Nouns,

THE LOVE OF KNOWLEDGE. frater fraternal brotherly brother.

But while I am descanting so minutely upon the conduct of the onus, oneris onorous burdensome burden.

understanding, and the best modes of acquiring knowledge, some men dies diurnal daily day.

may be disposed to ask, "Why conduct my understanding with such mors, mortis mortal

deadly
death.

endless care l-and what is the use of so much knowledge ?" What terra terrestrial earthly

earth,

is the use of so much knowledge ?- what is the use of so much pator paternal fatherly father.

life --what are we to do with the seventy years of existence culpa culpable faulty

fault.

allotted to us ?--and how are we to live them ont to the last? I ignis igneous fiery

fire.

solemnly declare that, but for the love of knowledge, I should concaro, carnis carnal

fleshly
flesh.

sider the life of the meanest hedger and ditcher as preferable to that capillus capillary hairy

hair.

of the greatest and richest man here present. For the fire of our minds edium odious hateful hate.

is like the fire which the Persians burn in the mountains-it flames salus, salātis salutary

healthy
health.

night and day, and is immortal and not to be quenched! Upon somecor, cordis cordial

hearty
heart.

thing it must act and feed-upon the pure spirit of knowledge, or upon cælum celestial heavenly heaven.

the foul dregs of polluting passions. Therefore, when I say, in conauxilium auxiliary helpful

help.

ducting your understanding, Love knowledge with a great love, with a glacies glacial

ice.

vehement love, with a love coeval with life, what do I say bat love rex, regis regal

kingly
ling.

innocence-love virtue-love purity of conduct-love that which, if you lex, legis legal lawful law.

are rich and great, will sanctify the blind fortune which has made you vita vital lively life.

so, and make men call it justice; love that which, if you are poor, amor amorous lovely

love.

will render your poverty respectable, and make the proudest feel it mater maternal motherly mother.

unjust to laugh at the mennness of your fortunes ; love that which will noz, noctis nocturnal nightly

night.

comfort you, adorn you, and never quit you-which will open to you robur robust strong strength.

the kingdom of thought, and all the boundless regions of conception, mars, martis martial warlike

war.

as an asylum against the cruelty, the injustice, and the pain that may aqua aqueous watery

water.

be your lot in the outer world; that which will make your motives voluntas voluntary willing

will.

habitually great and honourable, and light up in an instant a thousand femina feminine womanly woman.

noble disdains at the very thought of meanness and fraud! Therefore, sylva sylvan woody wood.

if any young man here have embarked his life in the pursuit of knowmundus mundane worldly

world.

ledge, let him go on without doubting or fearing the event; let him annus annual yearly year.

not be intimidated by the cheerless beginnings of knowledge, by the The diverse meanings of capillary and hairy suffice to prevent darkness from which she springs, by the difficulties which hover around you from thinking that these pairs of adjectives one from the her, by the wretched habitations in which she dwells, by the want and Latin, one from the Saxon-are in each case identical in mean- her as the angel that guards him, and as the genius of his life. She

sorrow which sometimes journey in her train; but let him ever follow ing. Frequently, however, that which is indicated by the one is will bring him out at last into the light of day, and exhibit him to the that which the other signifies. When the two are of the same world comprehensive in acquirements, fertile in resources, rich in import, the one may be used for the other. To which of the imagination, strong in reasoning, prudent and powerful above his two you should give the preference depends on circumstances. fellows, in all the relations and in all the offices of life.-Sydney Smitk. If you are addressing the people, you will do well to employ words of Saxon origin. Nor fancy that by so doing you lower your style. Simplicity in diction, like simplicity in dress, betokens

LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.-XXXV. real respectability. Write, because you have something to say ;

CONSTRUCTION OF MAP OF AFRICA, ETC. and if you have nothing to say, do not write ; and if you write, The projection for a map of Africa is constructed on a prinwrite so as to be understood by those for whom you write; the ciple entirely different to that of the conical form of projecbest style is that which is most readily understood.

tion used for Europe and Asia. It will be seen, on reference COMPOSITION AND PARSING.

to our map of the continent of Africa (Vol. III., p. 357), that Make short sentences out of the list which I now give of

this division of the world is pretty nearly bisected, as far as

length is concerned, by the equator, the most northern point Words with their Proper Prepositions.

of the mainland being rather more than 37° north of the equator, Words.

F. R.

while its most southern point is nearly 35° to the south of that Deviate from,

via, a way.

line. Considering the equator, then, as the centre parallel of Devolve on, upon,

volvo, I roll.

the parallels of latitude that traverse Africa, it is plain that Devote to,

votum, a vou. Dictate to,

dico, I say.

a straight line supposed to pierce the sphere at 20° or 250 Die of (a disease), by (the sword or

north and south of the equator, would be parallel to the aris famine), for (another)

of the sphere, and not inclined to Differ with a person in opinion),

it, as in the case of straight lines from a person or thing in fero, I bear.

piercing the sphere in two points, some quality)

both of which are on the same side Different from,

fero, I bear.

of the equator; and it is equally Difficulty in,

facilis, easy.

clear that a line entering the Diminution of,

minutus, small.

sphere and coming out of it again Disabled from, Disagree with,

in such a manner as to be paralDisagreeable to,

lel to the axis of the sphere, would Disappointed of (a thing not ob

lie in the surface of a cylinder tained), in (a thing obtained),

}

as in the annexed figure, and not Disapprove of,

probus, good.

in a cone. It is true that the Discourage from,

ceur, heart.

projection of a map of Africa Discouragement to,

might be developed on the surface Disengaged from,

gage, a pledge.

of a cylinder supposed to circumDisgusted at, with,

gustus, taste, Dislike to,

scribe the sphere after the manner of the kind of projection Dismissal from,

missus, sent.

called “Mercator's Projection," in which all the meridians Disparagement to,

and parallels are represented by straight lines at right Dispense with,

dispenser, to set free. angles to each other, and which peculiar mode of conDispose of, to, for,

positus, placed.

struction will be explained in a future lesson. This style Dispossess of,

possideo, I possess. of projection, however, which is used in charts and nautical Dispute with,

puto, I think

maps, is not so well suited for representations of very large Study and parse carefully the following admirable remarks. areas of land, as the parts at the top and bottom--or, in other Having done so, write, as well as you can, on the same subject; words, north and south of the map-are distorted, and larger in and if you have kept your earlier attempts, compare them proportion than the central parts; and the mode of projection with the essay you produce on the love of knowledge. The most generally adopted for a map of Africa is, in consequence, momparison will give you both instruction and encouragement. that which we are now going to describe.

The main features of this projection consist in tracing the To do this, a diagonal scale must be constructed (as in the case of parallels in parallel straight lines, instead of representing projections for the maps of Europe and Asia) on the line assumed them by arcs of concentric circles as in the conical projec- at first as being equal to a space of five degrees of latitude. The tion, and by using curved lines for the meridians, instead of method of constructing this diagonal scale has been explained straight lines converging to a certain fixed point, as in the in Vol. II., page 356. We must now turn to the table of geoprojections for maps of Europe and Asia.

graphical miles in a degree of longitude under each parallel of On examination of our map of Africa, to which reference has latitude (Vol. II., page 357), and from this we find that the been made above, it will be seen that the meridian of 15° length of a degree of longitude on the fifth parallel north or E. has been selected as the central meridian of the map, south of the equator is 59:77 geographical miles. Opening the which crosses the equator at right angles, but which does compasses to this extent, as represented on our diagonal scale, not appear in the map itself. For this central meridian line set off distances along the fifth parallel of latitude north and our readers may select the meridian of 15° or 20°, as may south of the equator, on either side of the central meridian, as appear most desirable. We shall, however, in the following far as the border-line of the map will permit, and proceed in the description, take the meridian of 150 as the central meridian in same manner along each pair of parallels of latitude north and our map, and—supposing that the majority of our students who south of the equator, ascertaining the distance equivalent to five are following these lessons in Geography, and constructing maps degrees of longitude under each parallel in question from the from our instructions, are working on a large instead of a table already mentioned, and opening the compasses to the small scale-imagine meridians and parallels to be drawn inter- proper extent in each case by aid of the diagonal scale. The mediate to those which appear in our map, so that these lines points thus found on each parallel will be those through which would be but five degrees apart in our learner's projections, the meridians must be traced. This may be effected by drawing instead of ten degrees as in the map; that is to say, a parallel short straight lines from point to point in each successive paralwould be drawn at every fifth degree north and south of the lel to the north and south, or by means of a thin band of steel, equator, instead of every tenth degree, as in the map, and a so bent that its edge may pass through every point marked for meridian at every fifth degree east and west from the meridian the passage of each meridian across the parallels. The border of 150 east from Greenwich, which we have assumed as the must now be completed, the degrees numbered, and the title of meridian in our projection that crosses the equator at right the map and scales of geographical and English miles inserted, angles, instead of marking in a meridian five degrees east and after which the outline and different places may be fixed in west of this central meridian, as in our map, and then drawing position as before. meridians ten degrees apart east and west, proceeding in each The following table will afford sufficient names for the condirection from the meridians that have been traced five degrees struction of a map of Africa on a small scale. If a large scale each way from the central meridian.

be adopted, as we have advised, the latitudes and longitudes Having drawn two straight lines at right angles to each other, may be obtained from the index of places appended to any ordione to represent the equator and the other the meridian of 150 nary atlas. Our readers will often find that the latitude and east from Greenwich, we must, in order to draw the parallels, longitude of a place according to one index will differ from the first assume a space equal to five degrees of latitude, and set off latitude and longitude assigned to the same place in another eight of these spaces north and south of the equator along the index. This arises in most cases from a difference in the results central meridian. Through the points thus marked draw straight obtained at different times by independent observers, or some lines parallel to the equator on either side of it. Those on the different point being selected by each for making the obser. north of it will represent the parallels of 5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, 25°, vation. 30°, 35, 40° north latitude; while those on the south of it will

TABLE OF LATITUDES AND LONGITUDES OF PLACES IN represent the parallels of 50, 100, 150, 20°, 25°, 30°, 350, 40°

AFRICA. south latitude. If the learner wish to do so, he may delineate more of the southern part of Europe, as in our map, and more of the ocean to the south of Cape Colony, by setting off more

Name of Place.

Country, etc. Latitude. Longitude. spaces to the north and south of the equator; there is, however, no necessity for doing this, as it has been done in our map

Abomey
Upper Guinea

7° 26'N 2° 3E. merely for the sake of filling up a given space, namely, that of

Aboukir

Egypt 2 page of the POPULAR EDUCATOR. The parallels of 40° north Accra

Upper Guinea

6W. and south will serve very well as the inner line of the border of Agulhas (Cape). Cape Colony

34

19

57 E. the map at top and bottom, and define the limits of the map to Alexandria

Egypt

9 N. the north and south. It will now be necessary to insert the Algiers

Algeria . dotted lines representing the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic Anamaboo

Upper Guinea

5 14 0 53W. of Capricorn, which must be drawn parallel to the equator Angra Pequena (Cape) South Africa .

26 35 s.

5 E.

Abyssinia through points at the distance of 23° 30' from it on either side Antalo

13 17 N.

Apollonia (Cape) of it, north and south.

Upper Guinen

2 32W. Axum

Abyssinia

14 17 In order to draw the meridians, because at the equator the

38 47 E. Bambara Soudan.

2 42W. degrees of longitude are equal in length to those of latitude, we Bathurst

Cape Colony

33 26 S. 26 45 E. must again open our compasses to the extent of the line assumed Bengazi

Tripoli,

32 18 N. 20 10E, as equal to a space of five degrees of latitude, and set off eight Berbera

Nubia

45 7 of these spaces east and west, or right and left, of the central Biban

Tunis

33 15 perpendicular line which represents the meridian of 15° E. Birbeh

Egypt from Greenwich. The points thus obtained will be those through

Bizerta

Tunis
Blanco (Cape)

Tunis

37 19 which the meridians must pass at the equator; those on the right

9 48 Sahara Bojador (Cape).

14 27W. of the central meridian being points through which the meri.

Bomba
Lower Guinea

48 s. 21 29 E. dians of 20°, 25°, 30°, 35°, 400, 450, 500, 550 east from Green. Bon (Cape)

Tunis

11 N. wich will pass; while those to the left hand are those through Bona

Algeria

36 51 which the meridians of 10°, 5o east from Greenwich, 0°, or the Brava

Zanguebar

43 57 meridian of Greenwich itself, and 50, 100, 150, 20°, 25° west Cabes

Tunis from Greenwich will pass. The points through which the meri. Cairo

Egypt. dians of 55° east from Greenwich and 25° west from Greenwich Cantin (Cape)

Marocco

14W. Upper Guinea

5 15 paes may be taken as points through which to draw straight Cape Coast Castle

Cape Colony

18 27 E. lines parallel to the central meridian, to form the limits of the Cape Town

Ceuta
Marocco

52N. 18W. map to the east and west and the inner line of the border of

Clanwilliam
Cape Colony

5 s. 18 57 E. the map on either side.

Coomassie.
Upper Guinea

6 50 N. 2 16W. As the distance between each meridian decreases gradually Corrientes (Cape) Mozambique

24 10 S. 35 12 E. from the equator to the poles, means must now be taken to Cossire, or Kosseir Egypt

5 N determine the relative distance of every fifth meridian from the Cyrene

Tripoli

32 47 21 47 central meridian along each parallel drawn in our projection.

30 0

31 17
5 35

50 S.
31
86 43

29 3

54 3

15 39

25

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Damietta.
Delgado (Cape).
Denderah,
Derna
Elmina
Falcon (Cape)
Ferro (Cape)
Fez.
Formosa (Cape)
Freetown
Frio (Care)
Funchal
George Town
Gondar
Goree
Guardafui (Cape)
Hammamet
James Town
Jerba I.
Johanna
Khartoom.
Kubo
Lagos
Lamo I.
Latakoo
Lebda
Loango
Lopez (Cape)
Louis, St.
Magadoxo.
Marocco
Massowah.
Matifou (Cape).
Mesurado (Cape)
Mesurata
Mirik (Cape)
Mogador
Monaster
Monrovia.
Morgan (Cape)
Mourzouk,
Mozambique
Natal (Cape)
Negro (Cape)
Nun (Cape)
Nunez (River)
Oliphant (River)
Oran
Palmas (Cape)
Paul de Loanda (St.)
Pietermauritzberg
Portendik.
Quilimane.
Quiloa
Recife (Cape)
Rosetta
Roxo (Cape)
Saccatoo
Sallee
Santa Cruz, or Agadir
Seven Capes (Cape)
Shanganny
Siout
Socotra I.
Sofala
Spartel (Cape)
Suakin
Suez.
Syene, or Assouan
Tananarivo
Tangier
Tete.
Tetuan
Thebes (Ruins of)
Threo Points Cape
Tripoli
Tunis
Verd (Cape)
Voltas (Cape)
Whydah
Williamstown

Egypt
Zanguebar
Egypt
Tripoli
Upper Guinea
Algeria.
Algeria ·
Marocco
Upper Guinea
Sierra Leone .
West Africa
Madeira I.
Cape Colony
Abyssinia
Senegambia
East Africa
Tunis
Upper Guinea
Tunis
Comoro I.
Nubia
Soudan
Upper Guinea
Zanguebar
South Africa,
Tripoli.
Lower Guinea
Lower Guinea
Senegambia
Zanguebar
Marocco
Egypt
Algeria
Liberia
Tripoli
West Africa
Marocco
Tunis
Liberia.
Cape Colony
Sahara
Mozambique
Natal
Lower Guinea
Marocco
Senegambia
Cape Colony
Algeria.
Liberia ,
Benguela, w. Africa
Natal
Senegambia
Mozambique ,
Zanguebar
Cape Colony
Egypt
Senegambia
Soudan .
Marocco
Marocco
Sahara
Zanzibar I.
Egypt
East Africa
East Africa
Marocco
Nubia
Egypt
Egypt
Madagascar
Marocco
Mozambique
Marocco
Egypt
Upper Guinea
Tripoli.
Tunis
Senegambia
Cape Colony
Upper Guinea
Cape Colony

THE UNIVERSITIES.-V.
Latitude, Longitude.

CAMBRIDGE.-III.
In our last article upon this University, we alluded to the fact
31° 23'N. 91° 48 E. that the Senate were about to consider the advisability of admit-
10 23 S. 40 29 ting students to the University who are not members of colleges.

The fact that this is intended to diminish the cost of University

education makes it necessary that we should notice it rather 28W. more fully.

The scheme which is under consideration provides for the ap. 3

8 E.

pointment of a board which shall stand to non-collegiate students 4 53W.

in the same relation as the college now stands to its own members 8 30 12 32W. -i.e., it shall maintain order amongst them, and see that they are 18 34 s. 0 E. duly informed as to all that is required of them; to manage all 32 46N. 59W. accounts of the fees received, and present them in due time for 33 53 S. 17 E. admission to degrees. In reference to the students themselves, 37N. 37 29 the scheme provides that all laws and regulations at present in

1726. force with regard to collegiate students shall apply to the 51 22 E.

non-collegiate. They shall be entitled to be matriculated, 36 23 10

examined, and admitted to degrees in exactly the same way as 33

10 50 E. others, the officers of the above-mentioned board taking the 12 10 s. 44 27 place of the prælectors and tutors of the colleges. They will have

to reside in lodgings, licensed by the present lodging-house 14 53 1 15W. syndicate, and be under the government of the present University

3 38 E. rules so far as they apply to lodging-houses. The fee on matri3 30 S.

49 E. culation will be fifteen shillings. At the commencement of 27 19 32 50 N.

every term, each student will pay to the above board the sum of thirty-five shillings. Other University fees will remain the

same as for ordinary members of colleges. 7N. 16 30W.

This scheme is to come into operation so soon as the necessary 13 E. alterations shall, by consent of the Crown, have been made in

7 32W. the University statutes, and it is to be considered experimental 15 87 39 27 E. until the year 1873, when the University will confirm or abolich

the present arrangements. 6 17 10 53W.

It is obvious that this scheme will reduce the expense of 3 E,

living at Cambridge to something very little more than that in 16 32W.

London or elsewhere. But it must be remembered that no pro9 10 46 E. vision for education is included in the above payments. The

10 52W. scheme is not intended to include this, but to enable poor 32 40 S. 28 25 E. students, and students of special subjects, to curtail their social 25 49 N.

expenses as much as they please. As such, the scheme is deserving of every commendation.

We pass now from the University proper to the influence 15 50 11

which it extends throughout the country by means of its local 28 46 N. OW.

examinations, both for boys and girls. They are intended chietly 13 E. for the advantage of the middle-class schools, for whom there

exists no organised system of inspection, such as the Privy 4 27

Council provide for schools of a lower class; nor any recognised 7 E. criterion of merit, such as the universities supply for schools of

a higher class. They enable schoolmasters to send in for 7 N.

15 55W. examination either whole classes or chosen representatives, and, 17 36 44 E. by attracting to various centres the youth from all parts of

England, they provide a largeness of competition which makes 23 N.

them a valuable test of excellence, and a powerful stimulus to 25 16 49W.

increased exertion. 12 59

12 E. The syndicate appointed for the purpose undertake to condact 46W.

an examination at any place where a local committee, formed for the purpose, will guarantee at least twenty-five candidates. If

girls are to be examined as well as boys, it is necessary that

19 E. there should be a committee of ladies, one of whom will under27 10 N.

take the office of local secretary.

This committee will have to gee to the proper accommodation 34 29

of all students not resident in the place of examination; to pro37 23 E. vide a suitable room for the examination, separate from that in 57

which the boys are examined; and to send a responsible repre sentative to be present during the time of examination.

The University fee, whether for boys or girls, is £1 per 35 45 N.

547W. candidate, and the local committee have the power to charge an 33 26 E.

additional fee to cover their own expenses. After each examinn

22W 25 38

tion, the students who pass with credit, or satisfy the examiners,

38 E. 4 48

6W.

are entitled to receive certificates to that effect, which also 3 E. specify the subjects in which the student has been examined.

The names are also published in three alphabetical honour 1733w. classes, and a list appended of those who merely pass. In

16 28 E. determining the classes, account is taken of every part of the 6 22 N.

examination, provided that in that part the student has obtained 27 30

more than a certain fixed minimum of marks. Regard is had throughout to the handwriting and spelling.

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48 S.

PTEROPODA.

The examinations themselves, which are the same for boys trigonometry, conic sections, elementary statics, mechanics, and girls, are divided into two divisions, one for senior students, hydrostatics, and astronomy. between the ages of twelve and seventeen, the other for junior 6. Chemistry, embracing general principles of chemical students, between the ages of twelve and fifteen.

science, and the experimental laws of heat, magnetism, and

electricity. EXAMINATION OF JUNIOR STUDENTS.

7. Zoology, Botany, or Geology, no student being examined in The examination of junior students is divided into three more than one of these subjects. parts:

8. Drawing from the flat, from models, and in perspective. Part I.

9. Music, embracing the history and principles of the art. This is preliminary, and embraces reading aloud, writing from Of these nine sections, no one will be examined in more than dictation, English grammar, arithmetic, the geography of the five. Every one must take in 1, unless, as above, it be objected i'nited Kingdom, France, Europe, and North America ; and the to; and every student must satisfy the examiners in three of atlines of English history since the Conquest. In these every the first seven, or in two of the first seven and one of the last student must satisfy the examiners.

two. A fair knowledge of one of the subjects comprised in each Part II.

section will enable the student to pass in that section.

Papers relating to the examinations may be obtained at This comprises ten sections, and every student must satisfy Messrs. Rivington's, the publishers, and any further information the examiners in at least two of these ; but no one will be required will be given by the secretary of the Local Examinacamined in more than six.

tion Syndicate at Cambridge. 1. Religious Knowledge. -Part of the historical Scriptures of the Old Testament, and one New Testament subject; the offered by such examinations as these, so extensive in the sub

It is scarcely necessary for us to point out the advantages Church Catechism, and Whately's "Introductory Lessons on

jects which they embrace, yet giving every prominence to select Christian Evidences." This section must be taken in by every student, unless the would be well for all who are interested

in the training of the

reading. We close our account of them by suggesting that it parents or guardians object. 2. English. This embraces a piece of original composition; rising generation, to test the knowledge of those in their charge

by requiring them to pass one of these examinations before con3 paper on a chosen portion of English history; and another on

sidering their education complete. physical, political, and commercial geography, with especial reference to Great Britain and her dependencies. 3. Latin.-Papers on two chosen Latin books, involving geo

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY.XVII. graphical and historical allusions, grammar and parsing; also

PTEROPODA-CEPHALOPODA. one passage from some Latin author, not announced beforehand, and a passage of English, with Latin words supplied for translation into Latin.

PERHAPS there is no class of animals less likely to come under 4. Greek.--Corresponding papers to those in Latin, omitting the notice of the reader than those which belong to this class. the composition.

This is not because they are few in number, for they exist in 5. French.

such countless numbers in the ocean that, though they are all of 6. German.

small size, they discolour large tracts of its waters; clouding it In these the papers will correspond to those in Latin.

just as the countless flakes of the snow-fall make the heavens 7. Pure Mathematics.—Eucli. I.–VI.; algebra as far as look turbid. Ships may sail for many hours through these proportion; plane trignometry to the solution of triangles, swarming myriads, and it is supposed that they form a large logarithms, and mensuration,

part of the diet of the huge whales which, rushing through the 8. Elementary Mechanics, embracing the parallelogram of throng with open mouth, strain out the little creatures from the forces, the centre of gravity, and the mechanical powers. waters by the aid of the whalebone fringes of their jaws, and so

9. Elementary Chemistry and the laws of chemical combination, manage to satisfy an appetite which must be as exacting as their substances being given for testing.

bulk is large. The reason that we see so little of these multi10. (a) Elementary Zoology, embracing the classification of tadinous creatures is that they are strictly oceanic in their habits animals and the uses of animal products.

---that is, they live in mid-ocean, and seldom come near any shores. (6) Botany.-The elassification of plants and their geo- Moreover, they seem to be more or less nocturnal in their habits, graphical distribution, specimens being given for description. retiring into the depths of the sea during the heat of mid-day, No student will be examined in both (a) and (b).

and coming to the surface in the evening. They have, however, Amongst the above sections two, as we have said, are com- been seen, even during the day, sporting about in the neighbour pulsory. These two must not be both 3 and 4, or both 5 and hood of those great masses of ocean-weed called sargassum, 6, or both 7 and 8, or both 9 and 10.

which float in the middle of the Atlantic, occupying the centre Part III.

of that vast revolving current, part of which is called the Gulf

Stream. This is additional and voluntary. Students may offer themselves for examination in geometrical drawing and perspective; they derive their name, is that they possess two wide expansions

The distinguishing character of these animals, from which also in drawing from the fat and from models; and in music.

of the mantle, which are very muscular, stretching away on EXAMINATION OF SENIOR STUDENTS.

either side from the back of the neck. These flaps have been Part 1.

called wings, and the animals themselves butterflies of the sea ;

those who have observed their motions say that it is so brisk This is preliminary, and the subjects are the same as those in and constant that the simile is not an unnatural one. the junior examination, a more extended knowledge of them There are two divisions of the Pteropoda, in one of which being required.

there is no shell, of which Clio Borealis, a little creature about Part II.

half an inch long, may be taken as the type ; while the other 1. Religious Knowledge.-Subjects as above, with the addition consists of animals which have shells, and of these Hyalea may of the Book of Common Prayer, and Paley's " Horæ Paulinæ ;" be taken as a good example. In Hyalea the shell is a pretty also, in the New Testament subject, credit will be given for a object,

reminding one of a watch-pocket such as is hung to a knowledge of the original Greek.

bed. It is all in one piece, but cut down the sides by such deep 2. English.-Subjects as above, with the addition of a play of slits that it may be said to consist of two portions, one of which Shakespeare, the outlines of political economy, and a short is flat, or nearly so, and the other is bulging. The animal rests English composition.

in this little inflexible pocket, and can retract itself completely 3. Latin and Greek as above, including one piece of Latin within the cavity; but ordinarily, when not alarmed, it thrusts composition

its head and wings out of the top, and protrudes two folds of 4. French and German as above, with a piece of composition its thin mantle through the side slits, and bends them round the in both languages.

shell, both before and behind, so as to make their edges meet. 5. Pure and Applied Mathematics, embracing Euclid, algebra, The head is often not very distinct, and although some of these

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