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$S 15. Gender and Number GEOLOGY, LESSONS IN : GREEK, LESSONS IN : MUSIC, LESSONS IN :

of Adjectives 218

Fossils

TheVerb-General Explana-

61

Exercises.--"Honest Fel.

16. Formation of the

The Vegetable Kingdom-

tions – The Substantive

Feminine of Adjec-

low"_"Auld Lang Syne" 55

Classification of Rocks

Verb ειμι, I am

113

"Murmur, Gentle Lyre"-

tives

218

Igneous Rocks.

Conjugation - Preliminary

177

Modulation-Transition-

17. Formation of the

The Metamorphic System

Notions.

90 “Melcombe” – Mental

Plural of Adjectives 218

Fossiliferous Strata-Cam-

Verbs in w–The Pure Verb

199

Effects of Transition

18. Agreement of Adjec-

brian Group--- Laurentian

Avw, I loose (Active Voice) 122 Exercises.

tives with Nouns . 219

"Oberlin -

Paradigm of the Regular

Group-Silurian System. 202

“Delabore" “Edg-

19. Determining or De-

Upper Silurian.

357

Verb Aww, I loose (Middle

16h

ware"

terminate Adjec-

Voice)

15+ The Dead March in "Saul

tives

219 GEOMETRICAL PERSPEC.

Paradigm of the Regular

-Boyce's Chant

283

20. Demonstrative Ad-

TIVE:

Verb, Aww, I loose (Pas. Minor Tunes

jectives.

219

sive Voice)

154 OUR HOLIDAY:

21. Possessive Adjec-

Problems XXXVII.-XL. . 23 General Conspectus of the

tives

Rowing

XLI.

219

31, 111, 12

87

Greek Verb

178

XLII.-XLIV.

132

Bowls

22. Numeral Adjectives 219

. 171

The Tenses of the Greek

220

23. Variations of

Prisoners' Base.

the

XLV. -

XLVIII.

Verb, Active Voice. 221, 253

(Perspective of

Archery.

Cardinal Numbers. 266

238, 393

The Tenses of the Greek

24, Miscellaneous Ob-

Shadows).

PNEUMATICS

265

Verb, Passive and Middle

servations on the

XLIX.-LI.

Voice

The Barometer (continuei)

258, 307

Cardinal Numbers. 266

LII,

The Augments

-How used to foretell

354

25. Observations on the

Verbs, Pure, Impure, and

changes in the weather-

Ordinal Numbers . 266 GERMAN, LESSONS IN:

Self-Registering Baro-

Liquid Uncontracted

26. Rules

meter – How used to

. 266

XCV.-XCVIII. Idiomatic

Verbs

390

27. Numeral Nouns

Phrases

12, 63 The Key to the Exercises

measure heights-Spren.

10

28. Fractional Numerals 267 XCIX. Examples Illustrat.

gel Pump

in any Lesson in Greek

Cominon Pressure Gauge-

29. Ordinal Adverbs 267 ing the various uses of

will be found at the end

30. Indefinite Adjectives 267 some Conjunctions and

of the next Exercise.

SafetyTube--Atmospheric

31. The Pronoun

268 Adverbs.

Railway Blowing Ma.

68, 102 GREEK, READINGS IN :

32. The Personal Pro C. Exercises in Speaking

chines - Ventilation of

Xenophon

77 Mines

nouns.

318

78

and Writing German 174

Euripides

131

33. Remarks on the Per PART II. GERMAN GRAMMAR :

Ventilation Wind Its

Demosthenes

sonal Pronouns 319 $S 1. Etymology

pressure and effects

Sophocles

251

34. Possessive Pronouns 365 2. Derivation and Com.

Trade Winds-Monsoons

Æschylus

326

35. Remarks on the Pos-

position

237

--Land and Sea Breezes-

Thucydides

331

97

sessive Pronouns 365 3. Parts of Speech

Simooms, etc.

239

36. Demonstrative Pro-

4. The Article

233

HISTORIC SKETCHES:

RECREATIVE NATURAL

335

nouns

5. Nouns

233

The Grande Monarque 1 HISTORY:

37. Remarks on the De-

6. Gender

238

Russia and Peter the Great 75 The Antelopes

59

monstrative Pro-

7. Rules for Determin.

The Rise of Prussia and the The Ape Family - Orang-

nouns

365

239

140

ing Gender

Seven Years' War .

outang — Chimpanzee

38. Relative Pronouns 365 8. Gender of Compounds

The Sicilian Vespers.

· 191

Gorilla

95

39, Remarks on the Re-

and Foreign Words 285

Ancient Egypt.

British Pearls and Pearly

lative Pronouns 366

283

9. Derivation of Nouns. 285

The Persian Power

Shells

152

40. Indefinite Pronouns 366 10. Suffixes used in form.

Arthur, King of Britain 340 Nightshades

18+

41. Remarks on the In-

ing Nouns

285

The Italian Republice . 388 Some Land, Sea, and Fresh-

definite Pronouns 366 11. Examples.

285 | ITALIAN, LESSONS IN :

water Shells, Worms, and

42. Verbs

39+ 12. Declension of Com-

The Article-Nouns declined

Tube-dwellers 239, 271

43. Different Sorts of

mon Nouns. 286

with and withont the

295, 335, 360

Verbs

394 13. The Old Declension 286 Article

29 The Cocoa-nut Palm .

44. Conjugations

391 14. The New Declension. 334

Declension of Nouns with RECREATIVE SCIENCE:

45. Moods and Tenses 39+ 15. Observations on the

Article, etc., preceding 63 The Sources of Light. 161

46. Use of the Auxiliary

Declension of Com-

The Preposition di, its use, Artificial Illumination

Verbs Avoir and

mon Nouns. 33

etc.

93 The Nature and Measure-

Étre

. . 394

16. Foreign Nouns.

. 334

Exercises for practice-col

ment of Light - Photo-

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS

17. Foreign Nouns of the

loquial Exercises

126, 157 metry

215

IN FRENCH :

Old Declension . 334 The Particle a

189 The Reflection of Light and

Exercises Page Exercises Page

18. Foreign Nouns of the The Particle da .

Deceptions with Plane

149, 150. 23 152, 153, 220

New Declension 335

Exercises, etc.

. 298 and Concave Mirrors 248, 277

151

167 151

268

19. Foreign Nouns partly The Preposition in

Refraction, Lenses, and

of the old and The Preposition con

403

FRENCH, CORRESPONDENCE

Magnifying Power

partly of the New The Key to the Exercises given The Prism or Refracting

Declension

335 in any Lesson in Italian will Instrument, and Dis-

Letters 1-5

53

20. Declension of Proper

be found at the end of the coveries made with the

6-9

99

Nouns.

377 next Lesson.

Spectroscope

344

10-13

147

21. Proper Nouns in the

14-16

LATIN, LESSONS IN :

Amusing Optical Instru-

195

Plural

377 Deviations in the Second

ments illustrating the

17--21

227

22. Proper Names of

Conjugation

3, 58

Laws of Reflection and

22-30

278

Cities, Countries, Deviations in the Third

Refraction - The Camera

31-34

etc.

378 Conjugation 106, 150, 205, 231 Obscura

FRENCH, READINGS IN :

23. Observations

378 Deviations in the Fourth SHORTHAND, LESSONS IN:

Jacopo

4 24. Adjectives

378 Conjugation

274

Exercises

20

L'Ânon

25. Suffixes used in form Irregular Verbs: : 322, 371

General Rules for Writing

GEOGRAPHY, LESSONS IN :

ing Adjectives 378 The Key to the Exercises given -Consonant Outlines 53

Construction of Map of

26. Examples

378 in any Lesson in Latin will be List of best Outlines-Con-

Africa, etc.

26

27. Declension of Adjec-

found at the end of the next tractions-Phraseography 84

Table of Latitudes and

tives

378 Lesson.

Panctuation, etc.- Report-

Longitudes of Places in

28. Declinable Adjectives 378 LATIN, READINGS IN:

ing-Advantages of Short-

Asia

37

29. Rule for Adjectives. 378

Cæsar

43 hand

197

North America

92, 167

Virgil

82 History of Shorthand.

955

Chief Political Divisions of

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN

Sallust

124 Conclusion

North America

214

GERMAN :-

Horace

. 181 UNIVERSITIES, THE:

South America

316 Exercises, Page. Exercises. Page. Livy

211 Cambridge.

Chief Political Divisions of 137–140. 135 | 142–146. 287 Cicero

301 Dublin

South America

373 141

233 | 147

379

Ovid.

358

London 262, SSI, 335

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POPULAR EDUCATOR .

HISTORIC SKETCHES.—XXXVI. strength, and therefore were not taken into account by states

men), was not yet completely carried out, and the French nobles THE GRAND MONARQUE.

were only too glad to make an opportunity of trying to assert Louis XIV. was called the “Grand Monarque" much in the their independence, not to say their existence. Mazarin had to same way that our Elizabeth was called "good Queen Bess." keep them in check, though he did so in a way different to that The circumstances attendant upon the reigns of both were adopted by his brother cardinal, and he had at the same time exceptional and grand in their character, and around both to devise means for utilising their forces for the royal use, for sovereigns was assembled such an array of men as, both for concentrating within the focus of the crown the rays which ability and courage, were not to be equalled more than once in were straggling and divided all over France. Then there were a century. Louis shone in a light borrowed from those who foreign nations to be dealt with. The Thirty Years' War was were the ministers of his greatness, and without whose help he over, and had left the nations weak and weary of restlessness, could not have stood for a week. Great and stirring events, and glad at heart to welcome a season of quiet and repose. springing many of them from the brains of his sagest coun- Sweden was exhausted, so were all the lesser states of Gersellors, brought these men into conspicuous notice, and the many; even Austria panted for rest. Yet there was that spirit sheen of glory derived from them was reflected on to the head of restlessness, which is ever the outcome of wars and of great of the king, who was the visible representative of their efforts. national disturbances, to be grappled with, and in the case of Another reason, perhaps, might be adduced to show why Louis Austria it was formidable enough. There was just strength himself was called "the Great." It had been the policy of the enough left in that large though disjointed empire to feel anxious French royal family, ever since Louis XI. tried to “deliver the to display itself in that panacea for national domestic troubles, crown from wardship,” to diminish the power of the lords, a foreign war; and there was the memory of the substantial and to concentrate all real power in the king. Many kings help which France had given to Austria's enemies to suggest, if blundered at the work, others were not able to enter upon it ancient rivalry did not suggest it, the direction that a foreign at all; but in the minority of Louis XIII. Cardinal Richelieu war should take. This spirit Cardinal Mazarin had to meet and adopted the idea as the leading feature of his policy, and to counteract, for it did not suit his purpose, nor that of the carried it out so thoroughly that by the end of his adminis-cause he had in hand, to come to blows in any way or with any tration there was scarcely a family in France of any distinc power where he had not evidently the preponderance. He was tien that had not learned a lesson of bitter experience in unwilling to dissipate, on the chance of gaining success, an statecraft under the teaching of the cardinal-king. Cardinal atom of that power which, with a little more care, a little more Mazarin, the ruler of France during the minority of Louis XIV., husbanding, he knew must one day be crushing. Spain was followed, as will be seen, in the same direction, the result being already showing symptoms of that decadence and weakness that whatever individuality had remained in France was now which were afterwards so fully developed, and which formed so utterly extinct, so that any and all glory that presented itself great a contrast to what she had once been. There was nothing was certain to centre in the person of the king.

seriously to be feared from her. Besides, the French ruler had Let us see what the events were which warranted so proud a ulterior views about Spain which were afterwards carried out by title as that of Grand Monarque, and then see how the light in his pupil, when he was able to announce, having placed his which the king shone proved so intense and intolerable, that, grandson on the Spanish throne, that there were no longer any like the lime-light, which burns to its own destruction, it scorched Pyrenees. him up, and made him a laughing-stock who before had been a Holland was as yet too recent from the deadly struggle out of

which she had come only just alive—the struggle for existence When Louis XIV. ascended his father's throne he was only which she had had with Spain—to be troublesome to France. five years old. A regency was necessary, and one was ap. Prussia as yet was not, save in the germ; and Italy was not pointed, at the head of which was Cardinal Mazarin, the subtlest united, and could not threaten. England alone was very forand least scrupulous politician in Europe. Fearful lest the king midable. Under the guidance of the Lord Protector, Cromwell, should by wisdom find him out, the cardinal took measures to she suddenly emerged from the ranks of the second-rate powers prevent him becoming wise, and kept him purposely in ignorance of Europe, and appeared more powerful than she had been since of even the rudiments of education. Amusements and occupa- the days of Henry V. and Agincourt. To the surprise of the tions which could please a lad without instructing him, young statesmen of Earope, the voice of England was once more heard Louis had in abundance, and a natural liking in him

for things not in tones of entreaty or of diplomacy, but of command; and elegant and splendid was studiously developed and pandered to even those states which refused to recognise her ruler were comin every possible way. Louis was taught to consider that his pelled to recognise

the strength that ruler wielded, and were dominions and all that they contained were created for his own afraid to be disobedient to her word. Spain insulted England, will and pleasure to work on, so that it was no wonder when he and English commanders swept off the sea the remnant of grew up, and had had some experience of the way in which men Spanish naval power which the men of Elizabeth had spared. were governed and policy was managed, that he should be the The Dutch, jealous of the rise of their great commercial rivals, author of the maxim, “L'état c'est moi!” (I am the state !) took occasion to make war, and were but too glad, after a series [pon this maxim, or what was tantamount to it, the young of sanguinary conflicts, to take the first occasion of making man's education was based—the idea that several millions of peace. Most of the nations of Europe had to learn by ex. people lived simply to do his will, and that all the resources of perience that the power they had of late years--since the house those people were his to do as he liked with, being uppermost ; of Stuart came to the throne-affected to despise, was a veritable tho idea that there were duties correlative with this entire de power again, one not to be trifled with, one quite able and votion never being once mooted.

willing to asssert itself and to enforce respect. Cardinal Mazarin Cardinal Mazarin had no doubt a difficult task to perform alone of all the rulers had the wisdom to see what the new when he acceded to power. The policy of Richelieu, that of republic and her chief meant; he alone had the foresight to weakening the nobles in order to concentrate power on the endeavour betimes to secure their friendship. Peace with Eng. king (the people as yet were not, or rather, knew not their land was necessary to all his plans ; peace must therefore be

79

hero.

VOL. IV.

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secured at any cost. When Cromwell assumed the dictatorship, the same place was instantly noticed, the Spanish envoy to Paris Mazarin was not only quick to acknowledge his government, but was dismissed summarily from the country, and Louis's fathersent a special embassy over to London to congratulate him, and in-law, the king of Spain, was offered the alternative of an to express his regret that state affairs should prevent his coming apology or war. The former was chosen, and the power of over in person to testify his regard " for the first man of the Spain was shown to be but weakness. Then the hitherto age." Everything was conceded by Mazarin to the English de- omnipotent court of Rome was humbled by the wisdom of mands, and though these occasionally rose higher than rulers in the French counsels, and all nations, including the German general would stand, compliance was given to them, and so the empire, surrounding France were laid under obligations which neutrality of England was purchased.

left it impossible for them to dispute the first place with her. Cardinal Mazarin's one grand idea as regarded home policy The Netherlands, with the Rhine frontier, had ever been an was to establish absolute monarchy, and his one grand idea as object of ambition and envy to the French. They hoped and regarded foreign policy was to humble the house of Austria. looked for an occasion of wresting them from the Spanish, and So well did he succeed by his arts and statecraft in the former, uniting them with the French crown. The occasion presented and so well by the arms of the great Condé and Turenne in the itself in 1667. Philip IV. of Spain died, and Louis claimed the latter, that by the time Louis was old enough, or thought him- Spanish crown in right of his wife, Maria Theresa, who was the self so, to steer the ship himself, he was to all intents and daughter of Philip by the sister of Louis XIII. He was not at purposes an absolute king, independent of parliaments, and of the moment prepared for a campaign in the Peninsula, but the troublesome state councils, and in a position to give the word of Spanish Netherlands and Franche Compté he thought he might command to any single state in Europe. The civil wars, called easily manage. His claim being refused, he put a splendid the wars of the Fronde, which had desolated a large portion of army in motion, took nominal command of it himself

, and France, and had shaken civil society to its foundation, were over proceeded literally to walk over his ground. He had but to in the year 1654, and their effect had been only to increase the appear before the gates of cities, in order to gain admission; power in the king's hand.

and when he had done so, allowing his engineers and artillerists Cardinal Mazarin died in 1661, a year after the restoration of to fortify them, he put strong garrisons within them, and thus our Charles II., and Louis, then in the twenty-third year of his became master of all Flanders. Franche Compté and Alsace age, at once took upon himself individually the cares of govern- followed, and the latter provinces were secured to him by the ment. For years the people, who had been accustomed to be peace of Aix-la-Chapelle. From this time till 1678, when ruled by a prime minister whom they detested, welcomed the the peace of Nimeguen was signed, there was a succession of idea of personal government by the king himself most en-wars on the north and north-eastern frontiers of France, ont of thusiastically, and were loud in their expressions of admiration which Louis gained a certain amount of military glory, and for a young king who devoted himself to the real business of upon which he spent a great deal of money. His private exgovernment, and set bounds to the power of his ministers, whom penditure was at the same time enormous; the magnificence and he also required to give daily accounts of their stewardship to costliness of his palaces, his entertainments, his establishments, himself. For some little time past he had insisted that instruc-exceeding the bounds as yet reached by any Western prince. tion should be imparted to him, and Mazarin, seeing that the France was beginning to feel the weight of her splendid king, end of his own reign must be at hand, allowed him to have his whose ambition soared and whose extravagance increased as the way. The slight training which Louis' considerable natural country became less and less able to support the expense of powers thus received was turned to the best account, and them. those who laughed, and put their tongues in their cheek, and All went well, however, with the French arms. Louis XIV. said sneerful things, when they saw the king begin to be en. dictated in Europe; his word was law till the day when the gaged in actual business, were confounded and alarmed when Prince of Orange became William III. of England, and proposed they saw him persevere in doing it. The idlers, fools, and non- to himself the task of setting limits to the French power, comworkers, finding that their master meant business, gave up their mensurate with those which had been set by Cromwell. To this posts, and gave place to better men.

end William worked unceasingly, so soon as the state of things The immediate result was that the finances of the country, which in his new kingdom allowed of his interfering actively in foreigu had got into dire confusion, were established on a sound basis ; affairs. Louis refused to recognise him as king, and ostenthe troops, who had become more or less demoralised under a tatiously maintained the fugitive James as king at St. Gersystem of administration where there was no visible head, were mains, where he lived upon his bounty. This refusal, coupled brought under discipline, and order was restored generally in the with other causes of disturbance, brought about a war in which affairs of the kingdom. Soon began to be seen the fruits of the all the malcontents of the Continent-the Dutch, the Netherlabour given by Richelieu and Mazarin ; soon appeared, in the lands, the smaller German states which were threatened by foreign as well as the domestic policy of France, the effect of one France-ranged themselves on the English king's party. A active will at the head of affairs. Aided by men who would have wasting war, which still further reduced the resources of France, done honour to any country and any age, in every department and which seriously retarded the general progress of Europe, of government, Louis shone with brilliant light from the first was carried on, the result being that the allies, though generally moment of his ruling for himself. His armies were commanded beaten by the able French commanders, always showed front by men who had covered themselves with military glory, and again immediately after a defeat, and snatched the benefit of who were second to none of all the generals in Europe ; his results from the victor's hand. Sometimes actual victory finance ministers were the first who attempted to frame their crowned the indomitable efforts of William, and in 1697, after budgets on a scientific basis, and with a due regard to the eight years of strife, all sides were glad to consent to the peace interests of the people as well as of the government; his of Ryswick, by which William was acknowledged to be the king lawyers were men of the profoundest erudition, and skilled in all of England, and by which Spain, France, Holland, England, and knowledge pertaining to their profession; his clergy were of the Germany were set at one. The terms to which France consented most eloquent and influential that had been seen anywhere for a were too restrictive to ensure permanent peace. She only wanted hundred years ; and, under the genial influence of a court in repose, breathing space, time to recruit her exhausted resources, which elegance and magnificence were the order of the day, art and when in 1702 the king of Spain died, the "Grand Monarque and literature flourished, and the physical sciences made ad-claimed for his grandson, regardless of the consequences, the vances such as had not been made under any other king before. Spanish crown, which he had expressly agreed should never be

Surrounded thus by all that was splendid in genius and in joined with that of France.
experience, it is no wonder that Louis XIV, was as a star in Then came the War of the Succession. William III. was
Europe. The only power which had erewhile kept France, under dead in 1702, but his spirit survived in the ministers and
Mazarin, in check, was England, and England had passed from generals who remained. The English government of Queen
the hands of the strong man who made her great into the hands Anne put itself at the head of the allies, who determined to put
of one who made her contemptible, and who actually stooped to a curb on the ambition of the “Grand Monarque." On the 4th of
the infamy of accepting a pension from France as the price of May, 1702, war was declared, and under the command of generals
non-interference in her plans. First, the

Spanish branch of the like John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough, and Prince Eugene house of Austria came under the lash of Louis. An insult to the of Savoy, the allied armies entered on some of the most glorious Prench ambassador in London by the Spanish ambassador at campaigns that have

ever been pursued. The

battles of Blen

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heim, Ramillies, and Malplaquet covered the English with model. Cio, cire, civi, citum (never citum), follows the fourth glory, and laid the axe to the root of the French power, while conjugation. The compounds of the above follow the forms of Prince Eugene's successes in Italy and Spain well nigh com- the simple verbs, as, concieo, -iēre (rare), -īvi, -itum; concio, -ire, pleted its ruin.

-itum ; excieo, -iere, -ivi, -itum; excio, -ire, -ivi, -itum ; percieo, France, drained of men and money, her strength poured out -iēre (rare), -ivi, -itum; percio, -ire, -ivi, -itum; accieo, -iēre, -ivi, in foreign war, was so utterly exhausted that Louis was obliged -itum; and accio, accire, accīvi, accitum. Cieo means to stir up; to sne for peace. A victory obtained by Marshal Villars at concieo, to arouse ; excieo, to call forth; percieo, to arouse thoDenain, enabled him to secure terms just short of the hardest, roughly ; accieo, to fetch ; and accio, to call to, send for. though the house of Bourbon was allowed to retain possession Aboleo is in signification somewhat curious. Its root, oleo of the Spanish throne; and by the peace of Utrecht in 1713 (olo), means to grow; hence, adoleo, to flourish in growth; and quiet was once more given to Europe.

adolescens, a young man, age during the period of growth. By The king, who had in his younger days given his law to the force of the prefix ab, from, the verb aboleo denotes to be Europe, was in his old age compelled to receive the law from checked in growth, then to grow down, and so to perish or to destroy. it. Magnanimous in his personal conduct, and dignified I have said above that the word does not belong to the Auamidst misfortune, he was able to live on the memory of what gustan age. This is as much as to say that the word is not of he had been. Not in his days, or rather not on him, was visited the purest Latin source. Three ages may be distinguished in the iniquity of governmental selfishness. Though misery, want, Roman literature, the pre-Augustan, the Augustan, the postoppression, every vice of a spendthrift and extravagant govern. Augustan: the first comprising the writers who lived before the ment, fell heavily on his people, he heard but the far-off echo of age of the first Roman emperor, namely, Augustus (B.C. 63— their groans, and amid his splendid court, in his magnificentpalaces A.D. 14); the second, those who lived during that age; and the and gardens, was hidden from the sight of his people's suffering. third, those who lived after that age. In the second class stand The day of reckoning was deferred, but only deferred, and it Cæsar, Cicero, Virgil, Sallust, Livy, and Horace. Undoubtedly was found that when the king died and left his absolute, one-will these are very great names. But why should Lucretius be made system of rule to be administered by a corrupt regency, which light of, because he lived before, or Tacitus, because he lived delivered up its power afterwards to a weak and indolent king, after the days of Augustus ? And is Cornelius Nepos, on the the game of Richelieu and Mazarin was played out. The people ground that he flourished in the middle of the period, preferable) got to know their strength, to call themselves the Sovereign to Suetonius, because he wrote when the period had run out ? People, and to act accordingly. Louis le Grand, the “Grand In truth, the distinction is to some extent arbitrary, as well as Monarque," was the last veritable king of France. Upon his indefinite, and it has been made to pass for more than it is successors fell the Revolution, and out of the Revolution came worth. These remarks, however, are made to explain what is the Empire.

meant by the Augustan age, rather than to question its propriety or disparage its worth. Beyond a question, during that age

lived and wrote Roman authors whose style is the model. But, LESSONS IN LATIN.-XXXVI.

because they are excellent, it by no means ensues that other DEVIATIONS IN THE SECOND CONJUGATION. good writers are not of authority. However, this classification MANY verbs of the second conjugation are without supines; is far better than that which it has superseded, and which such are, horreo, I am stif; paveo, I fear; floreo, I flourish. divided the Roman writers into those of the iron, those of the 1. Perfect, -UI; Supine, -TUM.

brazen, those of the silver, and those of the golden age. Having i. Arceo, arcere, arcui (no supine), to keep of, restrain. Artus taken a little refreshment in a topic of general interest, we must

now resume our verbal studies. or arctus, the passive participle of arceo, is used as an adjective in the sense of restrained, close, tight ; connected with artus, -ūs,

4. Perfect in -I; Supine in -TUM. a joint. The compounds of arceo, in which the a passes into e, The short vowel of the stem is lengthened in the perfect:are formed like moneo; as, coerceo, coercere, coercui, coercitum, i. Căveo, căvēre, cāvi, cautum, to guard against (ab. aliquo). to hold together, hold in, keep back.

ii. Făveo, făvere, fāvi, fautum (rare), to be favourable, to favour ii . Doceo, docere, docui, doctum (with 2 acc.), to teach. (takes the dative). ü. Miscere, misceri, miscui, mixtum or mistum (with dat.), ii. Foveo, fő ovi, fötum, to warm, cherish, nurse. to mir,

iv. Moveo, móvere, mõvi, mötum, to move. iv. Teneo, tenere, tenui (tentum in compounds), to hold.

v. Võveo, vovere, võvi, võtum, to vow. V. Torreo, torrere, torrui, tostum, to dry, parch, toast.

The ensuing have no supine : The student may here advantageously stop a moment, in order to compare his Latin with his English. Obviously in horreo

vi. Ferveo, fervēre, fervi, to be hot, boil. (Lorridus), we have our horrid ; in floreo, our flower; in coerceo,

vii. Paveo, pavēre, pāvi, to dread (expavescere is more common). our coerce and coercion ; in moneo, our monition, monitor, and

viii. Conniveo, connivēre, to close the eyes, wink. admonition; in doceo, our doctor; in misceo, our mix; in teneo,

VOCABULARY. or tenet; and in torreo, our torrid and our toast: to such an Admiscõre, to mix with, Distinêre, to keep apart, Quo minus-eo facilior, extent do the Latin and the English agree. These facts lie on mingle.

оссиру.

the less -- the more the surface. An acquaintance with philology would disclose Agere gratias, to give Excludo, -si, -sum, 3, easy. other facts. Thus, our teuch is the same word as the Latin thanks.

Removēre, to remove. docere ; and the two are found in the Greek didaskein; thus, Allobroges, -um, the Gallina, -22, f., a hen. Respiro, 1, I breatho. teaca, doce, dase, have a common origin and a common import.

Allobroges, a people Gravitas,-ātis,f., weight, Sedo, 1, I still.
of Gaul.

earnestness.

Sustinére, to uphold, 2. Perfect in -UI; Supine in -UM.

Amplexor, 1, I embrace. Horno, adv.,this season. siupport (E. R. SusOnly one verb. Censeo, censere, censui, censum, to give an

Ascensus, -üs, m., a Implico, 1, I enfold, tain). opinion, estimate, take the census, to judge.

going up, ascent. implicate.

Testis, -is, c. (common, Thus are the compounds formed: recenseo, I go over, investi-Dedico, 1, 1 dedicate, Publice, publicly, at the

Clades, -is, f., slaughter. Pons, -tis, m., a bridge. that is, either mas

culine or feminine), gate, revise, has recensitum as well as recensum ; percensere, to consecrate.

public exponse.

a witness. go through, recount, has no supine.

Deprehendo, -di, -sum, Pullus, -i., m., a young Uva, -æ, f., a grapo.

animal. 3. Perfect in - EVI; Supine in -ETUM.

3, I take hold of.

Vigilise, -arum, a watch. i. Deleo, delere, delevi, deletum, to destroy.

EXERCISE 133.—LATIN-ENGLISH. 1. Ciceronem Minerva omnes artes edocuit. 2. Gravitas modestiæ

mista maxime admirábilis est. 3. Tot, tantisque negotiis distentus is, Complere (and other compounds of the obsolete plere), sum, ut mihi non liceat libère respirare. 4. Nescisne quot labores,

quot pericula, quot miserias milites in itinere sustinuěrint? 5. Si V. Aboleo (from the obsolete oleo, I grow), to abolish, forms per legatos cuncta doctus, prætoribus imperavit, ut in ponte Allobroges

virtus te a malis cupiditatibus arcúerit, vita tua beāta erit. 6. Cicero in the sapine abolitum. This verb does not occur until after the deprehenderent. 7. Ne ani mi se admisceant hominum vitiis. 8. Bonis

vi. Cieo, ciere, civi, ožtum, to arouse, slightly differs from the implicaverint hominum vitiis atque erroribus, eo facilior illis ascensus

ii. Flere, to weep.
iïi
. Nere, to spin.

to fill.

Augustan age.

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in cælum erit. 10. Simplex animi natura est, nec habet in se quicquam

Mus et Milvius, admixtum. 11. Vescimur uvis sole tostis. 12. Horno multas uvas torruimus. 13. Cato Carthaginem delendam esse censuit. 14. Quinto Milvius laqueis irretitus musculum exoravit, ut ipsum, corrosis quoque anno tota Sicilis, censa est. 15. Duæ urbes potentissimæ, Carthago et Numantia, a Scipione sunt deletæ. 16. Græcorum Ro plagis, liberaret. Quo facto, milvius liberatus murem arripuit et manorumque gloriam nulla unquam oblivio delēvit, nec unquam delőbit. devoravit. Hæc fabula ostendit, quam gratiam mali pro beneficiis 17. Deus bonis omnibus mundum implevit, mali nihil admiscuit. EXERCISE 134.-ENGLISH-LATIN.

reddere soleant. 1. Cicero was instructed in all arts by Minerva. 2. The citizens This is another of Esop's fables, which will afford you some have vowed six temples (to be built) at the public expense. 3. They practice in translating Latin into English as well as in parsing. have consecrated a temple to Venus. 4. The mother cherishes her infant. 5. The mother always will cherish her children. 6. The wives cherished their husbands. 7. The slaughter of the troops raised great

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN LATIN.-XXXV. weeping in the city. 8. I know not what labours thou hast sustained.

EXERCISE 129.-LATIN-ENGLISH, 9. You know not what labours I have sustained. 10. Thy father has 1. Who comes? 2. The door creaked. 3. The leader violently kept thee away from vice. 11. Give thanks to thy father because he abused the soldiers. 4. The whole city resounded with the voices of kept thee away from evil. 12. Let not your mind mix itself with (dat.) citizens exulting on account of the victory gained over the enemies, the cares of this life. 13, I have cherished great love in thy breast. 5. Come, let us go to lie down. 6. The Romans by their arms com14. Great love towards thee has been cherished in my breast. 15. Who pletely subdued many tribes and nations, 7. We are taught by the moved (caused) this war? 16. The generals of the enemy moved this authority and command of the laws to possess regulated desires, and war. 17. Thy excited mind will never be stilled. 18. Blot out those to restrain all passions. 8. Great springs of water gushed forth from words. 19. He has blotted out tha history of his reign. 20. Evil the fountain. 9. The wise men of the Indians devote themselves to deeds are not easily blotted out. 21. Thy father gave it as his opinion the flames. 10. The wise men of the Indians are burnt without a that wickedness should be blotted out.

groan. 11. The wise men of the Indians, when they have devoted CONSTRUCTION OF “DOCEO," I teach.

themselves to the flames, are burned without a groan. 12. Cicero ap

plied himself to (studied under) Molon the philosopher. 13. The wise Doceo has in the active voice two accusatives, or a double man endeavours to unfold the involved idea of his mind. 14. When object, one of the person, the other of the thing. In the passive you have laid open the history of the times, you will find many examvoice the latter may be retained, and thus we have the anomaly ples both of virtues and vices. 15. When the city was taken, every of an object in the passive voice. In English, to teach may have place on all sides sounded with the lamentations of women and children. the same construction, as

16. We are frightened when it has thundered in calm weather, 17. Active : I teach the young Latin.

We strive after what is forbidden. 18. Augustus forbad the poems of Passive : The young are taught Latin by me.

Virgil to be burned. 19. Augustus forbad the poems of Virgil to be

burned in opposition to the modesty of his (Virgil's) will. Examples in Latin.

EXERCISE 130.-ENGLISH-LATIN. “Pejor magister te ista docuit, non ego." -- Plautus.

1. Forium cardines crepuerunt. 2. Mater filium innocentem in. Lit. Trans.:-- Worse master thee those things taught, not I.

crepuit. 3. Milites per totam noctem excubuēre. 4. Nautæ hostium Id. Trans.:-"A worse master taught thee those things, not I." classem domabunt. 5. Ad Ciceronem me applicabo. 6. Veto te ad “Is reliqua frustra docetur."-Quintilian.

Aristotelem te applicare. 7. Nitēmur in vetytum. 8. Tota domus Lit. Trans. :-"He the rest in vain is taught."

hominum gemitibus ægrorum sonuit. 9. Urbs armis sonat. 10. Jupiter Id. Trans:-"He is taught (attempted to be taught) the rest in vain." nutu cæteros Deos domat. 11. Passim gemitus ploratusquo sonant. Docere may have an ablative with de; for example,

12. Leonem perdomui. “Præmittit ne Boios, qui de suo adventu doceant."--Cæsar,

EXERCISE 131.-LATIN-ENGLISH. Lit. Trans. :-" He sends before him to the Boii, who of his coming 1. I fear that I have revived your regret and grief by my letter. 2. should teach."

You are about to revive the past misfortunes of the republic by Four Id. Trans. :-"He sends before him to the Boii persons to inform wicked deeds. 3. There is no doubt that you will revive the past mis. them of his approach.".

fortunes of the republic by your wicked deeds. 4. Tantalas, touching The instrument or object on which a person receives instruc- the top of the water, is represented by the poets as tortured by thirst. tion is put in the ablative case.

5. Do you not know how much that talkative man has tortured me be

chattering? 6. Caius Marius, when he was flogged, at the first forbad VOCABULARY.

that he should be bound, and no one before Marius is said to have been Causa, -æ, f., a cause. Grammatica, -æ., f., Latīna lingua, -2, the flogged unbound. 7. Husbandmen carry the corn, when cut down, Græca lingua, -e, f., grammar.

Latin.

into barns. 8. Unless you have restrained your desires, in rain will the Groek language. Judex, -icis, a judge. Musica, e, f., music. you endeavour to live happily. 9. Who knows not how much Cicero EXERCISE 135.-LATIN-ENGLISH.

aided his country? 10. Not only fortune but your industry also has 1. Doce me quo modo ea effugere possim. 2. Non literas accepi assisted you in your undertaking. 11. If fortune lends our soldiers que me docerent quid ageres. 3. Fratris causam te docui. 4. Causam any aid, we do not doubt that we shall gain a splendid victory over the rei docendus est judex. 5. De injuriis Augusti docet judices pater aded citizens. 13. Do not sup before you have washed your hands.

enemies. 12. The army advanced by long marches to assist the block. ejus. 6. Docebit avunculus de itinere tuo. docere est æquum et jucundum. 8. Invideo magistro tuo qui te tanta 14. As you are about to wash your body, fetch pure water from the mercede nihil sapere docuit. 9. Multos discipulos linguam Latinam

running stream. doceo. 10. Græce loqui docendus sum. 11. Filiam meam docuit fidi

EXERCISE 132.--ENGLISH-LATIN. bus. 12. Doceant eum equo, armisque. 13. Mene docebis Græcam

1. Pueri, expergiscimini, lavate, et quum lavissetis ad negotium so linguam ? 14. Musicam doce hos meos filios.

15. Literas te libens applicate. 2. He mulieres me garriendo enecuerunt. 3. Non dubito docebo. EXERCISE 136.-ENGLISH-LATIN.

quin hæ mulieres te garriendo enecuerint. 4. He puellæ garrulæ me

garrulitate enecabunt. 5. Vetabo filium garrire. 6. Lavistine manus? 1. Teach me how I may do you good. 2. They will teach thy 7. Age! bene manus prius lava quam accumbes. 8. Nolunt pedes daughter grammar. 3. I have taught my wife to speak Latin, 4. They lavare. 9. Patris verbum filium adjuvat. 10. Naves veniunt urbem teach me (to play) on the lyre. 5. He has been taught Latin. 6. Teach obsidione cinctam ndjūtum. 11. Non est dubiuin quin ducis exercitus them to speak Greek. 7. I have been taught many things by my nostri brevi urbem adjuvaturus sit. 12. Secuistine pollicem ? 1% father. 8. They are taught music by my sister. 9. I know not what Crus secui. 14. Dolorem meum refricuisti. 15. Nolens refricui doloI shall teach you concerning the event of the war. 10. The boys must rem tuum. 16. Fortuna fortem juvat. 17.

Servus alligatur. 18. Pater be taught Latin. 11. I have been taught to speak Greek (Græce loqui). vetat filium alligari. 12. Many pupils have been taught Latin by me. VOCABULARY.

READINGS IN FRENCH.—XIII. Arripio (ad and rapio), gives the force of minutive of mus, 3, I seize. success). muris, m., a mouse.

JACOPO. Corrosus, pass. part. Irretätus, -a, -um,caught Plaga, -- in the plural,

SECTION V. from corrodo (cum (pass. part. from Ir the meshes of a net.

and rodo), 3, I gnaro, retio, 4, I catch in a Quo facto, which being Av plus fort de la mêlée un Russe parvient(a) à quelques Devoro (de and voro), net; root, rete, a not). done (instance of the pas de Napoléon ;' il l'ajuste, le coup part(b); mais un soldat 1, I dovour, Laquens, -i, m., a snare, ablative absolute).

s'est précipité devant l'Empereur. Il tombe frappé de la Exoro (ex and oro), 1. trap.

Soleo, 2, I am accus. balles qui devait atteindre le grand capitaine. Napoléon a I entreat carnestly (er | Dusculus, -1, m., di.! tomed.

tout vu(c) , il donne l'ordre d'enlever le soldatet de le porter

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