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creatures have very elaborate organs for seizing and holding powers of perception and locomotion, is the development of a prey, they are so minute as to require high powers of the large concentrated brain, enclosed in some cases in a cartimicroscope to detect them at all. The organs of sense are but laginous box, from which prolongations are extended to shield ill-developed. Thus, though they certainly occupy a position and support the sense-capsules (ears and eyes), and also to supbetween the Gasteropoda and Cephalopoda, they seem in some port the organs of motion. This cartilage seems to be the true respects inferior to both. The mass of internal organs of the representative or homologue of the internal skeleton of the veranimal occupies a much smaller space than the interior of the tebrates, and in this class it becomes developed from the merest shell. They are carnivorous, feeding on small animals. The rudiment until it entirely supplants the shell, which we find, not mouth leads, in hyalea, into a narrow throat, and this into a only in this class, but in the other chasses of the Mollusca, playround stomach. The short intestine opens into the cavity ing the part, not merely of a protection, but also a fulcrum, or between the mantle walls. They are opistho branchiate—that fixed hard part, from which muscles could move the soft parts is, their gills are situated behind the heart. The heart is, as in of the body. However much we might wish it otherwise, we all molluscs, systemic, and receives blood from the gills, and must, therefore, consider ourselves more nearly allied to the gross, propels it to the body. The liver is large, and there is below it dull, and sluggish Mollusca, than to the active and graceful an organ supposed to perform the functions of a kidney. articulates ; but though the gap in the series which cuts off the
The nervous system consists of a central mass, composed of vertebrates from the invertebrates is doubtless the most decided two ganglia, united by a band which passes under the throat, and and definite which is found in the whole animal kingdom, yet this sends off nerves to the wings and mantle. In Clio Borealis the cephalopods furnish a link which connects us with the there are four large ganglia and two small ones in the same Mollusca, while there is no such link between the articulates and position. This creature has a bi-lobed hood, which can cover all the branch to which we belong. the head, while the tentacles run through it, and so warn the The Cephalopoda are so called because the integument of the animal, by the sense of touch, of any external object; and then, body is drawn out round the mouth into long, tapering, flexible if this object be prey of any kind, it throws back its hood and thongs, which are the instruments which have to serve, not only exposes six organs, placed three on each side of the mouth, as feelers and arms, but also as legs. In this latter capacity which are studded over with an immense number of tubes, each they are used when the animal makes its way over solid ground, of which can protrude from its end twenty organs which can act and, from their position, the animal must of course walk upon its as suckers, and so their minute victims are secured and passed to head, and hence the name head-footed, or head walkers. This the triangular mouth, which is furnished with small, singularly. mode of progression is, however, seldom resorted to, as the shaped jaws. In Clio Borealis there are two round dark spots at creatures are oceanic rather than terrestrial, and made for the back of the hood to which nerves run, and these were once swimming rather than walking. They only approach the supposed to be eyes; but as little stones have been found in shore to lay their eggs, but swim the sea in order to procure these organs, they are now supposed to be ears. The sexes are prey. Not unfrequently, however, they have a retreat in the united in each individual.
dark cranny of some submarine rock, in the neighbourhood of
which the refuse of their prey is seen to accumulate. CEPHALOPODA.
The cephalopods are divided into two great divisions, called, This last and highest class of the Mollusca differs from the according to the number of their gills, Tetrabranchiata and rest in containing animals with far higher powers of locomotion Dibranchiata ; or, according to the number of their arms, and perception than any of the others. The different species Tentaculifera and Acetabulifera. To the former belongs the are, it is true, often very uncouth and grotesque in appearance, pearly nautilus, whose shells are so commonly seen in naturalists' but probably the grotesqueness is due to the fact that they shops, but which belong to at most only two species of animals. seldom come under our notice. Every creature which we have all the rest of this once numerously represented sub-class are never observed before, and which differs in external form from fossil. The ammonites of the secondary period all give indieathose with which we have been previously acquainted, always tions that they belong to this division, and their variety of form creates the impression of outlandishness, however well it may be and number—the number of individuals which lived during that adapted to its own conditions of life. If we were to account period is truly amazing. It is curious that, while all the amstrange and grotesque those forms which differ most from the monites have died out, the nautilus, which still exists, represents type upon which most creatures are formed, both man and the a genus which lived in the primary ages, long before the former horse would be thought very strange creatures. When, however, came into existence. It is probable that no other genus, and we find organs whose uses we know well, and with whose out- certainly none so high in the animal scale, has had so prolonged ward form the eye is familiarised, blended with other organs an existence on our planet. Since the Nautilus pompilius and which have never before come under our notice, no doubt the the Nautilus umbilicatus are the only two existing species, we are impression of uncouthness is strongest. Thus, the fact that a compelled to interpret the structure of all the soft organs cuttle-fish has large eyes on each side of its head very much like possessed by this class by an examination of these species only, our own, and also a beak like that of a parrot, united with a and even this examination is difficult to accomplish; for thongh body like a leathern bag, from the mouth of which stretch long the shells of these creatures are comparatively numerons, and arms studded with sucking cups, makes this creature not only are found washed up at the sea margin, the animals are oceanic appear singular, but even disgusting to some.
and very wary, so that they can only be captured on rare In the higher examples of Articulata we find that as they occasions. In fact, we are dependent upon the investigations of become more organised and complicated in structure, and better two anatomists only, Mr. Owen and M. Valenciennes, for a suited to the accomplishment of the noble vital functions, so description of the nautilus. do they tend to differ from all other creatures in the other The pearly nautilus has a shell rolled up in a spire, whose branches of the animal kingdom. We may, perhaps, assume whorls are all in one plane—that is, the outer circles are wound that the branch Vertebrata contains the highest of all animals; evenly round the inner ones, as a piece of flat tape is wound but in proportion as insects become perfected, so far do they upon itself. This method of rendering the shell compact is very differ from vertebrates. Though the functions be the same, the general throughout the class (though not absolutely universal), methods by which they are performed differ utterly. The and serves to distinguish the shells of Cephalopoda from those of faculties of perception and locomotion are some of the highest the Gasteropoda, which are never wonnd evenly round the central animal powers, and these are possessed in quite as large measure portion, but always to one side of the plane, in which the preby the dragon-fly as by man or the dog; but the instruments by ceeding whorls lie just in the same manner as the string of which the former moves and sees are not only quite different a peg-top is wound around it. This shell is divided into a from those employed by the latter, but they are the more number of chambers, all of which communicate with each other different, as manifested throughout the class Insecta, as they by a little tubular opening, situated in the centre of each parbecome more perfect. On the other hand, as the Mollusca tition. Though these chambers and the communicating tubes become more highly organised they become more like the are lined with live membrane proceeding from the animal, all Vertebrata, and most of all like them in those organs which the essential parts of that animal are contained in its bag-like, minister to the higher functions, for which the sub-kingdom is short, cylindrical body, which is lodged in the last large chamber not noted. Thus, not only does the eye of the cuttle-fish much of the shell, whose orifice is wide. As the nautilus grows it resemble that of a vertebrate, but, associated with the greater secretos more shell from its mantle, thus extending the mouth
of the last chamber, and then periodically builds up a wall from which the water flows, after being received through some behind it by the secretion from the hind part of the body. In slits in the sides, into the chamber in which the gills are lodged, the nautilus the edges of the partition between the two chambers is split down its whole length. This funnel is situated on the are plain, but in the ammonites these edges are so folded as to opposite side of the head to the hood, so as to occupy the outer present very complicated and beautiful patterns when viewed side of the shell mouth. The mouth has two jaws, which are of
16 PTEROPODA :-I., I. SHELLS OF HYALEA. II. ANIMAL IN ITS SHELL (DIACRIA). III. HYALEA COMPLANATA, DRAWN AS THOUGH IT WERE
TRANSPARENT, TO SHOW THE VISCERA, ETC. CEPHALOPODA :-IV. LOLIGO, A DECAPOD ACETABULIFEROUS GENUS. V. OCTOPUS VULGARIS, THE POULPE OPENED TO SHOW THE ARRANGEMENT OF THE ORGANS. VI. SUCKER FROM THE ARM OF A SEPIA. VI'. THE SAME IN SECTION, TO SHOW THE PISTON AND THE MUSCLES WHICH RETRACT IT. VII. SIDE VIEW OF THE GANGLIONIC RING ON CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM OF SEPIA. VIII. SIDE VIEW OF AN IMPERFECT AMMONITE, SHOWING THE NOTCHED SUTURE. IX. SIDE VIEW OF SAME. X. RESTORED
BELEMNITE AND ITS SHELL. Refs, to Nos, in Figs.—III. 1, 1, fins or wings ; 2, 2, mantle which lines and also overlaps the shell; 3, mouth; 4, stomach ; 5, intestine ;
6, liver ; 7, ventricle of heart; 8, auricle of ditto ; 9, ascending vessel which gives branches to the fins ; 10, gills; 11, ganglion, giving nerves to fins and mantle. V. 1,1,1,1, roots of the arms, which are cut short; 2, 2, mantle thrown back ; 3, funnel, or locomotive pipe; 4, buccal mass; 5, crop ; 6, stomach ; 7, blind sack opening into the stomach ; 8, intestine ; 9, arms; 10, 10', auricles; 11, ventricle ; 12, gill heart (there are two of these, but the left is concealed); 13, 13, venæ cave-veins leading direct to the branchial hearts ; 14, spongy masses round venæ cavæ, supposed to be kidneys ; 15, ovary ; 16, 16', oviduct; 17, ascending aorta, or main trunk. VII. 1, supra-csophageal ganglion ; 2, sub-cesophageal ganglion (anterior); 3, ditto (posterior); 4, 5, upper and under mouth ganglia ; 6, nerves in arms ; 7, ditto to mantle ; & ditto to eye ; 9, buccal mass ; 10, throat.
from the outside. The head of the nautilus is but little distinct a shelly structure, and this is surrounded by a multitude of from the body, and from its upper side the mantle is developed feelers, all of which can be retracted into sheaths. These into two folds. One of these adheres to the shell, and the other animals have four gills
instead of two, and they have no inkis puokered into a kind of hood, which falls as a kind of door to bag; otherwise, their internal structure is not unlike the other close the opening of the shell when the animal retires within it.class. This thickened part is also used to crawl upon. The funnel, The Dibranchiate cephalopods are of higher organism th
the nautilus. They have been called Acetabulifera, because of is a peculiar organ situated in the recesses of the body, the duct certain curious appendages to their arms. Their arms are not from which is conveyed up and opens behind the funnel. The short, numerous, and retractile within sheaths, as those of the secretion is under the control of the animal, and when formed it nautilus are, but of definite number (eight or ten), long, and on thicken's and obscures the water by a copious discharge. It is their inner sides-that is, towards the mouth-they are studded said that the Chinese made ink from this secretion, and it is with a single or double row of acetabule. The word acetabulum still used as a pigment. is the ancient name given to . vinegar-cruet, and was first The whole of the Cephalopoda, both recent and extinct, may applied anatomically to the hollow in the pelvis into which the be classified thus :head of the thigh-bone of man is received. Since then it has TETRABRANCHIATA.—Eyes stalked, jaws shelly, and body always been applied to any cup-like organ which has a deeper attached to the shell by a muscle; gills, four. depression in the centre of the cup. These cups are sometimes Family 1.-- Ammonitido: Shell of many chambers; that con. stalked, and sometimes set directly to the arms. The cup is of taining the body elongated, the aperture guarded by processes, a cartilaginous consistence, while in the pit there is a leathery and closed by an operculum ; sutures angulated, and siphuncle piston, which can be retracted by proper muscles after the external (or dorsal). round edge of the cup has been applied to any objeot. When Family 2.--Orthoceratida: Shell with a small narrow the piston is retracted it of course creates a vacuum in tho cup, aperture; siphuncle complicated. and as there are many hundreds of these caps on the arms Family 3.–Nautilidæ : Sutures simple; siphuncle contral. of the animal, it can lay a very firm hold on its prey, and drag DIBEANCHIATA.-Eyes sessile; jaws horny; two gills; an it with great force towards its beak-like mouth. Besides tho ink-bag. cap-like discs, or suckers, the arms of some of the cephalopods Tribe 1.-OCTOPODA: Eight arms; eyes fixed. are furnished with horny hooks, which assist in retaining the Family 1.--Argonautidæ : Dorsal arms webbed; female prey. Unlike the nautilus, the jaws of the atopus are horny with a shell. and sharp, like the bill of a parrot, only the lower jaw protrudes Family 2.-Octopodidæ : Arms webbed between the roots. beyond the upper one.
Tribe II.--DECAPODA: Eyes movable ; body finned. The shell of these creatures is far less developed than in the Family 3.-—Teuthido : Fins nearly at the end of body. other division of this class. For the most part, it is not apparent Family 4.-Belemnitidæ : Shell représented by a pen, at all on the outside, but lies loose in the muscular skin of the terminating in a chambered cono; siphuncle on the ventral back, which it supports, and thus provides that the animal can side. be thrust along by the working of the siphon or by the fins. In Family 5.-Sepiadæ : Calcareous gladius ; elongated tenthe paper nautilus, however (Argonauta argo), there is a beautiful tacles. external shell, which is not divided into chambers. This shell, Family 6.-Spirulidæ : Discordal, pearly, many-chambered though it lodges tho bag-like body, has no sort of likeness in shell, with ventral siphuncle. form to the shape of the body. Thus, when it was naturally supposed that the shell was secreted, as in the case of the other Mollusca, by the mantle, or investment of the body, LESSONS IN CHEMISTRY.-XXVI. naturalists could not imagine how so beautiful a structure was
GOLD-PLATINUM. moulded on so uncouth a form. It has since been ascertained that the shell is formed by two of the arms, which have a large membranous expansion fitted to secrete such a shell. Before
STYBOL, Au-COMBINING WEIGHT, 196-5--SPECIFIO GRAVITY, 19-3. the office of these arms was known, they gave rise in their turn This, the most valued of the metals, is always found in a native to false conjectures, for it was then thought that this creature state, frequently alloyed with small quantities of silver, copper, sat in its shell as in a boat, and, lifting the webbed arms above and some of the rarer metals. Generally its matrix is quartz the surface of the ocean, was driven along as a ship by its sails. rock, but by aqueous action this rock becomes degraded into In the other octopods there is no representative of a shell, either sand, and the gold is carried down to the river bed. From this external or internal. In some of the decapods it is horny, and source it was chiefly obtained before the discovery of the in the shape of a pen. In others it is calcareous and thick, but Californian and Australian gold-fields. It is separated from the nevertheless it is very light, being quite porous, and made up of sand by "washing”-that is, the sand, largely mixed with very thin plates supported by little pillars. This is the case in water, is allowed to run from one "cradle" to another, the light the pounce-bone of the sepia. In others, again, as in spirula, sand being thus washed away, and the heavy particles of gold the shell, though internal, is chambered, and is supposed, as in remaining. In California and Australia the metal is found in the case of the chambered shell of the nautilus, to contain air, lumps-"nuggets ” —which have every appearance of having which lightens the body and can be compressed when the animal been fused; or it is extricated from the quartz. The rock is wishes to sink. A number of curious fossils, called belemnites, crushed, and the gold separated by " washing." The process of on account of their resemblance to the head of a dart, have been amalgamation has also been resorted to. The crushed quartz is identified as the prolongations of these internal chambered mixed with mercury, which takes up the gold. The metals are shells, and as these have been sometimes found associated with afterwards separated by distilling off the mercury. the hooks and ink-bag found in the cuttle-fish, there can be little Gold is one of the heaviest of the metals, being only inferior doubt about the identification being genuine. The relation of to iridium and platinum. It is very malleable, being capable of the shell to the extinct animal is shown in the engraving. The being beaten out so thin as to allow green light to pass funnel or siphon of the Dibranchiata is entire, and not split through it. along its under side. It leads into a gill-chamber, into which It is very soft. Bracelets of pure gold can be twisted round also the ova and fæces are discharged. The buccal mass is the arm. It melts at 1100* Cent. globular and large. The tongue bears teeth directed backward, No simple acid, except selenic, will dissolve it; but it is acted but is in part naked, and seems like an organ of taste. The on by any mixture which liberates chlorine. Such a mixture narrow throat leads into a globular stomach or crop. Into the is "aqua regia,” which is composed of 1 of nitric and 4 of stomach a large blind sack enters, and the intestine is short, as hydrochloric acid. The result of this action is auric tri-chloride is usually the case with carnivorous animals, as these are. The (AuCl2). circulatory system is peculiar in being almost a closed circuit, From this salt pure gold may be obtained by precipitating and in having, not only a heart distributing the blood to the the metal from its solution by ferrous sulphate, according to system, after being aërated at the gills, but also in having two this equation:distinct hearts driving the blood to the gills. The blood is con.
3FeSO, + AuCl, = FeCls + Fe,350, + Au. veyed to these branchial hearts through two large venous canals, The gold falls as a brown powder, which is purple to trans. whose walls have a spongy texture. These large veins are sup- mitted light. Oxalic acid and the chloride of antimony have a posed to excrete from the blood, by means of the spongy walls, like effect to ferrous sulphate. the ammoniacal liquid equivalent to the urine, and since the Gilding is effected by causing gold-leaf to adhere to the survessels lie in the water introduced through the funnel and gillchambers, of course this could become a means of getting rid of matters no longer useful from the nutritive stream. The ink-bag shell.
By siphuncle is meant the tube connesting the chambers of the
face of the article by means of an adhesive varnish ; but in the pores of the platinum, being then in a more active condition, case of metallic articles the gold is precipitated by various means combines with the hydrogen, and the heat developed is sufficient on their surfaces.
to ignite the gas. This property is advantageously used in the The method introduced by Mr. Elkington is simple. Dissolve Davy lamp. Above the wick is a coil of fine platinum wire, and 1 part of auric tri-chloride, the common “chloride of gold," in a when by any accident the flame is extinguished, the vapours of little water. Add to it 20 parts of the bicarbonate of potash | the hydro-carbons rising from the wick combine with the very gradually. An equal portion of the bicarbonate is dissolved oxygen on the surface of the platinum, and thus the wire is in 150 parts of water. The two solutions are mixed together rendered red-hot, and the lamp re-lighted. and boiled for two hours. The articles to be gilded are dipped Platinum combines readily with other metals, and phosphorus for an instant in a mixture of equal parts of sulphuric and nitric at high temperatures. acids, to free their surfaces from any trace of oxide. They are When fused with potash or soda, in contact with air, it will removed rapidly into water and washed, and then immersed oxidise. There aro two oxides, platinous oxide (PtO) and platinic in the hot gilding solution. If the gold is required to appear oxide (PtO2). They are procured by the precipitation of corredead, a little salt is added to the acids which remove the oxide. sponding salts by a regulated quantity of alkali. Both oxides Articles of silver or German silver may be gilded in this bath by are soluble in an excess of the alkali. joining them to a zinc or copper wire and immersing both. There are sulphides of a like composition to the oxides.
This process has its defect in the fact that as soon as the The chlorides are the most important salts. surface is coated with gold, which is very thin, the deposition is When the metal is dissolved in aqua regia a red solution is arrested. Hence electro-gilding has superseded it.
obtained, which consists of a tetrachloride (PtCl.), platinic In order to render gold sufficiently hard to withstand the wear chloride. When evaporated to dryness a salt is procured, which and tear of use, it is always alloyed. The standard gold is has two molecules of hydrochloric acid in it (PtCl,H,) at 230°C. composed of 1 part of copper to 11 of gold.
This acid is given off, and also two atoms of chlorine, leaving The oxides of gold are the sub-oxide (Au,0) and auric oxide platinous chloride (PtCl.). At a still higher heat the metal is (An, 0g), sometimes called auric acid. The former is precipitated reduced. as a green powder when a dilute solution of potash is added to Platinic chloride is of great service in analysis in determining a solution of the chloride of gold. The latter falls as a brown the quantity of potash or ammonia present in a solution. powder when magnesia is added to a solution of the terchloride It forms with both these, sparingly, soluble salts. of gold. Sunlight will decompose this oxide into oxygen and In the case of potash, when the salt is submitted to a red gold. When treated with ammonia, fulminating gold is formed. heat, metallic platinum and potassium chloride are left; but
The chlorides of gold correspond with the oxides, being auric with the ammonia salt nothing but the metal remains. The chloride (AuCl) and terchloride (Auc1,).
action of ammonia on platinous chloride is remarkable. Many The chloride is got by exposing the terchloride to a tempera- salts are formed by an atom of platinum replacing some of the ture equal to the fusing point of tin. Two atoms of chlorine hydrogen of the ammonia ; but these salts are of more interest are thus liberated, and the terchloride is reduced to a mono- in a theoretical than a practical light. chloride. The preparation of the terchloride has been indicated. With platinic chloride any of the potassium salts give a yellow It is a deer .coloured, yellow crystalline powder. It is the most precipitate; but with sodium salts a brown hydrated oxide falls. important if the auric salts, and is used in photography to im. With ammonia salts the yellow precipitate above alluded part to photographic prints their purple tone.
to appears, which on heating may be distinguished from the
potassium precipitate. By this means these three alkalies may PLATINUM.
be recognised. Platinum is not reduced from its solutions as STABOL, Pt-COMBINING WEIGHT, 197'4-SPECIFIC GRAVITY, 21.5. gold is by ferrous sulphate or oxalic acid.
Like gold, platinum is always found in a native state. It is The rarer metals associated with platinum do not require notice. frequently alloyed with gold and silver, and generally with the five rare metals-palladium, rhodium, osmium, ruthenium, and iridium. The mines of Mexico and Brazil produce the metal, but
READINGS IN LATIN.-I. it is chiefly obtained from the gravel deposits at the foot of the
SELECTIONS FROM CÆSAR. Ural Mountains.
THE student will now be anxious to read more lengthy extracts On account of its great infusibility it is difficult to procure. of the Latin authors, of which he has at present only come The chemical method devised by Wollaston consisted in dis- across separate sentences. The large number of these authors, solving the metal by means of aqua regia. The platinum, mixed and the great length of their writings, will prevent his gaining, with some little iridium, is precipitated from the clear liquid by except at the expenditure of a great deal of time and trouble, means of sal-ammoniac, when it falls as a yellow insoluble anything like a general acquaintance with their style and chapowder, whose composition is 2NH,CI,PtCl.. By heating this the racter; and, accordingly, it is with this object that we propose chlorine and ammonia are expelled, and the platinum left behind to give a series of extracts from those writers who are genein a porous mass, which is spongy platinum. To get the metal rally included in the course of study of this language. We shall in a solid form, this porous mass is reduced to powder and washed. take the different authors one by one, giving a slight sketch of The powder, which is of a dull grey colour, is now submitted in the subject of their writings, and their special peculiarities of a mould to hydraulic pressure, and it assumes the appearance of diction, and adding extracts from them for the student to transa metallic bar. This bar is heated in a wind furnace, and forged late. To each of the extracts will be appended short notes, by hammering it upon its ends. Platinum possesses the same explanatory of such difficulties as the student will not be likely property as iron; it can be welded ; that is, when hammered to be able to solve merely by the aid of his Latin Dictionary at a high temperature, the particles of the metal unite into a and the Latin Lessons; while in each case a translation of ono
at least of the passages selected will be given along with the Deville and Debray procured solid platinum by submitting the succeeding set of extracts, sometimes from original sources, grains of metal, previously purified by digesting in nitric acid, sometimes from published translations of acknowledged merit. to fusion in a lime crucible, in the flame of the oxy-hydrogen It is to be observed that these readings may be made useful in
more ways than one for acquiring a knowledge of Latin. They Properties. Its specific gravity is very high, being only inferior should be first translated literally, and then rendered into idioto that of iridium. It does not tarnish under any circumstances matic English ; and this second translation should be retranswhen exposed to the air, and cannot be attacked by any simple lated into Latin, and when
it is done, compared with
the original. acid. Hence it is much used in the laboratory for crucibles. Aqua We cannot impress too strongly upon the student the advan. regia, however, convertsitinto a chloride. Very large and expensive tages of this course of proceeding, he will find that his mind cracibles—some cost £2,000—are used to carry the condensation will gradually become stored with Latin phraseology, and his of sulphuric acid through its last stage. It possesses great own style of writing Latin composition will have the advan. ductility, and expands less by heat than any other metal. It tage of being formed upon the best models. We should ada has the peculiar power of condensing gases
on its surface, and that this system is most readily applicable to the prose exwhen a jet of hydrogen is directed upon a piece of spongy tracts, though it will be found of great service also in verseplatinum it is ignited; because the oxygen condensed in the making.
NOTES. Our first extracts are taken from the writings of Cæsar, an
1. Hibernorum (sc. castrorum), winter quarters ; here used of the author whose works, from the simplicity of their style, are time spent in them. usually put into the hands of beginners. The author was the 2. Eo, thither, to the hiberna castra. famous Roman general, Caius Julius Caesar, the founder of the 3. Exploratores, scouts. Roman Empire, though never actually emperor himself. His 4. Certior factus, he was informed; in the active, certiorem facio, I chief warlike exploits were his subjugation of Gaul (now France inform; lit., I make more sure. and Switzerland) and Britain, and his best-known work, “The
5. Sedunorum, Veragrorum, names of tribes who lived in the neighCommentaries on the Gallic War,” is a brief compilation of the bourhood of Geneva and the valley of the Rhone. notes which he kept during the course of his campaigns. It namely, the fact of the Gauls' sudden determination,
6. Id, it, refers to the next clause, ut subito Galli-caperent; it, has been observed of them that they are "a series of sketches 7. Plenissimam, and that not at its full strength. The reason for taken on the spot, having all the graphic power of a master- its weakness is explained by the two following ablatives absolute. mind, and the vigorous touches of a master-hand." The narra 8. Commeatus petendi. The participle in dus agreeing with the subtive is clear and simple, and scarcely any difficulty in the stantive is used by the Latin authors generally in preference to the language presents itself. The first extract is from an account of gerund governing a case. a battle with the Helvetii, who lived in the modern Switzerland
9. Iniquitatem (in-æquus), unevenness of the ground. and the south of France.
10. Suum, theirs ; namely, the Gauls'. The reciprocals sui and suus
always refer to the subject of the principal verb in the sentence. CÆSAR.—“DE BELLO GALLICO," Lib. I. cap. xxv.
Here the subject of the principal verb, existimabant, is Galli understood. Cæsar, primum suo, deinde omnium ex conspectu remotis 11. Accedebat. The nominative to this verb is the sentence quodequis, ut æquato omnium periculoa spem fugæ tolleret, cohortatus dolebant. There was this additional reason (lit., this was added)-supply suos, prælium commisit. Milites, e loco superiore piliss missis for their defection—that they grieved. facile hostium phalangem perfregerunt. El disjecta, gladiis
12. Possessionis, genitive after causâ. destrictis in eos impetum fecerunt. Gallis magno ad pugnam
13. Finitimæ, neighbouring; i.e., to the Roman territory. erat impedimento, quod, pluribus eorum scutis uno ictu pilorum The next extract describes Cæsar's landing in Britain, which transfixis et colligatis, quum ferrum se inflexisset, neque evellere was not achieved without some difficulty. The Britons were neque, sinistra impeditâ, satis commode pugnare poterant, multi drawn up on the shore to repel their attack, and prevent the ut, diu jactatol brachio, præoptarent" scutum manu emittere, possibility of their coming to land. The historian proceeds as et nudo corpore pugnare. Tandem vulneribus defessi, et pedem follows :referre, et quod mons suberat circiter mille passuum, 13 eo se CÆSAR.-" DE BELLO GALLICO," Lib. IV. cap. XIF. recipere cæperunt. Capto monte et succedentibus nostris, Boii
Quod ubi Cæsar animum advertit,' naves longas, quarum et et Tulingi, qui hominum millibus circiter xv agmen hostium species erat barbaris inusitatior, et motus ad usum expeditior, claudebant, et novissimis præsidio erant, ox itinere nostros paullum removeri ab onerariis navibus et remis incitari et ad latere aperto aggressi, circumvenere.
latus apertum hostium constitui, atque inde fundis, sagittis, NOTES.
tormentis,7 hostes propelli ac submoveri jussit : quæ res magno 1. Suo agrees with conspectu. First out of his own sight, then out of the usui nostris fuit. Nam et navium figura, et remorvm motu, et sight of all. The possessive adjectives, suus, meus, tuus, are used always inusitato genere tormentorum permoti barbari cons 'terunt, ac
2. Remotis equis, æqnato periculo, abl. absolute. There are other paullum modo pedem retulerunt. Atque nostris milit. bus cuncexamples in this extract.
tantibus, maxime propter altitudinem maris, qui decim 3. Suos, his mon: understand milites.
legionis aquilam" ferebat, contestatus deos, ut ea res legioni 4. Proelium committere, to join battle, to engage.
feliciter eveniret : Desilite, inquit," commilitones, nisi vultis 5. Pilis, long javelins.
aquilam hostibus prodere : ego certe meum reipublicæ atque im6. Phalangem, the thick array. The phalanx was an order of battle peratorila officium præstitero.13 Hoc quum magna voce dixisset
, array in use among the Greeks, in which the soldiers were massed ex navi se projecit atque in hostes aquilam ferre cæpit. Tum thick together; and thus it is applied by Cæsar to the thick mass in nostri, cohortati inter se, ne tantum dedecus admitteretur, which the Gauls fought.
universi ex navi desiluerunt: hos item alii ex proximis navibas 7. Disjectâ, cast different ways (dis jacio), dispersed. 8. Destrictis (from de stringo, to strip off, like leaves off a branch), quum conspexissent, subsecuti hostibus adpropinquarunt. with drawn swords. Another abl. abs.
NOTES 9. Gallis magno erat impedimento, it was a great hindrance to the 1. Animum advertit, used for the compound animadvertit, is to be Gauls. A double dative after erat.
looked upon for the purposes of construction as one word, turned his 10. Ut diu jactato, considering that their arms had long been tossed about. mind to, observed, and governs quod, which thing, viz., the advantage 11. Præoptarent, wished anxiously; præ, before anything else.
12. Pedem referre, to carry back the foot, to retreat. Compare pedem which the Britons possessed in being drawn up on the shore. inferre, to march upon.
2. Naves longæ, ships of war. So called from the shape in which
they were built.. 13. Mille passuum, a thousand paces, about our mile. The word mile
3. Expeditior, more handy, manageable. owes its derivation to this.
4. Onerariis, ships of burden (onus). 14. Millibus, ablative of the instrument by which a thing is achieved.
5. Apertum, exposed, open to attack. 15. Novissimis, the newest, so the last, the hindmost, Novissimis
6. Fundis, slings. præsidio, a double dative. Compare Gallis impedimento, above.
7. Tormentis, engines for hurling (torqueo) missiles. The following describes the commencement of a war with 8. Magno usui nostris, a great aid to our mon. Double dative after fait. some Alpine tribes :
9. Militibus cunctantibus, ablative absolute, when the soldiers were de CÆSAR.—“DE BELLO GALLICO," Lib. III. cap. ii.
laying. Quum dies hibernorum complures transissent frumentumque eagle was the standard of the Roman legions). This supplies the
10. Qui aquilam ferebat, he who bore the eagle, tho standard-bearer (the co2 comportari jussisset, subito per exploratores3 certior factus* nominative to inquit. est, ex ea parte vici, quam Gallis concesserat, omnes noctu 11. Inquit is only used when the exact words of the speaker are discessisse, montesque, qui impenderent, a maxima multitudine quoted, and never stands as the first word in a sentence. Aio, I affirm, Sedunorum et Veragrorum teneri. Id aliquot de causis follows much the same rules. acciderat, ut subito Galli belli renovandi legionisque opprimendæ 12. Imperatori, the general; originally applied, as here, to the general consilium caperent: primum, quod legionem, neque eam plenis- of an army, who was invested with supreme military command (imsimam, detractis cohortibus duabus, et compluribus singillatim, porium). Afterwards it was used to denote the absolute sovereigns of qui commeatus petendis causa missi erant, absentibus, propter
Rome, the Emperors. paucitatem despiciebant: tum etiam, quod propter iniquitatem præstare alicui, to do one's duty by any one.
13. Officium præstitero, I will be sure to do my duty by. Oficium
The future perfect, I loci, quum ipsi ex montibus in vallem decurrerent et tela shall have, is used to give additional force, I shall cortainly. conjicerent, ne primum quidem posse impetum suumlo sustineri 14. Aquilam ferre cæpit, went, standard in hand, against. existimabant. Accedebat, quod suos ab se liberos abstractos 15, Cohortati, etc., having admonished one another not to allow of such obsidum nomine dolebant : et Romanos non solum itinerum a disgrace. causa, sed etiam perpetuæ possessionis, culmina Alpium
PARSING EXERCISE. occupare conari et ea loca finitimæls provinciæ adjungere, sibi Parse jussit, constiterunt, retulerunt, vultis, desiluerunt, subpersuasum habebant.