« 前へ次へ »
face of the article by means of an adhesive varnish ; but in the pores of the platinum, being then in a more active condition, caso of metallic articles the gold is precipitated by various means combines with the hydrogen, and the heat developed is sufficient on their surfaces.
to ignite the gas. This property is advantageously used in the The method introduced by Mr. Elkington is simple. Dissolve Davy lamp. Above tho wick is a coil of fine platinum wiro, and 1 part of auric tri-chloride, the common “chloride of gold,” in a when by any accident the flame is extinguished, the vapours of little water. Add to it 20 parts of the bicarbonate of potash the hydro-carbons rising from the wick combine with the very gradually. An equal portion of the bicarbonate is dissolved oxygen on the surface of the platinum, and thus the wire is in 150 parts of water. The two solutions are mixed together rendered red-hot, and the lamp re-lighted. and boiled for two hours. The articles to be gilded are dipped Platinum combines readily with other metals, and phosphorus for an instant in a mixture of equal parts of sulphuric and nitric at high temperatures. acids, to free their surfaces from any trace of oxide. They are When fused with potash or soda, in contact with air, it will removed rapidly into water and washed, and then immersed oxidise. There aro two oxides, platinous oxide (PtO) and platinic in the hot gilding solution. If the gold is required to appear oxide (PtO2). They are procured by the precipitation of corredead, a little salt is added to the acids which remove the oxide. sponding salts by a regulated quantity of alkali. Both oxides Articles of silver or German silver may be gilded in this bath by are soluble in an excess of the alkali. joining them to a zinc or copper wire and immersing both.
There are sulphides of a like composition to the oxides. This process has its defect in the fact that as soon as the The chlorides are the most important salts. surface is coated with gold, which is very thin, the deposition is When the metal is dissolved in aqua regia a red solution is arrested. Hence electro-gilding has superseded it.
obtained, which consists of a tetrachloride (PtCl,), platinic In order to render gold sufficiently hard to withstand the wear chloride. When evaporated to dryness a salt is procured, which and tear of use, it is always alloyed. The standard gold is has two molecules of hydrochloric acid in it (PtCl,H,) at 230°C. composed of 1 part of copper to 11 of gold.
This acid is given off, and also two atoms of chlorine, leaving The oxides of gold are the sub-oxide (Au,0) and auric oxide platinous chloride (PtCl). At a still higher heat the motal is (A1,02), sometimes called auric acid. The former is precipitated reduced. a3 a green powder when a dilate solution of potash is added to Platinic chloride of great service in analysis in determining a solution of the chloride of gold. The latter falls as a brown the quantity of potash or ammonia present in a solution. powder when magnesia is added to a solution of the terchloride It forms with both these, sparingly, soluble salts. of gold. Sunlight will decompose this oxide into oxygen and In the case of potash, when the salt is submitted to a red gold. When treated with ammonia, fulminating gold is formed. heat, metallic platinum and potassium chloride are left; but
The chlorides of gold correspond with the oxides, being auric with the ammonia salt nothing but the metal remains. The chloride (AuCl) and terchloride (AuCl,).
action of ammonia on platinous chloride is remarkable. Many The chloride is got by exposing the terchloride to a tempera- salts are formed by an atom of platinum replacing some of the turo equal to the fusing point of tin. Two atoms of chlorine hydrogen of the ammonia ; but these salts are of more interest are thus liberated, and the terchloride is reduced to a mono- in a theoretical than a practical light. chloride. The preparation of the terchloride has been indicated. With platinic chloride any of the potassium salts give a yellow It is a deer .coloured, yellow crystalline powder. It is the most precipitate; but with sodium salts a brown hydrated oxide falls. important of the auric salts, and is used in photography to im. With ammonia salts the yellow precipitate above alluded part to photographic prints their purple tone.
to appears, which on heating may be distinguished from the potassium precipitate. By this means these three alkalies may
be recognised. Platinum is not reduced from its solutions as SIMBOL, Pt-COMBINING WEIGHT, 197-4-SPECIFIC GRAVITY, 21.5.
gold is by ferrous sulphato or oxalic acid. Like gold, platinum is always found in a native state. It is The rarer metals associated with platinum do not require notice. frequently alloyed with gold and silver, and generally with the five rare metals-palladium, rhodium, osmium, ruthenium, and iridium. The mines of Mexico and Brazil produce the metal, but
READINGS IN LATIN.-I. it is chiefly obtained from the gravel deposits at the foot of the
SELECTIONS FROM CÆSAR. Ural Mountains.
THE student will now be anxious to read moro lengthy extracts On account of its great infusibility it is difficult to procure. of the Latin authors, of which he has at present only como The chemical method devised by Wollaston consisted in dis. across separate sentences. The large number of these authors, solving the metal by means of aqua regia. Tho platinum, mixed and the great length of their writings, will prevent his gaining, with some little iridium, is precipitated from the clear liquid by except at the expenditure of a great deal of time and trouble, means of sal-ammoniac, when it falls as a yellow insoluble anything like a general acquaintance with their style and chapowder, whose composition is 2NH,CI,PtCl.. By heating this the racter; and, accordingly, it is with this object that we propose chlorine and ammonia are expelled, and the platinum left behind to give a series of extracts from those writers who are genein a porous mass, which is spongy platinum. To get the metal rally included in the course of study of this language. We shall in a solid form, this porous mass is reduced to powder and washed. take the different authors one by one, giving a slight sketch of The powder, which is of a dull grey colour, is now submitted in the subject of their writings, and their special peculiarities of a mould to hydranlic pressure, and it assumes the appearance of diction, and adding extracts from them for the student to transa metallic bar. This bar is heated in a wind furnace, and forged late. To each of the extracts will be appended short notes, by hammering it upon its ends. Platinum possesses the same explanatory of such difficulties as the student will not be likely property as iron; it can be welded; that is, when hammered to be able to solve merely by the aid of his Latin Dictionary at a high temperature, the particles of the metal unite into a and the Latin Lessons; while in each case a translation of one
at least of the passages selected will be given along with the Deville and Debray procured solid platinum by submitting the succeeding set of extracts, sometimes from original sources, grains of metal, previously purified by digesting in nitric acid, sometimes from published translations of acknowledged merit. to fusion in a lime crucible, in the flame of tho oxy-hydrogen It is to be observed that these readings may be made useful in
more ways than one for acquiring a knowledge of Latin. They Properties. --Its specific gravity is very high, being only inferior should be first translated literally, and then rendered into idioto that of iridium. It does not tarnish under any circumstances matic English ; and this second translation should be retranswhen exposed to the air, and cannot be attacked by any simple lated into Latin, and when it is done, compared with the original. acid. Hence it is much used in the laboratory for crucibles. Aqua We cannot impress too strongly upon the student the advanregia, however, convertsitinto a chloride. Very largo and expensive tages of this course of proceeding; he will find that his mind crucibles--some cost £2,000—are used to carry the condensation will gradually become stored with Latin phrascology, and his of sulphuric acid through its last stage. It possesses great own stylo of writing Latin composition will have the advanductility, and expands less by hest than any other metal. It tage of being formed upon the best models. We should add has the peculiar power of condensing gases on its surface, and that this system is most readily applicable to the prose ex. when a jet of hydrogen is directed upon a piece of spongy tracts, though it will be found of great service also in verseplatinum it is ignited; because the oxygen condensed in the making.
NOTES. Our first extracts are taken from the writings of Cæsar, an
1. Hibernorum (sc. castrorum), winter quarters ; here used of the author whose works, from the simplicity of their style, are time spent in them. usually put into the hands of beginners. The author was the 2. Eo, thither, to the hiberna castra. famous Roman general, Caius Julius Cæsar, the founder of the 3. Exploratores, scouts. Roman Empire, though never actually emperor himself. His 4. Certior factus, he was informed; in the active, certiorem facio, I chief warlike exploits were his subjugation of Gaul (now France inform; lit., I make more sure. and Switzerland) and Britain, and his best-known work, " The
5. Sedunorum, Veragrorum, names of tribes who lived in the neigh
bourhood of Geneva and the valley of the Rhone. Commentaries on the Gallic War," is a brief compilation of the
6. Id, it, refers to the next clause, ut subito Galli ---caperent; it, notes which he kept during the course of his campaigns. It namely, the fact of the Gauls' sudden determination. has been observed of them that they are a series of sketches
7. Plenissimam, and that not at its full strength. The reason for taken on the spot, having all the graphic power of a master its weakness is explained by the two following ablatives absolute. mind, and the vigorous touches of a master-hand." The narra- 8. Commeatus petendi. The participle in dus agreeing with the subtive is clear and simple, and scarcely any difficulty in the stantive is used by the Latin authors geuerally in preference to the language presents itself. The first extract is from an account of gerund governing a case. a battle with the Helvetii, who lived in the modern Switzerland
9. Iniquitatem (in-æquus), unevenness of the ground, and the south of France.
10. Suum, theirs ; namely, the Gauls'. The reciprocals sui and suus
always refer to the subject of the principal verb in the sentence. CÆSAR.—“DE BELLO GALLICO,” Lib. I. cap. xxv. Here the subject of the principal verb, cristimabant, is Galli understood. Caesar, primum suo, deinde omnium ex conspectu remotis 11. Accedebat. The nominative to this verb is the sentence quod-equis, ut æquato omnium periculoa spem fugæ tolleret, cohortatus dolebant. There was this additional reason (lit., this was added)-supply suos, prælium commisit.* Milites, e loco superiore pilis missis for their defection--that they grieved. facile hostium phalangem perfregerunt. Eå disjectå,gladiis
12. Possessionis, genitive after causâ. destrictis in eos impetum fecerunt. Gallis magno ad pugnam
13. Finitimæ, neighbouring; i.e., to the Roman territory. erat impedimento, quod, pluribus eorum scutis uno ictu pilorum
The next extract describes Cæsar's landing in Britain, which transfixis et colligatis, quum ferrum se inflexisset, neque evellere
was not achieved without some difficulty. The Britons were neque, sinistra impedità, satis commode pugnare poterant, multi drawn up on the shore to repel their attack, and prevent the ut, diu jactatoto brachio, præoptarent" scutum manu emittere, possibility of their coming to land. The historian proceeds as et nudo corpore pugnare. Tandem vulneribus defessi, et pedem
follows: referre, et quod mons suberat circiter mille passuum, 13 eo se CÆSAR.-"DE BELLO GALLICO,” Lib. IV. cap. XIV. recipere cæperunt. Capto monte et succedentibus nostris, Boii
Quod ubi Cæsar animum advertit,' naves longas,? quarum
et et Tulingi, qui hominum millibus's circiter xv agmen hostium species erat barbaris inusitatior, et motus ad usum expeditior, claudebant, et novissimis's præsidio erant, ex itinere nostros paullum removeri ab onerariis navibus et remis incitari et ad latere aperto aggressi, circumvenere.
latus apertum hostium constitui, atque inde fundis, sagittis, NOTES.
tormentis,” hostes propelli ac submoveri jussit : quæ res magno 1. Suo agrees with conspectu. First out of his own sight, then out of the usui nostris fuit. Nam et navium figura, et remorvm motu, et sight of all. The possessive adjectives, suus, meus, tuus, are used always inusitato genere tormentorum permoti barbari cons 'terunt, ac in preference to the genitives, sui, mei, tui, of the personal pronouns. 2. Remotis equis, æquato periculo, abl. absolute.
paullum modo pedem retulerunt. Atque nostris milit bus cunc
There are other examples in this extract.
tantibus, maxime propter altitudinem maris, qui decimæ 3. Suos, his men: understand milites.
legionis aquilamo ferebat, contestatus deos, ut ea res legioni 4. Prælium committere, to join battle, to engage.
feliciter eveniret: Desilite, inquit," commilitones, nisi vultis 5. Pilis, long javelins.
aquilam hostibus prodere : ego certe meum reipublicæ atque im6. Phalangem, the thick array. The phalanx was an order of battle peratorila officium præstitero.13 Hoc quum magna voce dixisset, array in use among the Greeks, in which the soldiers were massed ex navi se projecit atque in hostes aquilam ferre cæpit. Tum thick together; and thus it is applied by Cæsar to the thick mass in nostri
, cohortati inter se, ne tantum dedecus admitteretar," which the Gauls fought.
universi ex navi desiluerunt: hos item alii ex proximis navibus 7. Disjectâ, cast different ways (dis jacio), dispersed.
8. Destrictis (from de strin to strip off, liko leaves off a branch), quum conspexissent, subsecuti hostibus ad propinquarunt. with drawn sucords. Anather abl. abs.
NOTES. 9. Gallis magno erat impedimento, it was a great hindrance to the
1. Animum advertit, used for the compound animadvertit, is to be Gauls. A double dative after erat.
looked upon for the purposes of construction as one word, turned his 10. Ut diu jaetato, considering that their arms had long been tossed about.
mind to, observed, and governs quod, which thing, viz., the advantage 11. Præoptarent, wished anxiously; præ, before anything else. which the Britons possessed in being drawn up on the shore.
12. Pedem referre, to carry back the foot, to retreat. Compare pedem 2. Naves longæ, ships of war, So called from the shape in which inferre, to march upon.
they were built. 13. Mille passuum, a thousand paces, about our mile. The word mile
3. Expeditior, more handy, manageable. owes its derivation to this.
4. Onerariis, ships of burden (onus). 14. Millibus, ablative of the instrument by which a thing is achieved.
5. Apertum, exposed, open to attack. 15. Novissimis, the newest, so the last, tho hindmost, Novissimis
6. Fundis, slings. præsidio, a double dative. Compare Gallis impedimento, above.
7. Tormentis, engines for hurling (torqueo) missiles. The following describes the commencement of a war with 8. Magno usui nostris, a great aid to our men. Double dative after fuit. some Alpine tribes :
9. Militibus cunctantibus, ablative absolute, when the soldiers were des CÆSAR.--"DE BELLO GALLICO," Lib. III. cap. ii.
laying. Quum dies hibernorum complures transissent frumentumque eagle was the standard of the Roman legions).
10. Qui aquilam ferebat, he who bore the eagle, the standard-bearer the co? comportari jussisset, subito per exploratores3 certior factus nominative to inquit. est, ex ea parte vici, quam Gallis concesserat, omnes noctu 11. Inquit is only used when the exact words of the speaker are discessisse, montesque, qui impenderent, a maxima multitudine quoted, and never stands as the first word in a sentence. Aio, I ajira, Sedunorum et Veragrorum teneri. Id aliquot de causis follows much the same rules. acciderat, ut subito Galli belli renovandi legionisque opprimendæ 12. Imperatori, the general; originally applied, as here, to the general consilium caperent: primum, quod legionem, neque eam plenis- of an army, who was invested with supreme military command time simam,? detractis cohortibus duabus, et compluribus singillatim, perium). Afterwards it was used to denote the absolute sorereigns of
Rome, the Emperors. qui commeatus petendis causa missi erant, absentibus, propter paucitatem despiciebant: tum etiam, quod propter iniquitatem præstare alicui, to do one's duty by any one.
13. Officium præstitero, I will be sure to do my duty by. Oficium loci, quum ipsi ex montibus in vallem decurrerent et tela shall have, is used to give additional force, I shall certainly. conjicerent, ne primum quidem posse impetum suumo sustineri 14. Aquilam ferre cæpit, went, standard in hand, against. existimabant. Accedebat, quod suos ab se liberos abstractos 15. Cohortati, etc., having admonished one another not to allow of such obsidum nomine dolebant: et Romanos non solum itinerum a disgrace. causa, sed etiam perpetuæ possessionis, 12 culmina Alpium
PARSING EXERCISE. occuparo conari et ea loca finitimæls provinciæ adjungere, sibi Parse jussit, constiterunt, retulerunt, vultis
, desiluerunt, subpersuasum habebant.
This supplies the
The future perfect, I
CIVIL SERVICE PAPERS.—I.
The results we shall set forth at length under the different
The Commissioners having ascertained what was wanted, It is the intention, in the series of papers that will follow upon arranged examinations accordingly, and the practice is now, the subject of the Civil Service, to explain as fully as is neces- when nominations are given, to send with them notice to attend sary for all practical purposes, not only what the Civil Service before the Civil Service Commissioners, who arrange, as a matter is, but how to get into it. The various branches of the service of course, for the examination to take place. The offices of the will be pointed out, their relative importance will be explained, Commission were in Dean's Yard, Westminster; they are now and the most accurate information will be given as to the removed to Cannon Row. means of obtaining nominations, as to the examinations to be As to patronage, the principle of throwing the public service passed, as to the salaries given, and as to the nature of the open to general competition has not yet obtained. The patronduties which devolve upon successful candidates after admission age is in the hands of ministers, who bestow nominations where into the service. The aim and object of this series of papers they wish to oblige. Some ministers make a rule of disobliging is to enable those who have not other means of knowing, to their personal friends, lest they should be charged with nepotism; ascertain for themselves what the conditions of service are, and others will not give except to personal friends, lest they should to put them in the way of working up to the standard of edu- be charged with using their power for political purposes; some cational requirements, without being necessarily driven to employ are amenable to both theso influences; and a few lay down expensive assistance; and to place in the hands of the thousands for themselves a rule which it is impossible to carry out, a who draw the means of self-education from the POPULAR rule of selecting from the applicants only those who are best EDUCATOR, the further means of turning their education to qualified, irrespective of the interest recommending them. In account in an honourable and useful way.
seeking to obtain a Government appointment, the greatest disThe Civil Service is the office-staff of the country. Over crimination should be used, both as to the place asked for and every important department of State is placed a minister of the influence to be worked in order to get a nomination. It is the Crown responsible to Parliament, and changing with the vain for a candidate personally unsuitable for a particular office Gorernment; but, for the purposes of actual administration, to try to get into it: the minister will not nominate him. It is there are under each minister a number of sub-departments which equally futile to set in motion influence which might avail for are charged with the execution of details, with carrying out the department No. 6, if department No. 1 is the department aimed orders of the minister, and with the performance of all business at. Influence which would open the door of the Custom House naturally pertaining to his branch of government. Thus, the or Excise Offices, might knock in vain for admission at the War Office, with its sub-departments, is charged with the door of the Foreign or Home Offices; and interest that is an transaction of all business pertaining to the army, the Admiralty * Open Sesame at the Post Office might be powerless at the with all naval matters, the Treasury with all affairs relating to Admiralty or Treasury. As a rule, strong political interest is the public income and expenditure. These offices are manned the most efficacious of all, in every department; and applicaby persons on what is called the establishment, which includes tions by the servants of the State, whether civil, naval, or both the directors and the doers of departmental business, the military, are more likely to command attention than those of secretaries, heads of departments, and the clerks, assistants, persons having no connection with the public service. Any title and writers. The aggregate of these “establishments” is the on the score of past services should be put prominently forward, Civil Service.
and as for refusals in any case, it will not do to be discouraged How does one get into it ? Formerly, the process was per by the stereotyped answer: “Your claims will be considered fectly easy for those who possessed influence enough to get with those of others as opportunities occur.” It will not do to nominations, Nomination carried with it the appointment; be discouragod; it will not do to be put off the scent by it. the idea-if there was any definite idea on the subject-being Contra audentior ito must be the motto of those who would win that the minister would not nominate any one who was not in the race for appointments; they must not be abashed, nor competent for the post. As a matter of fact, however, ministers must they go away ashamed. Let them remember the importudid appoint persons who were often notoriously unfit; they nate widow. never appointed any one because of special fitness, but gave When the nomination has been received it will commonly be nominations to their friends and those for whom their friends found that it is conditional on the candidato succeeding in a asked, without inquiring into the qualifications of the candidates. competitive examination with several other candidates. In the Appointments in the Civil Service were looked upon as a means early days of examinations, and sometimes even now, it was of repaying political adherents for service done, and as a means only required of candidates that they should come up to a certain also of providing for the needy sons of “good families" on standard; but it is the general rule at present that no vacancy friendly relations with the minister, Whether the public service shall be filled but by the winner in a competition.
It is, was helped or not was a secondary consideration, and no steps therefore, manifestly advantageous to offer to be examined in as were taken to justify, by examination or otherwise, the nomination many extra subjects as possible ; for though it is absolutely of the minister. For some years before the Civil Service Com- necessary to come up to the standard, and no amount of excel. mission was instituted, there was a practice in some of the lence in extra subjects will make up for deficiencies in those preoffices by which nominees underwent a pro formd examination, scribed, yet marks in extra subjects tell considerably when once after admission, by the chief clerk of the department to which the standard has been attained. As a means of preparation for they were accredited. But this examination was of the very the examination, it is well, if the expense can be afforded, to em. alenderest kind, and consisted more in ascertaining by whose ploy "a coach," or a tutor whose special business it is to educate interest the candidate had come in, than in finding out what candidates up to the mark of proficiency. A “coach” knows ideas he had, or how much or how little his education had fitted the stock questions, and knows also the trick and style of each him for the service.
particular class of examination; and where cramming is necesIn the year 1855 the principle was recognised that, in the sary, it is almost indispensable to employ such help. But it interests of the public service, candidates for appointments is far from being essential. Any one who has thoroughly should be subjected to examination after receiving a nomination, mastered his subjects, whether by private study or tuition, has and not be appointed until the minister nominating should have no need to fear the most artfully-contrived questions; and to had a certificate from the examiners of the fitness of the can- such a candidate the pass certificate is personally ten times didates. As an expression of this principle, the Civil Service more valuable and satisfactory than to him who has succeeded Commission was issued to certain well-qualified persons, who only through a process of mental forcing. It is quite competent were empowered to ereot educational standards of efficiency, to a diligent private student, working with such material as the and to try all candidates by such standards. The principle of Popular EDUCATOR furnishes and points out to him, to qualify Domination was retained, but nominees were tested either with himself for an examination of one of the better sort of offices in reference to the standard only, or with reference to their relative the Civil Service. In addition to testing his power by such merits in a competitive examination. The Commissioners com- specimens of examination papers as we have been enabled to pro. municated with every branch of the public service, and ascer- vide (those that will be given are taken from the published reports tained from heads of offices the subjects in which candidates for of the Civil Service Commissioners themselves), let him get as the respective departments were required to be proficient. many of the papers as possible, and make a habit of going right
through them, getting some able friend to look over his answers
Extra Clerks. for him, and to set him right when in error. A little inquiry
1. Handwriting and orthography. among Civil Service men, perhaps an application for information
2. Arithmetic (including rule of three). at the offices of the Commission itself, will enable any one to
3. Grammatical construction of sentences of a simple character. form a very accurate notion of the extent and character of the Messengers and office-keepers, who must be between 20 and examination in each particular subject.
40 years of age, are examined in-1. Reading; 2. Writing from In dealing with the Government Offices for the purpose of dictation; 3. Elementary arithmetic. these articles, the intention is to group them according to their
3.--FOREIGN OFFICE. standing, as more useful and instructive than according to their alphabetical order. Group I. includes the Treasury and the
This office carries on all the administrative business of the Home, Foreign, and Colonial Offices.
state in its relations with foreign countries; pursues the policy
of the Foreign Secretary for the time being to its practical end, GROUP I. (FOUR OFFICES).
has the oversight of ambassadors, consuls, and all diplomatic 1.- TREASURY.
agents of Great Britain. Age of admission for clerks, 18 to 24; The business of the Treasury is to control the spending and for attachés, 21 to 26; consuls, 25 to 50; foreign service mes. revenue departments of Government; to decide upon all questions sengers, 25 to 35. Home establishment divided into five classes. of principle affecting the revenue of the country; to prepare the Pay :ways and means, subject to the revision of Parliament, for carrying on the business of the oountry, and generally to influence
Maximum the whole machinery of the administration.
£150 supplemental classes. The salaries are as follow:
Patronage in the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs.
£100 £15 £250 Second-class Clerks
600 First-class Clerks
1. Writing from Dictation,
4. German (translation and reading MS.). Messengers, £85 to £150 a year.
II. CLERKS IN CHIEF CLERK'S DEPARTMENT. Patronage in First Lord of the Treasury. The qualifications 1. Exercises designed to test Handwriting, accuracy of punctuarequired are:
tion, and orthography. 1, Handwriting and Orthography,
2. Arithmetic (including Vulgar and Decimal Fractions). 2. Arithmetic (including Vulgar and Decimal Fractions).
3. Geography (a general knowledge). 3. English Composition.
4. Book-keeping by Single Entry. 4. Précis.
5. French (Translation). 5. Geography. 6. History of England.
III. ATTACHÉS. 7. First three Books of Euclid.
1. Orthography and Handwriting.
2. General Intelligence. 8. Latin, French, German, or Italian, the selection being left to
3. Précis Writing. candidate.
4. Latin (Grammar and Translation into English). Supplemental clerks are examined in-1. Handwriting and 5. Arithmetic (the first four rules, and Decimals-Colenso). orthography; 2. Arithmetic (including vulgar and decimal 6. Euclid (Book I.). fractions); 3. English composition. Their pay is as above, and 7. Geography. they have no claim to be put on the establishment when vacancies
8. French (Grammar and Translation into English). occur. Messengers, who must be between 21 and 25 years of
9. German (Grammar). age, are examined in--1. Reading; 2. Writing from dictation;
10. Constitutional History of England [Text-books, " Blackstone's 3. Elementary arithmetic.
Commentaries" (Kerr's edition of 1862), and Hallam's Con
stitutional History of England]. 2.-HOME OFFICE.
11. A general knowledge of the Political History of Europe and of This office carries on the ministerial part of the government
the United States of North America, from the Treaty of at home, is responsible for the preservation of the country's
Paris, in 1815, to the Treaty of Villafranca, in 1860, comprising peace, and is the supreme authority on all questions of internal
an acquaintance with the most important international trans
actions during that period. policy. Age of admission for established clerks, 18 to 25; for extra clerks, 17 to 35. Establishment divided into three classes, of a Commission as Third Secretary and that of a Commission as Second
A second examination must be undergone in the interval between the grant and supplemental clerks. Pay:
1. General Intelligence, as evinced by the manner in which they
acquit themselves, and specifically by the quickness they may
show in seizing the points in papers read by them or read Third-class Clerks
over to them once or twice. Second-class Clerks
2. Précis Writing. Senior Clerks
3. French (Grammar, Translation into English, Translation into Extra Clerks—Third-class
French, and Conversation).
4. German (Grammar, and Translation into English).
(If the Candidate between his first and second examination has not resided
a reasonable time-twelve months, for instance—in Germany, he may substitute Patronage in Secretary of State for the Home Department for German some other foreign language besides French). Qualifications :
5. Political History of Europe, a general knowledge of the Politica? 1. Handwriting and Orthography.
History of Europe, and of the United States of North America, 2. Arithmetic (including Vulgar and Decimal Fractions).
from the Treaty of Versailles, in 1783, to the Treaty of Villa3. English Composition.
franca, in 1860, comprising the most important international 4. Geography.
transactions during that period. 5. English History.
6. Political Economy (a general knowledge to be acquired from 6. Latin.
Adam Smith's “Wealth of Nations," and Mill's " Political 7. French.
7. Maritime and International Law (a general knowledge to be referred to the examination papers which are published by the
acquired from Vattel, Wheaton's “ Elements of International authority of the Civil Service Commissioners, and which are
Law," and the first volume of Kent's “Commentaries"). 3. A General Report on the Commerce and Political Relations of readily supplied to all who ask for them.
the several Countries in which they have resided. Candidates
EXERCISES IN EUCLID.-I.
THE question is frequently asked, What is the utility of the geoExercises in Translations from and into that language or those metrical element in mathematical studies ? Without in any languages upon which the candidate is destined to be employed.
way attempting to discuss its merits, we content ourselves with V. CONSULS AND VICE-CONSULS. 1. Arithmetic (including Vulgar and Decimal Fractions).
giving the only satisfactory answer which can be given, that 2. English Composition.
such studies are pursued, not for their results, but for the intel3. French (written and spoken).
lectual habits which they generate. The power to apprehend 4. The language of the port at which the candidate may be ap- and the power to convince are both strengthened; the habit of pointed to reside.
clear and consecutive reasoning is developed by the successive 5. British Mercantile and Commercial Law. [Text-book, Smith's stages through which the mind is conducted in the course of a Compendium of Mercantile Law.]
geometrical investigation. It is our purpose, therefore, to aid VI. FOREIGN SERVICE MESSENGERS.
our readers by giving them a series of exercises upon the various 1. Arithmetic (first four rules). 2. Either French, German, or Italian (conversational knowledge). propositions of Euclid, consisting principally of " riders " which VII, HOME Service MESSENGERS; OFFICE-KEEPERS ;
Office may be deduced from them. Each article will take a certain PORTERS; Door PORTERS; AND OTHERS EMP
number of propositions, and the riders given will be deduced ORDINATE CAPACITIES,
from them without assuming any subsequent ones. At tho con1. Reading.
clusion of each article the ground to be covered by its successor 2. Writing from Dictation.
will be stated, and the enunciations given of those riders which 3. Arithmetic (first four rules).
will be proved, that the student may, if he so please, exercise VIII. HOUSEKEEPERS.
himself beforehand, by attempting their solution. It may be 1. Reading.
mentioned here that the term “rider" is applied to a deduction 2. Writing from Dictation. 3. Arithmetic (sufficient for simple accounts).
from any proposition of Euclid because the deduction is borne
up or supported by the mathematical reasoning worked out in 4.-COLONIAL OFFICE.
the proposition, as a horseman, or rider, is supported or carried Governed by the Secretary of State for the Colonies, who has by the horse that he bestrides; or, in other words, that the proall the patronage; carries out the colonial policy of the coun- | position carries the deduction on top of it, as it were, pretty try; instructs and supervises governors of British dependencies; much as the horse carries its rider. This explanation of a term watches generally over the interests of the colonies. Age of which is familiar enough to any Cambridge man, may be neces. admission for clerks, 18 to 25; for messengers and porters, sary for the information of many of our self-taught students who 21 to 35. Establishment divided into four classes. Pay :- now meet with the apparently singular but decidedly appropriate
expression for the first time.
Maximum, We assume a knowledgo of definitions, arioms, and postulates.
Definitions are the explanations of terms to be used in the
course of investigation; axioms are statements of things obvious Assistant Junior Clerks
to common sense; postulates are statements of things requisite, Junior Clerks
without which the investigation cannot be carried on. All those Assistant Clerks
600 Senior Clerks
requisite for the first book aro given at the commencement of
any ordinary edition of Euclid's Elements, a book which, we Qualifications :
presume, is in the possession of all who intezd to follow us in I, CLERKS.
these exercises. Those who have not yet provided themselves Preliminary Examination :
with a copy may obtain a useful edition at the office of the 1. Handwriting and Orthography.
POPULAR EDUCATOR. * 2. Arithmetic (including Vulgar and Decimal Fractions).
It will be seen that some of the propositions are headed 3. Précis or Abstract of Official Papers.
* Problem," some Theorem.” Strictly speaking, a "theorem 4. Geography.
is the proof of a geometrical fact; a “problem” is the solution 3. Translation from one of the following Languages-Greek, Latin, of some geometrical difficulty, or a method of executing some French, German, Spanish, Italian-the selection being left to
geometrical device which may aid us in the solution of "theorems.” the candidate. Candidates failing to satisfy the Civil Service Commissioners upon The riders which we shall give will be some “problems,” some each of these subjects will not be permitted to proceed further with
“ theorems." In either case the method of solution may be the examination.
thus indicated. We have certain given facts, and a certain end Final Examination :
to be deduced from them. Taking first the facts, endeavour to 1. Languages and Literature of Greece and Rome.
argue from them towards the required end. Then, assuming 2. Languages and Literature of France, Germany, and Italy. the required end to be accomplished, endeavour to argue back 3. Modern History, including that of the British Colonies and from it to the original facts; and if some common ground can
Possessions ; Exercises in English Composition, designed to be found in which these processes meet in one, the problem is test purity and accuracy of style.
solved or the theorem is proved. Thus, if we were endeavouring to 4. Elements of Constitutional and International Law; Elements of Political Economy.
argue out for ourselves Prop. I., Book I., we have given a straight 5. Pure and mixed Mathematics, not including the highest line a B, and have to find a point c, such that c A, C B, and A B shall branches : Accounts and Book-keeping.
be all equal. Assuming this accomplished, we see that A is the of the five classes of subjects thus defined, Candidates are at liberty to select centre of a circle passing through B and c; and B is the centre of any number not excecding three in which they desire to be examined. a circle passing through A and c. Thence our method is obvious. II. TEMPORARY REGISTRY CLERKS.
Let us apply this method to the following proposition : 1. Handwriting and Orthography.
PROPOSITION I.-If in the figure of Euclid I. 1 (Fig. 1), the 2. Indexing. III. PORTERS AND LIBRARY MESSENGERS.
circles cut again in F, and the line C F cut A B in G; 1. Reading
Then AG = GB;
(B) 2. Writing from Dictation,
Angle ACG= angle BCG;
(a) 3. Arithmetic (first four rules).
And angles A GC, B G C are right angles. (9) The above will afford all the information requisite for aspirants circle (Def. 15). And for the same reason B C, B F are equal.
Join A F, BF; then A C, AF are equal, being radii of the same to any of the four offices that we have included in Group I., as far as emoluments and subjects of examination are concerned. * Cassell's Euclid : being the First Six Books, with the Eleventh For details respecting the style and nature of the examinations and Twelfth of EUCLID. Crown 8vo, stiff covers, ls. ; cloth, ls. 6d. for the various branches of the Civil Service, candidates are Key to ditto, 4d.