But AC=BC; and by Axiom 1 things which are equal to the triangle required. For since A C, A G are radii of the same circle, same thing are equal to one another. Therefore A C, A F, BC, AC=AG; but A G = 4 A B, therefore a c= 4 A B. Similarly BF are all equal. Then, in the two triangles A CF, BCF, since BC=BI=4 AB; therefore AC = BC, and the triangle a BC AC=CB, and c r is common, also base A F= base F B, there is isosceles, and each of its sides equal to four times the base. fore, by Euclid I. 4, the angle acr= the angle BC F. Q. E. F. Hence the angle A C B is bi.

PROPOSITION IV.-If ABC (Fig. 4) be an isosceles triangle, sected by the line C F.

vertex A, and two points H, K be taken in the sides A B, A C, such

that Av=A K, and if BK, CH meet in F, then A F bisects the Again, in the two triangles ACG, angle BAC. E) BCG, because side Ac=side c B, and For in the triangles C A H, B A K, since A C= A B, and

side cg is common, also included A I = A K, also the included angle C A B is common to the two
angle ACG has just been proved triangles, therefore the base B K is equal to the base c1 (I. 8).
equal to included angle BCG, there. Again, in the triangles A CH, A B K, because a C is equal to a B and
fore, by Euclid I. 8,

cu to B K, and also the
Fig. 1.
Base ag= base G B.


base a I to the base A K,

therefore the included angle Again, in the two triangles AGC, BGC, because side A G = side ACH is equal to the included a B, and side c is common; also base a c= base CB; there- angle A B K (I. 4). But the fore, by Euclid I. 4, included angle adc = included angle BGC. whole angle ACB=whole But these are adjacent angles which the straight line CG makes A B C (I. 5), and, by Axiom 3, by standing on the straight line A B. Therefore, by Def. 10, if equals be taken from each of them is a right angle.

equals the remainders are This gives us at once the results of Props. IX., X., XI., and equal; therefore if ACH, XII. of Book I.

ABK be taken from A CB,

Fig. 4, PROPOSITION II.-- In the figure of Euclid I. 2 (Fig. 2), required A BC, the remainders FC B, to draw from D a straight line DMN, cutting the circles in mand FBC will be equal, and consequently the side rc = side n, such that m n, the part intercepted between them, may be FB (I. 6). Then, in the two triangles CAF, BAF, because equal to A L or B C.

AC=AB and Ar is common, also base Fc=base F B, thereSuppose DMN to be thus drawn, then DN, DL, being radii fore also included angle fac is equal to included angle PAB,

of the same circle, will be equal; that is, A F bisects the angle B AC. Q. E. D.
but my, by the supposition, is PROPOSITION V.-If A, B (Fig.5) be two points on opposite sides
equal to AL; and, by Axiom 3, of a line CD, required to find in C D a point E, such that the
if equals be taken from equals angle A E C may equal the angle B E C.
the remainders are equal. There By means of Prop. I. we may draw AF perpendicular to CD.
fore, if MN, A L be taken from Produce ar to G (Post. 2), and make FG=FA (I. 3). Join
DN, DL, the remainders D M, G B, and produce it to cut cd in E, then E is the point required.
DA will be equal. Hence, if Join A E. Then, since A F=FG, and F E is common to the
from D, as centre, we describe two triangles A FE, G F E, also the
a circle, with DA as radius, cut- included right angle A FE is equal
ting the small circle in m and to the included right angle G F E,
joining D M, produce it to meet therefore the base A E is equal to
the large circle in N, D M N will the base G E (I. 4). Again, because
be the line required ; for, since A E=EG, and FE is common, also
DA, DM are radii of the same base AF=base FG, therefore in-

circle, DA = D M (Def, 15); and, cluded angle A EF=included angle
Fig. 2.

since D L, D N are radii of the GEF (I. 8), therefore CD bisects the

same circle, DL=DN. Therefore, angle A E B. Q. E. F. by Axiom 3, if D A, D M are taken from DL and DN, the re In the present paper we have mainders A L, M N will be equal; that is, the part of D N inter- used Book I. 1-8. In our next cepted between the circles will be equal to A L, and therefore paper we shall use Book I. 1-16,

Fig. 5. equal also to BC. Q. E. F.

and give solutions of the following Corollary.—It is obvious that there will be certain limits propositions :beyond which the problem will be impossible. This will be the PROPOSITION VI.-In the figure of Euc. I. 5, if G o at right case when the circle described with centre D and radius DA angles to A G cut al produced in 0, H being the intersection does not cut the smaller circle. When it touches the smaller of BG, FC, then of shall be perpendicular to A F. circle, there will be only one possible position for DMN, that of PROPOSITION VII.-If Ac, the side of an isosceles triangle passing through the point of contact. When it cuts there will A B C, be bisected in D, and BD produced to E, so that DEE be two positions, as indicated in the figure by the dotted line. D B, then if A E be joined, the angle A E D shall be equal to the PROPOSITION III.-On a given base AB (Fig. 3), to describe an angle D BC.

isosceles triangle PROPOSITION VIII.-If AB be two points on the same side
A B C, such that of a given line CD, find in cd a point E, such that the angle
each of the sides A EC may be equal to the angle BE D.
A C, B C may be PROPOSITION IX.-Given two straight lines AB, AC, intersecting
four times the in a, and another straight line D of limited length : required to
base A B. form a right-angled triangle of which the base shall coincide

Produce A B with a c, one side shall coincide with A B, and the other side be both ways indefi- equal to D.

nitely to E and F, PROPOSITION X.-In an isosceles triangle A B C, if Al be E and from B E, the drawn from vertex A perpendicular to the base BC, and if AL

greater in the side be produced to m so that LM=LA, then shall BL be equal to Fig. 3.

remote from A, cut B A.

off BG equal to PROPOSITION XI.-If in any triangle the sides A B, A o be three times B A (I. 3), and from AF on the side remote from bisected in L,M, and Lo, Mo be drawn at right angles to A B, AC, B cut off A u equal to three times a B (I. 3), then a G will be meeting in o, then on, drawn perpendicular to Bo, will bisect equal to four times A B, and BI will be equal to four times BA. BC. From centre B, at distance B 1, describe a circle (Post. 3), and PROPOSITION XII.-In the figure of Euc. I. 9, if with centre from centre A, at distance A G, describe another circle, and

let A and radius

A F, a circle be described oatting A B, A C IN 1 M, these two circles cut in c. Join A C, B C, then A B C shall be the then shall E L be equal to BM.





closely connected with the history of the times. Thus the same

exuberance of life and energy, seeking a vent for itself in every INTRODUCTION.

direction, which in the days of Elizabeth and her successor sent The literature of England is a collection of works of art, each English sailors and adventurers about the world, discovering one of which may be studied separately, for the sake of its in- strange lands, fighting-half as lawful warriors, half as pirates dividual excellence, without regard to its connection with the-on the Spanish main, or colonising Virginia, is apparent in rest, or the circumstances of its production. Such a study will all the Elizabethan dramatists, and above all in Shakespeare. develop the taste and judgment, and give pleasure in proportion Their characteristics are activity of invention, freedom, and to the capacity of the student; and it requires only diligence in variety. And the same patriotic pride and unity of national reading, and sufficient discernment to appreciate what is read. spirit which was shown when the Armada threatened our shores All that a teacher can do to assist it, is to point out what are is prominent in the literature of the period. It is the very keythe works best worthy of study, and to call attention to some of note of at least one of Shakespeare's plays, "Henry V.” But their more prominent beauties. This service we hope to render the next generation of Englishmen lived in a very different to such students in the course of the following lessons, so far as world. England was no longer a united nation. The kingour space permits us.

Charles I.--and his people have been alienated from one another, But those who would go in the full benefit of the study of the liberties of the nation are at stake, the civil war ensues; English literature must rez ird it from a wider point of view. and the political contest is intensified and embittered by the The literature of a country is one of the most instructive parts religious differences which are so closely connected with it. The of its history. Every thoughtful student of history seeks to day is one in which every man is compelled to choose his side in know not only what men have done, but what they have thought a contest of surpassing importance; and men do choose their and felt. He seeks to know not merely the great external sides, and maintain them with rare earnestness and fidelity. events of the period he is studying—the wars, the revolutions, and how does this change of spirit in men show itself in literathe religious controversies, the social struggles--but also the ture? The representative of the literature of the age is Milton. motives which influenced men, the extent of their know- Milton in power of genius falls behind none of the Elizabethan ledge, their standard of right and wrong, their likes and dis- poets, except Shakespeare himself; but in tone and spirit his likes: in short, he wishes to know not men's acts only, but men; works stand in the strongest contrast to theirs. Seriousness and for this he must look chiefly to the literature they have left of spirit, earnestness of purpose, and an intense realisation of behind them. Every student of English literature, then, ought the presence of the unseen, are the characteristics of everything to endeavour, in all that he reads, to read not only beautiful he has left us. Nor is the change less instructive in the next poetry or eloquent prose, but history as well.

generation. The Commonwealth was followed by the RestoraIt is not merely that he will find historical facts embedded in tion. The cavalier party became in the ascendant. A natural what he reads, which he might not meet with elsewhere, though reaction against the austerity of puritanism, combined with the this is true. He will also find such facts related often by eye evil example of a licentious court, introduced a tone of morality witnesses, and therefore with all that freshness and vividness of lower than anything that had ever been known in England bedescription which stimulates the imagination and impresses the fore; and this is immediately reproduced in the literature of the memory. He will

, moreover, be able to observe for himself, and day. Dryden and the series of comedians whom we shall have at first hand, what effect was produced upon men's minds at the to describe hereafter are its chief representatives; and they time by the great events of history with which he is familiar. stand in the most marked contrast to the writers of the pre

All these things are of importance. But the connection be- vious generation, in the entire absence of any seriousness or tween national history and a national literature lies much deeper earnestness of purpose, and in their low moral tone. still; and it is of the utmost importance that every student of Nor is it only the changes and movements taking place literature should at the outset clearly realise it. Every one must within our own country, which we may see thus faithfully reobserve that literature in England has not been like a river flected in the literature of each age. The study of literature flowing on in a steady and unbroken course ; but has ebbed and enlarges our view and enables us to watch the influence which lowed like the tide, though without the regularity of the tide. one nation has exercised upon another, either by means of its In the days of Edward III., at the close of the fourteenth living thinkers and writers, or by its older literature. Thus we century, there was produced a great mass of literature, of which all read, as matter of history, that at the time of the first great Chancer's poems are the most important examples. For a harvest of English literature, in the time of Edward III., century afterwards there is almost a total blank. Then began the chief impulse to literary activity both in England and elsegradnally the revival, which culminated in the days of Elizabeth where was derived from Italy; for in Italy had but shortly and James I. in an amount of literary life such as has never before been produced the great works of Dante, Boccaccio, and been seen in England before or since the age of Shakespeare Petrarch. But the extent of this influence can only be appreand the great dramatists, of Spenser and the countless con- ciated by reading Chaucer's poems, and observing how he-one temporary poets. And the same alternation of activity and of the most original of poets--is indebted for his stories, his depression is to be seen throughout the whole history of our metres, and to a large extent his style, to his Italian models. literature. But what it is important for the student to observe This our readers will see more fully when we come to treat of is , that these changes are not isolated or meaningless events. Chaucer's poems in detail. In the same way we read, as matter Literary activity is only one of the many forms in which an of history, of the great effect produced in England, as elsewhere, increased mental energy exhibits itself, and a period fertile in during the Elizabethan era, by the revived knowledge of classical great books is sure to be a period fertile in great deeds and literature, through study of the originals by the few, through the great changes. Thus the age which produced the poetry of medium of translations with the many. But there is no way in Chaucer was the same in which the feudal organisation of which this influence can be more fully realised than by obserysociety was broken up, the same in which the national spirit ing how a man like Shakespeare, who had “small

Latin and less and vigour of England displayed itself in the French conquests Greek,” shows in his works that he was affected by it. Play of Edward III., the victories of Cressy and Poitiers; and the after play, as “ Julius Cæsar," and "Antony and Cleopatra," is fame in which Wycliffe led the first great religious reforma- taken from classical sources ; and in each he shows not only tion in England, the first rebellion against the superstitions of that he can follow the narrative

as he read it, probably in transthe dark ages and the corruptions of the clergy. The century lation, but that he had largely entered into the spirit of the of literary dearth that followed was a century of national de time. pression, in which the country was desolated by the Wars of We have said enough to show that the student of English the Roses. The Elizabethan era, so rich in literary genius, literature has the opportunity of reading English history in the was also the era of the revival of classical learning, of the fullest, best, and most reliable way, for he is enabled to get Reformation, of the Spanish wars and the defeat of the Armada, a step nearer to the men with whose history he is dealing than of the voyages of Drake and the other great navigators, and he can do by any other method. But the advantage of keeping of the first colonisation of America.

the connection between literature and history always in view is But not only is the amount of literary genius shown at different not entirely on the side of history. We have said that the times seen to be very different; the character and spirit of the various books which go to make

up the total of English literaworks produced varies not less,

and this diversity
is no less ture may be studied -as isolated works of art, and

may be so



studied with both pleasure and profit. No man, for instance, with them into England. From this time onward there were could read “Hamlet” without enjoyment, whether he knows two spoken languages in England, the Norman-French of the anything of Shakespeare and his times or not. But the pleasure court and the feudal castles, and the Saxon of the mass of the we receive and the benefit we derive from a great work is in people. Each of these languages had its writers, books intended proportion as we understand the author's meaning; and we for the nobles being written for the most part in French, those understand his meaning in proportion as we are able by an intended for the people in Saxon. But there was also a third effort of imagination to place ourselves in his position, to see kind of literature in this country. In the monasteries, which things as he saw them, and judge them as he judged them. were scattered over all parts of the country, chroniclers and And we shall be able to do this to a very small extent indeed religious writers used Latin as their literary tongue. if we are not fully acquainted with the circumstances under We have spoken of the Saxon tongue as the parent of our which he wrote and the influences by which he was surrounded. modern English, and we have just spoken of the Saxon literaFor all reasons, therefore, we would impress upon our readers ture which preceded the period at which the history of English the importance, when reading any English author, of doing so literature properly begins. And it may therefore be asked why with as full a knowledge as they can obtain of his character, his we arbitrarily select a particular point of time after which we history, and his times.

say the literature was English, while what went before was not? But in order that English literature may be studied in the In answer to this, we say that we dr not draw the line at the manner and from the point of view which we advise, it is point at which we have drawn it on the ground of any sudden necessary that the student, when he enters upon the study of or marked change in the language, though the language did any work, should have the means of at once assigning to it undergo much modification at the very period in question; its proper place in the catalogue of literature. This he cannot but for the reason we have given above, that the Saxon or do without having the history of our literature, at least in its English literature before Chaucer's day was not the literature broader features, mapped out in his mind, knowing the sequence of the whole English nation, but of the English-speaking of the great writers, and their connection with one another, portion of the nation: in his time it became that of the and the characteristics of each literary period. Such a know- nation. The changes by which the language of the first Saron ledge is the more easily attained, because our literature easily invaders has in the course of centuries been transformed into and naturally divides itself into several well-marked periods, the English of our day have been very gradual ; and there is corresponding very closely to the most important stages in our no one point of time at which it can be said that Anglo-Saxon political history. And the object of the following lessons will became English. But in order to the better understanding of be to enable students of English literature to acquire this know what we shall have to say in future lessons, it is well that our ledge, so necessary for a thoroughly useful system of reading, readers should be acquainted with the several stages into which as well as to direct their choice of books to read, and give the progress of the language is divided by most modern scholars. them such assistance as may be possible in understanding and It must be remembered, however, that these divisions are not appreciating what they read.

always very clearly marked, and are not given in quite the same In laying out the outline of a history of English literature, way by all the authorities. The language is said to be Anglothe first thing to be determined is the point from which to date Saxon down to the middle of the twelfth century. The name of its commencement. And as to this there is, we think, little Semi-Saxon is given to it for the next hundred years, down to room for hesitation. English literature, for the purposes of the the middle of the thirteenth century. From that time until the student, begins with the age of Chaucer, the latter half of the latter end of the fourteenth century it is called Old English. fourteenth century, the reign of Edward III. Before that Then the name of Middle English is applied to the English in time there had been many works written in England, and in use down to the reign of Elizabeth. And after that period the different languages, but it could not be said that there was any language is said to be Modern English. literature addressing itself to the whole people of England, or In our next lesson we shall give a brief account of the rewritten in a language which was that of the whole people, mains which have come down to us of those various forms of

The population of England, as our readers are well aware, had literature-Saxon, French, and Latin-previous to the date at been recruited from many sources. The oldest inhabitants of the which we commence the history of English literature proper. island of whom history gives us any account were of Celtic blood, But by the days of Edward III. the English language had akin to the Celts of Ireland and the Highlanders of Scotland, but completely supplanted, while it partly absorbed, the French of much more nearly akin to those now of Wales and Cornwall. They the Norman nobles, and had become the language of the whole fell under the yoke of the Roman empire, and for five hundred nation. And that period, the age of Chaucer, is our first period years Roman institutions and Roman civilisation prevailed in the in the history of English literature. country. The Romans abandoned their occupation of Britain The second period extends from the death of Chaucer over 2 in the middle of the fifth century, but they did not leave the space of about a hundred years, down to the time of the first Britons to the enjoyment of peace or security. Immediately revival of literary energy under the Tudor sovereigns. after, if not before, the departure of the Romans a dangerous The third period extends from the first revival of literature, friend, soon to become a formidable enemy, had appeared on the at the period we have mentioned, through the reigns of Elizabeth coasts of Britain. The Saxons, a people from the banks of the and James I.

, and includes within it the most brilliant Elbe and the shores of the German Ocean, had commenced their portion of our literary history. long series of invasions. The history of the struggle between the The fourth period is that which includes the reign of Charles I, Saxons and the Britons is lost in obscurity, but it ended in the the Civil War, and the Commonwealth. complete subjugation of Britain under the Saxon dominion; and The fifth period is that of the Restoration, beginning with that some form of their language-a language of the German stock, event, and extending down to the Revolution of 1688. and the parent of our modern English-has ever since been the The sixth period extends from the Revolution, through the reigu language of the great bulk of the inhabitants of this island. The of Queen Anne and the earlier portion of those of the Georges, Danes were the next invaders; but though they established their and includes what has been habitually called the Augustan dominion for long, and although their tongue no doubt materially age of English literature, or the age of the correct school modified the dialect of those parts of England with which they The seventh period is that which is intermediate between had most to do, the language

of the country remained sub- the last-mentioned and the great revival of romantic literature stantially unchanged; and it may be said that at the date of at the end of the eighteenth century. the Norman conquest, with the exception of the Celtic-speaking The eighth period is that of the revival of the romantic districts, which we need not here consider, the language of school of literature, which began in the reign of George I!L, England was one, and that was Anglo-Saxon.

under the impulse of the same intellectual movement which But the Norman conquest brought a great change. The immediately

preceded the great French Revolution, the period Normans, or Northmen, who invaded and conquered England to which belong Scott, Byron, and

Shelley, and which may be under William of Normandy, were a Scandinavian race, nearly said scarcely yet to have come to an end. akin to the Danes; but during their long abode in the province In the following course of lessons we shall treat of these of Normandy they had abandoned their original tongue, and periods in order, and

of the principal writers belonging to each adopted the French language, the language of those they had of them, examining as fully as we can the most important works vanquished; and French was the language which they carried of these writers.




Masc. wv,
Fem. ovoa,
Neut. ov,







Nom. Gen,

Nom. ACCORDING to the general statements and explanations already

OVTOS, being.

ecouevos, -ov, about to be. set forth in the previous lesson, the verb may be regarded as a


εσομενη, , -775. total comprising a number of ideas, or representing a number of

εσομενον, -ου. facts. This may be exemplified in Netw, I leave, and decodeinTnV, Let it be premised that the significations given in the parathey two might have been left : thus

digms, or examples of conjugation, are sometimes only approxiPerson. Number. Tense. Mood. Voics. mately correct; for the exact meaning, the student must wait derw, First. Singular. Present. Indicative. Active. until he is familiar with the details of syntax and other details Aelpfeintny, Third. Dual. Aorist, 1st. Optative. Passive. which will follow. From this instance it may be seen that the Greek verb varies,

The verb whose forms are given above belongs, it will be or is modified in person, in number, in tense, in mood, and in seen, to the class of the verbs in u. There is another verb, voice. Accordingly, it is the business of the learner to become spelt in the same way, but distinguished from it by its accent, familiar with the verb in all these its modifications, so as to at which will be given in its place under the verbs in us--namely, once recognise every form he may meet with in reading,

and be eluu, I will go ; eiul, I am. ready at first sight to assign its meaning: It will be necessary In the imperfect, the second person, ns, often becomes morea, by

The second person of the present, et, is more used than eis. to go through these modifications in detail.

Before we proceed to the general conjugation of the Greek the addition of a suffix, ba, added for euphony. The third perverbs, we must present a peculiar form, namely, that of the son

is ny more frequently than n. substantive verb, or verb of existence, elval, to be.

Instances are found, particularly in the first person singular

and the third person plural, of another imperfect, which resemCONJUGATION OF THE VERB Elped, I am.

bles the imperfect of the middle voice.

Singular, nuny, noo, nto. Plural, queda, nobe, WTO. PRESENT.

A middle imperative form is also found in the second person Sing. 1. Elut, I am.

nu, I was.

COMA., I shall be. 2. el or els, thou art. ns, thou wast.

singular, namely, eco, be thou. eon, thou shalt be.

The entire present subjunctive-namely, w, ps, y, etc.---sup3. ErTi, he is.

m or nv, he was.




εσεται ΟΓ έσται,

plies terminations to all the verbs in w. The second and third

shall be. Dual.1.

person singular have the iota subscript, as seen above. eo opetov, we two

The optative forms, einy, eins, em, lend their terminations,

shall be. 2. εστον, you tuo are. ητην or ηστην, you εσεσθον, you two

inv, etc., to the optative of the verbs in ui. For the form einjev,

Eljev is used; and for eindav, elev is much more common. two were. shall be.

The future, in all its moods, is a middle form ; its termina3. εστον, they tuo are. Φτην or ηστην, they εσεσθον, they two

tion, gouar, is that of all the middle verbs in the future. The two were.

shall be. Plu. 1. cruey, we are.

original forms werenuev, we were. ecoueDa, we shall be. 2. EOTe, you are.

εσομαι, εσεσαι, ητε Or ηστε, μου εσεσθε, you shall be.

In ecerat the second o was elided, and the word became egeai. 3. Elon, they are. noay, they were. Ecovtal, they shall be The ea was contracted into 7), the was written under, and thus


This observation extends to all the second persons in n of

the middle and passive verbs. Eotai, a contracted form of Sing. 1. w, I may be.

εσεται, is more common than εσεται. In the optative, ecoLO 2. ps, thou mayst be.

| stands for εσοισο. . 3. he

The participle ecquevos (the Latin suturus) is declined like Dual. 2. ntov, you two may be.

αγαθος, αγαθη, αγαθον. 3. ntov, they two may be.

The substantive verb lacks the perfect, the pluperfect, and Plu. 1. wuev, we may be.

the aorist; these tenses are supplied from yiyvonal, I become. 2. nte, you may be.

The stem of the verb is es, as found in eo nev, ecopai, etc. 3. wol, they may be.

The present participle is declined thus :-

Masc. Fem. Neut.

Masc. Tem. Neut. Sing. 1. erny, I might be. ecolunu, I might have been. *

ουσα, ,

οντες, ουσαι, όντα. 2. ems, thou mightst be. ECOLO, thou mightst have been. Gen. οντος, ουσης, όντος.

Οντων, ουσων, όντων. 3. ein, he might be. ECOLTO, he might have been.

ουση, όντι,

ουσι, , ουσαις, ουσι. Dual.1. εσoιμεθον, we too might have

ovoav, ov.

OVTOS, ovoas, ovta. been.

[been. So decline the participles in -ww of all the verbs. 2. entny, you two might be. 400L Onv, you two might have 3. entnu, they two might be. coolOnv, they two might have formed, and these compounds are conjugated like their primi.

By the aid of prepositions various compounds of ey are

been. Plu, 1. einuey, we might be. croipea, we might have been. absent ; uer-eiu (intersum), I am among ; ouv-etui (una sum), I

tive; as trap-eqjel (adsum), I am present; 01-etu. (absum), I am 2. Einte, you might be. 00100, you might have been. am with; mpoo-elu (insum, accedo), I am near, I approach; 3. eingar, they might be. EVOLVTO, they might have been.

TEPL-elui (supersum, superior sum), I survive, I am superior; and IMPERATIVE MOOD.

others. The preposition remains invariable; only the verb PRESENT.

undergoes the conjugational changes. Sing. 2. 100., be thou. Dual. 2. fotov, be ye two.

The verb elue is instructive in regard to the original personal 3. ErTW, let him be.

3. etwv, let them two be. endings. These personal endings in eigi are here marked off by Plu, 2. EOT, be ye.

a hyphen, thus-el-pl.
3. Eatwray or EOTwy, let them be.


Plural. 1.


2. Present, eivai, to be. Future, ecertai, to be about to be.


T-TE. 3. €-T1(v)


€1-01(v). * It should be observed that the English given here is only approxi

The terminations of the three persons of the singular are promate, as the tense is in fact not used in this mood in independent perly appended pronoans ; thus us is found in me, or contracted sentences, but as the oratio oblique of the future indicative. Thus into ci) is found in oe, and Ti in the stem of the article to. εις auswers to εστι, and εσοιτο tο εσται.

Accordingly, in their original form, these were


may be.




Nom. wy,


Dat. VTI,

| Drua





[ocr errors]


-σαι. .








[ocr errors]


as explained in paragraph 139. As a general rule, no advantage

would arise from placing in POSITION a word that contains three or Principal Tenses. Historical T. Principal T. Historical T. more consonant strokes, because in such cases there is seldom any Sing. 1. ofble


-unv. other word written by the same outline for which, if left anvocalised, 2.

it could be mistaken. 3.

144. A word composed of a horizontal and a down or up stroke, Dual. 1.

-μεθον. . has its position determined by the down or up stroke, and not by the 2.


horizontal one; or, in other words, a horizontal letter, when initial, 3. -Tnv.


-conv. in the first position, and followed by a perpendicular stroke, must be Plu. 1. Mev.


written a little higher than usual to accommodate itself to the position 2.


of the following stroke; and when initial, in the first position, and 3. -v(vt). -ηνται. .

followed by an upstroke, it must be written a little lower, for the same By studying these terminations now, and by reverting to reason. them afterwards, the student will be materially assisted; but

145. A word written by a double-length carve takes three positions he must make himself thoroughly master of all the paradigms if the letter be horizontal; two positious, on and Through the line

, before he attempts to set a step in advance.

if sloping; and one position, THROUGH the line, if perpendicular.

See par. 139.

146. CIRCLE SS.—The large circle ss (par. 35) cannot be added Ayopa, -as, i, a mar. befit, suit, agree sent active, to be to a hook or a half-sized consonant. In the former case, it could not ket.

with. The infini. hold; cotw opay, be distinguished from s; and in the latter, it would take up nearly the Apropos, -a, -ov, im tive is in the text literally, it is to whole of the letter. The titles Misses (plural of Mise) passable ;

used as a noun, see, that is, you atopa, straits, ex and may be ren

and Mrs, should be written thus, for the sake of distinction.

may see. tremities. Ob. dered in harmony. Tplaual, I purchase; 147. VOCALISATION OF THE LARGE CIRCLE.—The large circles serve that eivai, rewprikos, -9, -ov, πριασθαι, infini. may be supposed to contain the short vowel No. 2, namely, sez or with the preposi. agricultural ; tive present mid zez, for the plural of nouns, and the third person singular of verbs

. tion er i, signifies to hence the name dle, to purchase; other vowels may be expressed by placing the vowel-sign within the be in the power of.

Georgics, given to ουκ ην πριασθαι, Αριστον, -ου, το, Virgil's didactic

circle; thus, ip erist (ekzist), Crassus, Y persuasite,

literally, was not breakfast ; Gulv poem on agricul. to purchase, that precisely, exercise. No distinction can, in this case, be αριστον εστι, wo ture.

is, could not be made between aw, 7, and õõ; or between wah, weh, and see, etc. have breakfast. Auw, I go down, purchased.

148. STROKE-Vowels.-Theoretically a stroke-vowel is at a right Euvai, with a dative enter; apo durtos Luykanew, I call to angle with the consonant, but in practice it may be written at any of the person, has nuov, before sun. gether, convoke; the force of to set.

ovykalwy, con

angle that is distinct ; thus, 1. instead of 2 true. have; the pronoun ETIAELTW, I leave, vener.

149. VOCALISATION OF HALF-LENGTH CONSONANTS.—When the must be put in lack; ETAIT€, se- Tagis, -ews, h, a rank circle s follows a half-sized consonant, it must be read after the i the dative, the cond aorist active, or file of soldiers. or d added to the primary letter; thus, pat, 6 pats (not past), person being pre failed.

Depw, I bear.

pant, & pants. No final vowel can be placed AFTER the i ord served : thus eori €8w, I desire, I will. purela, -as, 71, plant- added by halving ; thus w would not be India, practice, μοι is I have ; εστι Νικαω, I conquer. ing, care.

thou hast, etc. 'Opaw, I see, behold; 2pa, -as, , an hour faulty, but iniad, prackits, faulit: ju V. are the 'Apuottely, to fit, ópav,infinitive pre (Latin, hora), time. correct forms. This rule requires particular attention: it is fre EXERCISE 72.-GREEK-ENGLISH.

quently misunderstood by learners. 1. Η ταξις ην έκατον ανδρες. 2. Ην της ώρας μικρον προ δυντος

150. OMISSION OF VOWELS IN PL, PR, ETC.-It is seldom pecesήλιου. 3. Οι νομοι ζημιαι εισι των αμαρτωλων, 4. Τουτοις θανατος | sary to mark an unaccented vowel in a double consonant of the pl and EOTIV Ý Squia. 5. O OITOS ETENITE, Kai Apiao dai ouk nv. 6. EOTIV pr series ; thus, permit, ♡ vocal. In accented syllables, the ópav to opos. 7. 'H Aynoidaou apety tapaderqua nv. 8. 'Huly vowel should be inserted; thus, ypervért, pervert. αριστον ουκ εστιν. 9. Εγω εσομαι και συγκαλων. 10. Ούτος εστιν ο

151. Two VOWELS CONCURRING.-When two vowels occur either νικων. 11. Εγω μια τουτων ειμι. 12. Βασιλευς νομιζει υμας αυτού | before or after a consonant, the Towel that is sounded nearest to the con13. ESTIV

our ons yewpyuens texuns twv devopwr putera. sonant should be written nearest to it; thus, '- iota, 14. Eστιν αυτοις αγορα. 15. Εν τοις αποροις ημεν. 16. Ο Κυρος

Messiał. εν τουτοις ην. 17. Επι σοι εσται τουτο. 18. Ov ulkpor ayaBoy When two vowels occur between two consonants, one is placed to Tq åpMOTTELY #POCEOtw. 19. Tn Bıq. Apogelou ex@pai kai kuvõuvo.. each ; thus, C.) quiet. The diphthongs i-a, oi-a may be written 20. Tn etmedeig Tepleival Twv pwr dena. 21. Hapnu Ayeoidaos thus, ß diamond, 4 royal. δωρα φερων. 22, Κυρω παρησαν εκ Πελοποννησου νηες.

152. DisseLLABIC DIPHTHONGS.—The following form a series :EXERCISE 73.-ENGLISH-GREEK, 1. This is in my power. 2. The laws are in your power. 3.

4 ah-e, e ch-e, lee-e, 7 arw-e, 7/o-e, 100-e. It is in your power (that is, it depends on you) to purchase corn. This series of signs may represent diphthongs composed of an accented 4. It was in the power of the enemies to be present. 5. It is long vowel and any short vowel except öö;

thus, the first sign in the power of good boys to excel. 6. It will be in my power may be written in “solfaing” and “solfaers," also for ay lues to approach the city. 7. Punishments belong (Tporeivai) to sin the second in "saying, clayey, aerated, bayonet;" the third in ners. 8. Thy care of thy friends is an example to all. '9. The being, real

, theory, museum;" the fourth in both soil (one syllable) ships have come to the king.

and sawing (two syllables), etc. In alien, en folio, ereate,

etc., where the first sowel is not accented, the yah series of vowels LESSONS IN SHORTHAND.-XI.

should be used, rather than the third of the above series.

153. FRENCH VOWELS AND Nasals.-In the French language GENERAL RULES FOR WRITING.

occur several vowels, and a nasal utterance of others, unknown in 143. Positions of Words.— Phonographers, who wish to become English. These vowels are represented by short strokes parallel reporters, should cherish reporting habits as soon as they can write the with the cousonant, and nasality by v; thus, Ljekat, system fluently. In following a rapid speaker it is impossible to dú, Idu; ey sain, v an, so on, ý insert many vowels. If then we can, by a difference in the POSITION of a consonant outline, INDICATE the vowel, or principal vowel, of the may be expressed in phonotypes thus, word, it will facilitate the reading of the report. In the Reporting

zen, dw, dy, sen, an, on, on. Style, a word that contains only one or two consonant strokes is 154. Scotcu GurruRAL CH.-The Scotch guttural ch (heard written IN POSITION, in accordance with its vowel, or accented vowel, also in German, Irish, Welsh, and other languages), and the German

σοι, ,

ειναι, .

un. These words

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