studied with both pleasure and profit. No man, for instance, with them into England. From this time onward there were could read “Hamlet” without enjoyment, whether he knows two spoken languages in England, the Norman-French of the anything of Shakespeare and his times or not. But the pleasure court and the feudal castles, and the Saxon of the mass of the we receive and the benefit we derive from a great work is in people. Each of these languages had its writers, books intended proportion as we understand the author's meaning; and we for the nobles being written for the most part in French, those understand his meaning in proportion as we are able by an intended for the people in Saxon. But there was also a third effort of imagination to place ourselves in his position, to see kind of literature in this country. In the monasteries, which things as he saw them, and judge them as he judged them. were scattered over all parts of the country, chroniclers and And we shall be able to do this to a very small extent indeed religious writers used Latin as their literary tongue. if we are not fully acquainted with the circumstances under We have spoken of the Saxon tongue as the parent of our which he wrote and the influences by which he was surrounded. modern English, and we have just spoken of the Saxon literaFor all reasons, therefore, we would impress upon our readers ture which preceded the period at which the history of English the importance, when reading any English author, of doing so literature properly begins. And it may therefore be asked why with as full a knowledge as they can obtain of his character, his we arbitrarily select a particular point of time after which we history, and his times.

say the literature was English, while what went before was not? But in order that English literature may be studied in the In answer to this, we say that we dr not draw the line at the manner and from the point of view which we advise, it is point at which we have drawn it on the ground of any sudden necessary that the student, when he enters upon the study of or marked change in the language, though the language did any work, should have the means of at once assigning to it undergo much modification at the very period in question; its proper place in the catalogue of literature. This he cannot but for the reason we have given above, that the Saxon or do without having the history of our literature, at least in its English literature before Chaucer's day was not the literature broader features, mapped out in his mind, knowing the sequence of the whole English nation, but of the English-speaking of the great writers, and their connection with one another, portion of the nation: in his time it became that of the and the characteristics of each literary period. Such a know- nation. The changes by which the language of the first Saron ledge is the more easily attained, because our literature easily invaders has in the course of centuries been transformed into and naturally divides itself into several well-marked periods, the English of our day have been very gradual ; and there is corresponding very closely to the most important stages in our no one point of time at which it can be said that Anglo-Saxon political history. And the object of the following lessons will became English. But in order to the better understanding of be to enable students of English literature to acquire this know what we shall have to say in future lessons, it is well that our ledge, so necessary for a thoroughly useful system of reading, readers should be acquainted with the several stages into which as well as to direct their choice of books to read, and give the progress of the language is divided by most modern scholars. them such assistance as may be possible in understanding and It must be remembered, however, that these divisions are not appreciating what they read.

always very clearly marked, and are not given in quite the same In laying out the outline of a history of English literature, way by all the authorities. The language is said to be Anglothe first thing to be determined is the point from which to date Saxon down to the middle of the twelfth century. The name of its commencement. And as to this there is, we think, little Semi-Saxon is given to it for the next hundred years, down to room for hesitation. English literature, for the purposes of the the middle of the thirteenth century. From that time until the student, begins with the age of Chaucer, the latter half of the latter end of the fourteenth century it is called Old English. fourteenth century, the reign of Edward III. Before that Then the name of Middle English is applied to the English in time there had been many works written in England, and in use down to the reign of Elizabeth. And after that period the different languages, but it could not be said that there was any language is said to be Modern English. literature addressing itself to the whole people of England, or In our next lesson we shall give a brief account of the rewritten in a language which was that of the whole people, mains which have come down to us of those various forms of

The population of England, as our readers are well aware, had literature-Saxon, French, and Latin-previous to the date at been recruited from many sources. The oldest inhabitants of the which we commence the history of English literature proper. island of whom history gives us any account were of Celtic blood, But by the days of Edward III. the English language had akin to the Celts of Ireland and the Highlanders of Scotland, but completely supplanted, while it partly absorbed, the French of much more nearly akin to those now of Wales and Cornwall. They the Norman nobles, and had become the language of the whole fell under the yoke of the Roman empire, and for five hundred nation. And that period, the age of Chaucer, is our first period years Roman institutions and Roman civilisation prevailed in the in the history of English literature. country. The Romans abandoned their occupation of Britain The second period extends from the death of Chaucer over 2 in the middle of the fifth century, but they did not leave the space of about a hundred years, down to the time of the first Britons to the enjoyment of peace or security. Immediately revival of literary energy under the Tudor sovereigns. after, if not before, the departure of the Romans a dangerous The third period extends from the first revival of literature, friend, soon to become a formidable enemy, had appeared on the at the period we have mentioned, through the reigns of Elizabeth coasts of Britain. The Saxons, a people from the banks of the and James I.

, and includes within it the most brilliant Elbe and the shores of the German Ocean, had commenced their portion of our literary history. long series of invasions. The history of the struggle between the The fourth period is that which includes the reign of Charles I, Saxons and the Britons is lost in obscurity, but it ended in the the Civil War, and the Commonwealth. complete subjugation of Britain under the Saxon dominion; and The fifth period is that of the Restoration, beginning with that some form of their language-a language of the German stock, event, and extending down to the Revolution of 1688. and the parent of our modern English-has ever since been the The sixth period extends from the Revolution, through the reigu language of the great bulk of the inhabitants of this island. The of Queen Anne and the earlier portion of those of the Georges, Danes were the next invaders; but though they established their and includes what has been habitually called the Augustan dominion for long, and although their tongue no doubt materially age of English literature, or the age of the correct school modified the dialect of those parts of England with which they The seventh period is that which is intermediate between had most to do, the language

of the country remained sub- the last-mentioned and the great revival of romantic literature stantially unchanged; and it may be said that at the date of at the end of the eighteenth century. the Norman conquest, with the exception of the Celtic-speaking The eighth period is that of the revival of the romantic districts, which we need not here consider, the language of school of literature, which began in the reign of George I!L, England was one, and that was Anglo-Saxon.

under the impulse of the same intellectual movement which But the Norman conquest brought a great change. The immediately

preceded the great French Revolution, the period Normans, or Northmen, who invaded and conquered England to which belong Scott, Byron, and

Shelley, and which may be under William of Normandy, were a Scandinavian race, nearly said scarcely yet to have come to an end. akin to the Danes; but during their long abode in the province In the following course of lessons we shall treat of these of Normandy they had abandoned their original tongue, and periods in order, and

of the principal writers belonging to each adopted the French language, the language of those they had of them, examining as fully as we can the most important works vanquished; and French was the language which they carried of these writers.




Masc. wv,
Fem. ovoa,
Neut. ov,







Nom. Gen,

Nom. ACCORDING to the general statements and explanations already

OVTOS, being.

ecouevos, -ov, about to be. set forth in the previous lesson, the verb may be regarded as a


εσομενη, , -775. total comprising a number of ideas, or representing a number of

εσομενον, -ου. facts. This may be exemplified in Netw, I leave, and decodeinTnV, Let it be premised that the significations given in the parathey two might have been left : thus

digms, or examples of conjugation, are sometimes only approxiPerson. Number. Tense. Mood. Voics. mately correct; for the exact meaning, the student must wait derw, First. Singular. Present. Indicative. Active. until he is familiar with the details of syntax and other details Aelpfeintny, Third. Dual. Aorist, 1st. Optative. Passive. which will follow. From this instance it may be seen that the Greek verb varies,

The verb whose forms are given above belongs, it will be or is modified in person, in number, in tense, in mood, and in seen, to the class of the verbs in u. There is another verb, voice. Accordingly, it is the business of the learner to become spelt in the same way, but distinguished from it by its accent, familiar with the verb in all these its modifications, so as to at which will be given in its place under the verbs in us--namely, once recognise every form he may meet with in reading,

and be eluu, I will go ; eiul, I am. ready at first sight to assign its meaning: It will be necessary In the imperfect, the second person, ns, often becomes morea, by

The second person of the present, et, is more used than eis. to go through these modifications in detail.

Before we proceed to the general conjugation of the Greek the addition of a suffix, ba, added for euphony. The third perverbs, we must present a peculiar form, namely, that of the son

is ny more frequently than n. substantive verb, or verb of existence, elval, to be.

Instances are found, particularly in the first person singular

and the third person plural, of another imperfect, which resemCONJUGATION OF THE VERB Elped, I am.

bles the imperfect of the middle voice.

Singular, nuny, noo, nto. Plural, queda, nobe, WTO. PRESENT.

A middle imperative form is also found in the second person Sing. 1. Elut, I am.

nu, I was.

COMA., I shall be. 2. el or els, thou art. ns, thou wast.

singular, namely, eco, be thou. eon, thou shalt be.

The entire present subjunctive-namely, w, ps, y, etc.---sup3. ErTi, he is.

m or nv, he was.




εσεται ΟΓ έσται,

plies terminations to all the verbs in w. The second and third

shall be. Dual.1.

person singular have the iota subscript, as seen above. eo opetov, we two

The optative forms, einy, eins, em, lend their terminations,

shall be. 2. εστον, you tuo are. ητην or ηστην, you εσεσθον, you two

inv, etc., to the optative of the verbs in ui. For the form einjev,

Eljev is used; and for eindav, elev is much more common. two were. shall be.

The future, in all its moods, is a middle form ; its termina3. εστον, they tuo are. Φτην or ηστην, they εσεσθον, they two

tion, gouar, is that of all the middle verbs in the future. The two were.

shall be. Plu. 1. cruey, we are.

original forms werenuev, we were. ecoueDa, we shall be. 2. EOTe, you are.

εσομαι, εσεσαι, ητε Or ηστε, μου εσεσθε, you shall be.

In ecerat the second o was elided, and the word became egeai. 3. Elon, they are. noay, they were. Ecovtal, they shall be The ea was contracted into 7), the was written under, and thus


This observation extends to all the second persons in n of

the middle and passive verbs. Eotai, a contracted form of Sing. 1. w, I may be.

εσεται, is more common than εσεται. In the optative, ecoLO 2. ps, thou mayst be.

| stands for εσοισο. . 3. he

The participle ecquevos (the Latin suturus) is declined like Dual. 2. ntov, you two may be.

αγαθος, αγαθη, αγαθον. 3. ntov, they two may be.

The substantive verb lacks the perfect, the pluperfect, and Plu. 1. wuev, we may be.

the aorist; these tenses are supplied from yiyvonal, I become. 2. nte, you may be.

The stem of the verb is es, as found in eo nev, ecopai, etc. 3. wol, they may be.

The present participle is declined thus :-

Masc. Fem. Neut.

Masc. Tem. Neut. Sing. 1. erny, I might be. ecolunu, I might have been. *

ουσα, ,

οντες, ουσαι, όντα. 2. ems, thou mightst be. ECOLO, thou mightst have been. Gen. οντος, ουσης, όντος.

Οντων, ουσων, όντων. 3. ein, he might be. ECOLTO, he might have been.

ουση, όντι,

ουσι, , ουσαις, ουσι. Dual.1. εσoιμεθον, we too might have

ovoav, ov.

OVTOS, ovoas, ovta. been.

[been. So decline the participles in -ww of all the verbs. 2. entny, you two might be. 400L Onv, you two might have 3. entnu, they two might be. coolOnv, they two might have formed, and these compounds are conjugated like their primi.

By the aid of prepositions various compounds of ey are

been. Plu, 1. einuey, we might be. croipea, we might have been. absent ; uer-eiu (intersum), I am among ; ouv-etui (una sum), I

tive; as trap-eqjel (adsum), I am present; 01-etu. (absum), I am 2. Einte, you might be. 00100, you might have been. am with; mpoo-elu (insum, accedo), I am near, I approach; 3. eingar, they might be. EVOLVTO, they might have been.

TEPL-elui (supersum, superior sum), I survive, I am superior; and IMPERATIVE MOOD.

others. The preposition remains invariable; only the verb PRESENT.

undergoes the conjugational changes. Sing. 2. 100., be thou. Dual. 2. fotov, be ye two.

The verb elue is instructive in regard to the original personal 3. ErTW, let him be.

3. etwv, let them two be. endings. These personal endings in eigi are here marked off by Plu, 2. EOT, be ye.

a hyphen, thus-el-pl.
3. Eatwray or EOTwy, let them be.


Plural. 1.


2. Present, eivai, to be. Future, ecertai, to be about to be.


T-TE. 3. €-T1(v)


€1-01(v). * It should be observed that the English given here is only approxi

The terminations of the three persons of the singular are promate, as the tense is in fact not used in this mood in independent perly appended pronoans ; thus us is found in me, or contracted sentences, but as the oratio oblique of the future indicative. Thus into ci) is found in oe, and Ti in the stem of the article to. εις auswers to εστι, and εσοιτο tο εσται.

Accordingly, in their original form, these were


may be.




Nom. wy,


Dat. VTI,

| Drua



-σο, .

[ocr errors]







as explained in paragraph 139. As a general rule, no advantage ACTIVE.


would arise from placing IN POSITION a word that contains three or Principal Tenses. Historical T. Principal T. Historical T. more consonant strokes, because in such cases there is seldom any Sing. 1. fille


-univ. other word written by the same outline for which, if left unvocalised, 2.

-σαι. .

it could be mistaken. 3.

144. A word composed of a horizontal and a down or up stroke, Dual. 1.

-μεθον. .

has its position determined by the down or up stroke, and not by the 2.

-σθον. .

horizontal one; or, in other words, a horizontal letter, when initial, 3. «Την.

σθον. . -σθην. . in the first position, and followed by a perpendicular stroke, mast be Plu. 1. flev.

-μεθα. .

written a little higher than usual to accommodate itself to the position 2.


of the following stroke; and when initial, in the first position, and 3. VTI. -~(vr). -ηνται. .

followed by an upstroke, it must be written a little lower, for the same By studying these terminations now, and by reverting to reason. them afterwards, the student will be materially assisted; but

145. A word written by a double-length curve takes three positions he must make himself thoroughly master of all the paradigms if the letter be horizontal; two positions, on and through ihe line, before he attempts to set a step in advance.

if sloping; and one position, THROUGH the line, if perpendicular.

See par. 139.

146. CIRCLE SS.—The large circle ss (par. 35) cannot be added Ayopa, -as, i, a mar- befit, suit, agree sent active, to be to a hook or a half-sized consonant. In the former case, it could not ket.

with. The infini. hold; cotiv opar, be distinguished from s; and in the latter, it would take ap nearly the Aropos, -a, -ov, im- tive is in the text literally, it is to whole of the letter. The titles Misses (plural of Miss.) passable;

used as a noun, see, that is, you atopa, straits, ex- and may be ren- may see.

and Mrs, should be written thus, for the sake of distinction. tremities. Ob- dered in harmony. Iplanai, I purchase; 147. VOCALISATION OF THE LARGE CIRCLE.—The large circle # serve that ειναι, | Γεωργικος, -η, -ον, πριασθαι, , infini

may be supposed to contain the short vowel No. 2, namely, sez or with the preposi. agricultural ; tive present mid- zez, for the plural of nouns, and the third person singular of verbs. tion eri,signifies to hence the name dle, to purchase; Other vowels may be expressed by placing the vowel-sign within the

be in the power of. Georgics, given to ouk mu splacbat; circle; thus, perist (ekzist), Crassus, persuasite, Αριστον, -ου, το, Virgil's didactic literally, was not breakfast; per poem on agricul. to purchase, that 8 precisely, - exercise. No distinction can, in this case, be αριστον εστι, we ture.

is, could not be made between aw, 7, and õõ; or between wah, weh, and wee, etc. have breakfast. Avw, I go down, purchased.

148. STROKE-Vowels.-Theoretically a stroke-vowel is at a right Ειναι, with a dative enter; apo durtos Erykahew, I call to angle with the consonant, but in practice it may be written at any of the person, has încov, before sun. gether, convoke; the force of to set.

και συγκαλων, con

angle that is distinct; thus, 1. instead of 2 true. have; the pronoun ETEITW, I leave, vener.

149. VOCALISATION OF HALF-LENGTH CONSONANTS.—When the must be put in lack; €17€, se- Tafis, -Ews, i, a rank circle s follows a half-sized consonant, it must be read after the ! the dative, the cond aorist active, or file of soldiers. or d added to the primary letter; thus, pat, pats (not past), person being pre- failed.

Depw, I bear. Spant, 8 pants. No final vowel can be placed after the i ord served: thus eott OeAw, I desire, I will. DUTELA, -as, i, plant- added by halving; thus ww

would not be India, practice, μοι is I have ; εστι Νικαω, I conquer. cou, thou hast , etc. Opace, I see, behold; npa, -as, s, an hour faulty

, bat iniad, prackits, faulit: T. 1. are the ', fit, ópav,infinitive pre- (Latin, hora), time. correct forms. This rule requires particular attention: it is fre EXERCISE 72.-GREEK-ENGLISH.

quently misunderstood by learners. 1, “Η ταξις ην εκατον ανδρες. 2. Ην της ώρας μικρον προ δυντος

150. OMISSION OF VOWELS IN PL, PR, ETC.-It is seldom neces ήλιου. 3. Οι νομοι ζημιαι εισι των αμαρτωλων, 4. Τουτοις θανατος | sary to mark an unaccented vowel in a double consonant of the pl ani εστιν η ζημια. 5. Ο σιτος επελιπε, και πριασθαι ουκ ην. 6. Eστιν | pr series ; thus, permit, ο υocal. In accented syllables, thi Spav to opos. 7. 'H Amouaov apetn tapaðeiyua nv. 8. 'Hul vowel should be inserted; thus, ypervert, pérvert. αριστον ουκ εστιν. 9. Εγω εσομαι και συγκαλων. 10. Ούτος εστιν ο

151. Two VOWELS CONCURRING. When two vowels occur eithe νικων. 11. Εγω μια τουτων ειμι. 12. Βασιλευς νομιζει υμας αυτού | before or after a consonant, the vowel that is sounded nearest to the car

13. Eστιν ουν της γεωργικης τεχνης ή των δενδρων φυτεια. Οnant should be written nearest toit; thus, I tota, Messia 14. Eστιν αυτοις αγορα. 15. Εν τοις αποροις ημεν. 16. Ο Κυρος εν τούτοις ην. 17. Επι σοι εσται τουτο. 18. Οι μικρον αγαθον | When two vowels occur between two consonants, one is placed ! το αρμoττειν προσεστιν. 19. Τη βια προσεισιν εχθραι και κινδυνοι. | each; thus, . φuiet. The diphthongs i-a, oi-a may be writi 20. Tη επιμελεια περιειναι των φιλων θελω. 21. Παρην Αγεσίλαος | thus, I diamond, A royal. δωρα φερων. 22. Kυρω παρησαν εκ Πελοποννησου νηες.

152. DISSYLLABIC DIPHTHONGS.—The following form a series : EXERCISE 73.-ENGLISH-GREEK.

4 ah-e, teh-e, dee-e, 7 aw-e, 7/o-e, 100-e. 1. This is in my power. 2. The laws are in your power. 3. It is in your power (that is, it depends on you) to purchase corn. This series of signs may represent diphthongs composed of an aceen 4. It was in the power of the enemies to be present. 5. It is long vowel and ANY 'short vowel except oo; thus, the first in the power of good boys to excel. 6. It will be in my power may be written in “solfaing" and "solfaers,” also for ay ve to approach the city. 7. Punishments belong (Tpor Elvai) to sin the second in " saying, clayey, aerated, bayonet;" the third ners. 8. Thy care of thy friends is an example to all.9. The being, real, theory, museum ;" the fourth in both soil (one sylla ships have come to the king.

and sawing (two syllables), etc. In alien, En folio, ucre

etc., where the first sowel is not accented, the yah series of vol LESSONS IN SHORTHAND.-XI.

should be used, rather than the third of the above series.


occur several vowels, and a pasal utterance of others, unknow 143. POSITIONS OF WORDS.--Phonographers, who wish to become English. These vowels are represented by short strokes par reporters, should cherish reporting habits as soon as they can write the with the consonant, and nasality by -; thus, I system fluently. In following a rapid speaker it is impossible to l, dá, I, du; ej, sain, v an, íg on, ý ur. These w of a consonant outline, INDICATE the vowel, or principal vowel, of the may be expressed in phonotypes thus, word, it will facilitate the reading of the report. In the Reporting

zen, dw, dy, sen, an, on, on. Style, a word that contains only one or two consonant strokes is 154. Scotch GUTTURAL CH.-The Scotch guttural ck written in Position, in accordance with its vowel, or accented vowel, I also in German, Irisb, Welsh, and other languages), and the Ga





g in sieg (victory), are written thus, 5 ch, so gh; as in thus, air, 6


tare, Wtory, fear, fury, floch (Scotch, lake), -5: ich (German I), L's Dach pare, perry, car, carry, cheer, y cherry, (German, roof), Sieg. The phonotypes are "X, 4.”

Easter, history, Sir, star, earn, run, 155. WELSH LL.-The Welsh ll, which is the surd dr whispered

airs, rose, rise,

stern, source. form of the English 1, is represented by Ý ll; thus, Ć Llan.

167. The rule for the downward final r does not apply when r is The phonotype for this sound is 'l.

156. Nominal Consonant. It is sometimes necessary to express preceded by g, th,r, or m, after which the upward r only is conveone or more vowels or diphthongs without a consonant. In this case nient (except in


straggler, etc., where the previous part of the T! I may be employed as outlines which have no specific values ; word makes the downward r easy); nor when it would carry a word thus, I E for Edward or Emma, .J I for Isabel, I ah! more than one descending stroke below the line. 'or Leh? or aye (e, ever). The stroke-vowels may be struck 168. In the case of a word that contains no other stroke-conThrough the nominal consonant, as T O for Oliver, tă, 1 oo. sonant than, with a vowel both before it and after it, write the Christian names should be written in full when they are known. The downward r if there is only a vowel before; as, 5 area, 3 areas, nominal consonant may be joined to any other consonant, and be array, 8 arrays, Yarise; but if there is MORE THAN a vowel written in any direction; thus, Fort Thomas Eah.

before, write the upward r; as, (sorry, y story, . serene,

Styrian, o serious.

169. PL AND PR SERIES.- The pl and pr series of double conso157. Seeing that in the Phonographic Alphabet s, r, w, y have du. nants should be kept, generally, for such words as contain no vowel plicate forms, that three other letters (sh, 1, h) may be written either between the two consonants, or only an obscure one ; thus, pray, upward or downward, and that many groups of consonants may be ex apple; and the two single consonants should be written when pressed either by their alphabetic forms or by abbreviations, it is evi

peer, V pole. dent that many words may be written in more than one way. For any a clearly-sounded vowel comes between ; as, giren word the writer should choose that form which is most easily and

170. PAST TENSE.—The past tense of a verb ending in t or d is rapidly written, and is at the same time capable of being clearly vocal written thus, V part, V. parted, not v part, y parted. ised. The briefest outline to the eye is not always the most expeditious Verbs that end with the sound of z, are written in the past tense to the hand. The student will insensibly acquire a knowledge of the with Psd, not with the loop st; thus, of gazed, ng 'mused. best forms by practice and observation, and especially by reading some book printed in Phonography. The following special rules embrace

171. STROKE AND CIRCLE S.-Words that contain no other conso. the principal CLASSES of words that admit of various outlines, and a nants than ss, are written with the stroke and the circle, or the circle list of nearly all other common words of this kind is given in par. 177. and the stroke, as may be convenient. It is well to keep the form

158. STROKE W, Y, H.—The stroke-letters for w, y, h are written for ss, and 9 for sz. The former may then be vocalised into cease, in words that contain no other consonant (except - you), in prefer- sauce, etc., and the latter into seize, size, etc.; but the outlines of ence to the vowel signs ce wah, weh, wee, yah

, yeh, yee, 2. see, ). say, 5 saw, etc., should not be changed to ) sees, etc. etc., and the dot h; thus, Y co

yea, 8 hue.

172. FL, FR, ETC.-In words containing no other consonant 159. STROKE H.-The upward h may be joined to p, t, ch, thus, stroke, “fr, vr, fr, dr” should be employed in words beginning with a V behave, 6 Takiti, fie Jehovah; to f, th, thus, vowel, as offer, ether; and "fr, vr, or, &r” in words beginV Pohi; to s and sh, thus, X (first writing > >, and ning with a consonant ; as Vyfry, )- throw. In other cases select forming the circle when vocalising); to n, ng, thus,

the stroke which makes the easiest outline. When the outlines are kance; and to the upstrokes for r, w, y, h, thus, Rehob. equally convenient, fi, ul, 01, dl, should be written cca C.


160.— The downward h may be joined to ck (or the correspond and fr, vr, ør, dr, thus, 12), in accordance with the pl, pr. ing thick letter), thus; % Jehu ; to s, thus, % Soho; or to s series of letters ; to prevent the reading off for fr, etc., or the contrary,

when the difference in the size of the hook is not accurately observed. and sh, thus,

(first writing} 7, and making the circle 173. JOINED VOWELS.-At the beginning of a word, a vowel when vocalising); and to k, m, l, and the downward r, thus, Ž may be joined to a consonant in the following cases :-war, wỏ,

before k, , (up), n, m, tr, chr, and shr; the diphthong i, before cohort, 7 Mahomet, ila Elihu, of Režum (Ezra iv. 8).

t, sh, s, th, p, f, r (down); and the triphthong wi before t, th, f; 161. Dor H.-The dot aspirate cannot be used AFTER A CONSO- thus, walk, 7 water, Vi item, wife; also in such NANT; thus, lvis Appii (Acts xxviii. 15), not Ap-hy.

cases as r orol, w about, b due, new, continue. 162. GENERAL RULE FOR L AND R.- The following rule, which 174. Hooks.—A hook may occasionally be written when voca.. and r : – If equally convenient to the writer, the up stroke is used lising ; thus, first write y, then make it into og university. when a vowel follows, and the down stroke when a vowel precedes. 163. INITIAL L.-When joins easily to the following letter, it is

175. When ns, following a curve, ends a noun in the singular, or written downward if a vowel precedes, and upward otherwise ; thus,

a verb in the infinitive, write the STROKE n, not the hook ; thus,

ve fence, Cu alike, <like, alum, 6 element, lament.

176. The following compounds are thus written: Almighty, 164. FINAL L.-After f, or the upward r, L is written downward

almost, already, although, altogether, when final, and upward if followed by a vowel; thus, feel, always, also. Vafollow. After sk, sh (down), ng, and n, the downward / is most convenient. After p, t, ch, k, sh (apward), s (stroke), th, 1 (upward), (downward), m, and skr, use the upward l; also after the circle s,

CORRESPONDENCE IN FRENCH.-I. except when preceded by f, th, or n. The corresponding heavy As a suitable pendant to our “ Lessons in French" and "Readletters follow the same rules. 165. INITIAL R.-When r is initial, and

ing in French," we now bring under the notice of our readers a

followed by p, k, sh, valuable series of model business letters in English and French, (stroke or circle), 1, 7, or n (stroke or hook), the down-stroke is relating to the various transactions of commercial life. used if a vowel precedes; and the up-stroke otherwise ; thus

Under each heading the student will first find a model letter 2-ark, rock, V earl, 1 rule,


couched in language appropriate to the subject under considera

tion in English. Immediately after is given, in every case, a 166, FINAL R.-A final < (with or without a hook, circle, or loop) close but idiomatic translation of the English model letter into is written upward if a vowel follows the r, and otherwise downward; French.



It is unnecessary to do more than point out that any one who 3.-CIRCULAR NOTIFYING THAT A BUSINESS HAS CHANGED has carefully studied the “ Lessons in French," which have

HANDS. already appeared in the POPULAR EDUCATOR, may soon become Messrs. Roger & Co., Brussels.

Bremen, August 17, 1866. an adept in French commercial correspondence by means of these model letters of business. We would recommend the constrained me to retire from business, which in future will bo

Gentlemen,-The natural infirmities incident to old age have learner first to copy the English form without looking at the conducted by my two sons in their name. French translation below; then endeavour, by aid of his dictionary and grammar, to translate the English form thus copied tinue your correspondence with them, and take note of their

While making known to you this change, I beg you will con. out into French; and, lastly, compare his work with the French

respective signatures. model that follows the English form, and correct his translation

I have the honour to remain, Gentlemen, by its aid. He should also practise himself in translating each

Your very obedient servant, French model into English, afterwards correcting his translation

FRANZ MEYER. by the English forms.


Karl Meyer will sign : MEYER BROS.
Amsterdam, August 16, 1866.
Messrs. Legrand & Co., London.

Bremen, le 17 Aout, 1866. Gentlemen,--We take the liberty of informing you that our

Messieurs Roger & Cio, à Bruxelles. Mr. Jean Van Steen will, in conformity with a long-expressed gagent à renoncer aux affaires du commerce, que je remets dès

Messieurs, Les infirmités inséparables de la vicillesse m'en. desire, retire from this date from our firm.

Though we regret being deprived of his active co-operation ce jour entre les mains de mes deux fils pour qu'ils les dirigent and long experience, the fact of his retirement will not interfere

en leur nom. with the conduct of our business.

En vous annonçant ce changement, je vous prie de vouloir We are, Gentlemen, your obedient servants,

bien continuer avec eux votre correspondance, et prendre note J. & B. VAN STEEN.

de leurs signatures.

Je suis, Messieurs, avec la plus parfaite estime,
Amsterdam, le 16 Août, 1866.

Votre très-obéissant serviteur, Messieurs Legrand & Cie, à Londres.

FRANZ MEYER Messieurs, -Nous prenons la liberté de vous faire part que M. Louis Meyer signera : MEYER FRÈRES. notre sieur Jean Van Steen, désirant quitter les affaires, se retire Karl Meyer signera : MEYER FRÈRES. à dater de ce jour de notre maison.

Sa retraite, quoique nous laissant le vif regret d'être privés 4.-CIRCULAR ON THE CESSATION OF EXISTENCE OF A de sa co-opération active et de son expérience, ne changera rien

FIRM AND WINDING-UP OF AFFAIRS, dans la marche de nos affaires.

Bordeaux, August 18, 1866. Nous avons l'honneur, Messieurs, de vous saluer, Messrs. Thomas & Co., London.


Gentlemen,- It is with deep regret that I have to inform you 2.-CIRCULAR ANNOUNCING THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A of the sad and premature death of my husband, Mons. Martin New HOUSE OF BUSINESS.

Auber, only existing partner of the firm of Auber & Co., of Messrs. Petit & Co., Marseilles.

London, August 15, 1866. this town.

As both my sons are still too young to continue the firm Gentlemen,-We have the honour to inform you that we have founded by their father, I have but to fulfil the sad duty of this day established a house of business under the firm of

thanking my late husband's correspondents for their confidence, Masters & Johnstone.

and to inform them that the firm Auber & Co. has ceased to We are in hopes that ample capital, our joint experience, and exist, and that I intend to superintend the liquidation myself. acquaintance with business matters, will enable us to give satis

Begging you to take note of my signature, faction to all who may honour us with their confidence.

I have the honour to be, Gentlemen, Begging you to take note of our respective signatures, we

Your obedient servant, refer you to the undermentioned firms,

MARIE AUBER, Widow. And have the honour to be, Gentlemen,

Mme. Auber will sign : AUBER & Co., in liquidation.
Your very obedient servants,

Bordeaux, le 18 Aout, 1866.

Messieurs Thomas & Cie, à Londres. Fred. Masters will sign: MASTERS & JOHNSTONE.

Messieurs,—C'est avec la plus vive douleur, que j'ai à vous Andrew Johnstone will sign: MASTERS & JOHNSTONE. annoncer la perte douloureuse et prématurée de mon époux, le References permitted to

sieur Martin Auber, seul chef de la maison Auber et Cie, de Messrs. H. Bake, London.

cette ville. Changarnier, Lyons.

Comme mes deux fils sont encore trop jeunes pour diriger la Lilienskin, St. Petersburg.

maison fondée par leur père, il ne me reste que le triste devoir Mackay, Glasgow.

de faire mes remerciements aux correspondants de feu mon mari

Londres, le 15 Août, 1866. pour la confiance qu'ils lui ont accordée, et de les prévenir que Messieurs Petit & Cie, à Marseille.

la maison Auber et cie n'existe plus, et que je dirigerai la liqui. Messieurs,---Nous avons l'honneur, de vous prévenir que nous dation moi-même. venons d'établir une maison de commerce sous la raison sociale En vous priant de prendre note de ma signature, et are Masters et Johnstone.

l'assurance de ma parfaite considération, Nous nous flattons que des capitaux suffisants, l'expérience et

J'ai l'honneur d'être, Messieurs, la connaissance des affaires, nous mettront à même de satisfaire

Votre humble servante, tous ceux qui voudront bien nous honorer de leur confiance.

MARIE AUBER, Veuve. En vous priant de prendre note de nos signatures respectives, Mme. Auber signera : AUBER & Cir, en liquidation. nous nous référons aux maisons ci-dessous, et avons l'honneur d'être avec une parfaite considération, vos très-humbles serviteurs, 5.-LETTER OF INQUIRY AS TO SOLVENCY OF A FIRM,

Messrs. Lafitte, Paris.

Havre, August 19, 1866.
ANDREW JOHNSTONE. Gentlemen,-We beg to confirm our letter of the 26th of July

, Fred. Masters signera : MASTERS & JOHNSTONE.

and request you to be good enough to let us know your opinion Andrew Johnstone signera: MASTERS & JOHNSTONE. of the solvency of Messrs. Henry Smith Bros., who have reRéférences :

ferred us to you for the said information. Messieurs H. Bake, Londres.

We shall be obliged if you would also indicate to us the Changarnier, Lyon.

amount of credit we may safely give them.
Lilienskin, St. Petersbourg.

You may rely upon our discretion.
Mackay, Glasgow.


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