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LESSONS IN LATIN.—XXXVII.

| a sign of manliness, to think of in any way parting with them;

and the love of self-decoration then displayed itself in trimming DEVIATIONS IN THE SECOND CONJUGATION (continued).

and dressing the beard. In time, effeminacy led to the shaving 5. Perfect in -I; Supine in -SUM.

of the beard. Besides being clipped, the chin was also shaven, i. Prandeo, prandere, prandi, pransum, I breakfast.

and the hair was plucked out, so as to promote what was conii. Sedeo, sedere, sedi, sessum, I sit.

sidered a becoming appearance. Thus, three methods of hair. In the same way are formed the compounds of sedeo which dressing prevailed-clipping (cutting), plucking out, and shaving

. have prefixes of two syllables; as, circumsedeo, circumsedere, Tonsor has a feminino noun, tonstria, and in the exercise we find circumsedi, circumsessum, to sit round, enclose, besiege. The tonstricula. Hence we learn that hair-dressing was not confined compounds, having prefixes of one syllable, change the e into i; to men only. e.g., assideo, assidere, assedi, assessum, to sit with or by.

7. Perfect in -SI; Supine in -SUM. iii. Strideo, stridere, stridi (no supine), to make a shrill or i. Mulceo, mulcere, mulsi, mulsum, I soothe. hissing sound.

ii. Mulgeo, mulgere, mulsi, mulsum, I milk. iv. Video, videre, vidi, visum, I see; videor, I appear.

iii. Tergeo, tergere, tersi, tersum, I wipe or scour. The following take a reduplication in the perfect :

iv. Ardeo, ardere, arsi, arsum, I burn. v. Mordeo, mordere, momordi, morsum, I bite; and hence, I v. Rideo, ridere, risi, risum, I laugh. grieve, vex, or provoke.

vi. Suadeo, suadere, suasi, suasum, I advise. vi. Pendeo, pendere, pependi (supine uncertain), I hang. vii. Maneo, manere, mansi, mansam, I remain.

vii. Spondeo, spondere, spopondi, sponsum, I vow, become viü. Jubeo, jubere, jussi, jussum, I command. liable for.

ix. Hæreo, hærere, hæsi, hæsum, I stick. viii. Tondeo, tondere, totondi, tonsum, I shear.

The ensuing are without supines :The compounds of these reduplicated verbs follow their

X. Algeo, algere, alsi, I am cold. several primitives, but drop the reduplication; as, admordeo, admordi, admorsam, to bite at; præpendeo, præpendi, to hang

xi. Fulgeo, fulgere, fulsi, I shine forth, lighten. before ; respondeo, respondi, responsum, to reply; detondeo,

xii. Turgeo, turgere, tursi, I swell.

xii. Urgeo, urgere, ursi, I press. detondi, detonsum, to shear off.

xiv. Frigeo, frigere (frixi, rare), I am stiff with cold. 6. Perfect in -SI; Supine in -TUM.

xv. Luceo, lucere, luxi (lucsi), I shine. i. Augeo, augere, auxi, anctum, I increase (E. R. avgment). 8. Perfect in the passive form (semi-deponents); no Supine.

ii. Indulgeo, indulgere, indulsi (indultum, rare), I yield to, indulge.

i. Audeo, audere, ausus sum, I dare venture. ii. Lugeo, lugere, luxi (no supine), I grieve.

üi. Gaudeo, gaudere, gavisus sum, I rejoice. iv. Torqueo, torquere, torsi, tortum, I twist, torture.

üi. Soleo, solere, solitus sum, I am accustomed.

VOCABULARY.
VOCABULARY.

Abstergere, to wipe Convivor, I eat in com- Mirifice, wonderfully, Acute, sharply. Ferreus, -a, -um, mada Quoad, as long as.

Napoleo, -ōnis, m., Ancillaris, -e (from an of iron, iron-hearted. Rabies, -ei, f., madness. Affulgöre, to shine upon. Deridēre,to laugh down. polson. cilla, a maid-servant), Interrytus, -üs, m., ruin Rabiosus, -a, -um, mad, Caducus, -a, -um, fail. or at.

Oblectare, to delight. assisting, monial. Lachrýna,-, f., a tear, raging.

ing, frail.

Detergere, to wipe down. Optare, to wish før. Barba, -æ, f., a beard. Locuplēto, 1, I enrich. Residère, to remain bo- Carthaginensis, -is, m., Dissuadere, to dissuade. Perpetior, perpěti, perCapillus, -i, the hair of Oecasas, -üs, m., hind.

a Carthaginian. Elucăre, to shine forth. possns sum, I safe the head.

going down, a down Sica, -æ, f., a dagger. Comitas, -ātis, f., po- Exsilium, -i, exile, ba greatly. [greatly. Collum, -i, 2., a neck. fall, Sicarius, -i, m., an as liteness.

nishment.

Permuloőre, to sestre Epistola, -æ, f., a letter. Occupo, 1, I seize. sassin.

Confectio, -ōnis, a mak- Lateo, -ui, 2, I lie hid Remanēre, to remain. Extěrus, -a, -um, ex- Pervidēre, to see through, Tonsor, -õris, m., a ing, preparation. (E. R. latent). Scintilla, -2, f., a sperk. ternal, foreign.

handlo, investigate. barber. Extorquére, to extort, Probitas, -ātis, f. (from Tonstricula, •, f., a

EXERCISE 139,-LATIN-ENGLISH. take, or wrest. probus, good, kind), barber-giri.

1. Dux mitibus verbis excitos militum animos permulsit. 2. Le honesty, goodness.

gendis Virgilii carminibus animus meus mirifice oblectatus et per:

mulsus est. 3. Ita jucunda mihi hujus libri confectio fuit, ut ouines EXERCISE 137.—LATIN-ENGLISH.

absterserit senectutis molestias. 4. Non prius ad te veniam quam 1. Postquam prandero, ambulabo. 2. Nos cras in horto prande- luctum omnem meum abstersero. 5. Detersane jam est tabula ? 6. bimus. 3. Audistine nos cras in horto pransuros esse ? 4. Quoad Quadraginta milia librorum Alexandriæ (at Alexandria) arserunt. 7. ulla spes in animo meo resedit, pro patriæ libertate dimicavi. 5. Jam Non dubito quin brevi tempore tota Germania bello arsura sit. & tres menses obsiderunt hostes nostram urbem. 6. Non sum ille Quis est cui semper arriserit fortuna ? 9. Nescio cura te derisus sim. ferreus qui (= ut ego) non movear horum omnium lachrymis, a quibus 10. Sic mihi persuasi, sic sentio, non esse animos nostros mortales. me circumsessum videtis. 7. Multi putant se beneficos in suos 11. Quis credat cives pacem dissuasures esse ?

12. Quis confiant amicos visum iri, si locupletent eos quacunque ratione. 8. Cave ne semper sibi illud stabile et firmum permansurum esse, quod fragile et prius de re aliquâ judices quam eam diligenter perviděris. 9. Epis- caducum sit? 13. Romanorum gloria usque ad nostram memoriam tolæ tuæ valde me momorderunt. '10. Si quis a cane rabioso morsus remansit. 14, Lycurgus convivari omnes cives jussit. est, rabies eum occupat. 11. Quoad tu locutus es, puer ab ore tuo

EXERCISE 140.-ENGLISH-LATIN. pependit. 12. Spopondistine pro amico? 13. Spopondi. 14. Multa a Lælio et in senatu et in foro vel provisa prudenter, vel acute re They have rejoiced. 3. They will rejoice. 4. My sisters have et

1. I am accustomed to rejoice at the prosperity of my friends. 2. sponsa sunt. 15. Cicere narravit Dionysium ne tonsori collum committeret, tondere filias suas docuisse ; ita sordido ancillarique

officio fortune will smile on the brave? 7. I deny that fortune always smiles

joiced. 5. Fortune smiles on brave men. 6. Dost thou think that regias virgines ut tonstriculas totondisse barbam et capillum patris.

on the brave. 8. He laughs at the philosopher. 9. Why is the philoEXERCISE 138.-ENGLISH-LATIN.

sopher derided by a boy? 10. There is no doubt that philosophers 1. I have dined. 2. My friends have dined. 3. After my friends have been derided by very foolish persons. 11. Orators wish to soothe have (shall have) dined, they will take a walk, 4. Hast thou heard the excited minds of the citizens. 12. I am persuaded that orators that I am about to dine in the garden ? 5. I heard that thou hadst ought to soothe the excited minds of men. 13. In the reign of Na. been shaved by a barber-girl. 6. It is not true; the barber shaved poleon (Napoleon reigning, abl. abs.), all Europe burned with war. me. 7. Give me that dagger. 8. Take (extorqueo) 'the dagger from

Fabula.--Hoedus et Lupus. the hands of the assassin. 9. The mother and the father will bewail the ruin of the young man. 10. I have taken the dagger from the Hædus stans in tecto domūs lupo prætereunti maledixit. Cui lapur, hands of the slave. 11. What dost thou' see? 12. I see a city besieged. 13. Our country has been much increased by wisdom and

"Non tu," inquit, "sed tectam mihi maledixit." Sæpe locus et temptas industry. 14. Wisdom and industry are preferable (potior) to (than, timidos homines audaces reddit. abl.) war, In the word tonsor, a barber, we have an instance of the way Hodas, -1, m., a kid.

VOCABULARY. in which language conveys to posterity a knowledge of customs Inquit, said.

Lupus, -i, m., a wolf. | Maledico, 3, 1 curso.

Maledicere requires its Prætereo, I pass by. and manners. Tonsor is properly a shearer, from tendeo, I shear. In tecto, under the cover object to be in the Tectum, -i, a roof. The Romans, like the Greeks, were too proud of their beards, as or protection.

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Fabula.-Grus et Pavo.

RECREATIVE NATURAL HISTORY. Pero coram grus pennas suas explicans, "Quanta est," inquit, We have already treated of three great families of ruminants,

THE ANTELOPES. "formositas mea, et tua deformitas !" At grus evšlans, "Et quanta the ex, sheep, and deer,* and we must now finish our account of est," inquit, “levitas mea et tua tarditas !” Monet hæc fabula, ne ob this important order of mammals by some notices of the ante

lopes. These resemble the ox and sheep in possessing permaaliquod bonum quod nobis natura tribuit, alios contemnamus, quibus nent and hollow horns, and the deer in their forms and motions. natura alia et fortasse majora dedit.

If numbers entitle animals to high consideration, then the

antelopes will occupy the first rank among ruminants. To a VOCABULARY.

native of Europe this statement may at first seem questionable; Deformitas, -ātis, f., Levitas, -ātis, f., light or has alios for its but a slight acquaintance with the works of African and Asiatic uglinas. ness, fleetness. antecedent.

travellers will lead to the conviction that if a census of the Formositas, -ātis, k., Pavo, -ōnis, m., a pea- Tarditas, -ātis, ., slow- ruminants could be taken, the antelopes would outnumber all beauty. cook.

the ox, sheep, and goat families combined. These quadruped Grus, gruis, c., a crane. Quibus refers to alios,

armics give life to the far-stretching table-lands of Asia, and

cover the luxuriant plains of South Africa. Some species find KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN LATIN.-XXXVI.

food in the sandy wilds of Thibet, and on the storm-swept

steppes of Mongolia ; others make their homes in the deep EXERCISE 133.-LATIN-ENGLISH.

forests of northern India; while some delight in mountain 1. Minerva taught Cicero all arts. 2. The mingled earnestness of peaks and rocky solitudes. The great number of species into modesty is greatly to be admired. 3. So many times have I been occu. which this extensive family is divided renders it impossible pied, and with such important business, that I am unable (that it is not in one short article to describe more than a few of the more allored to me) to breathe freely. 4. Know you not how many toils, remarkable members of the group. how many dangers, how many miseries the soldiers have sustained on

Europe can, at the utmost, reckon but two antelopes among their way? 5. If virtue has restrained you from bad desires, your life her ruminants, the chamois (Antilope rupicapra) and the saiga sadors, ordered the prætors to seize the Allobroges on the bridge. 7 (Antilope colus). The name rupicapra (rock-goat), applied to Let not their minds mingle with the vices of men. 8. The ascent to the former, suggests the difficulty which naturalists have felt heaven is easy to the good. 9. The less minds have mingled with and in classing this creature of the Alpine peaks. We will, however, attached themselves to the errors and vices of men, the easier to them admit it among the antelopes, and this will give one species of will be the ascent to heaven. 10. The nature of the mind is simple, the family to Western Europe, leaving the saiga to the regions nor has it in it anything mixed. 11. We live on grapes dried in the of the Lower Danube and the hills of Caucasus, Neither san. 12. We have dried many grapes this season. 13. Cato was of species can be deemed a good example of antelope form and opinion that Carthage should be destroyed. 14. Every fifth year all beauty, the rough coat of the chamois, and the heavy, sheepSicily was subjected to the census. 15. Two most powerful cities, like body of the saiga, exhibiting little of elegance or grace. Carthage and Numantia, were destroyed by Scipio. 16. No forgetful. Dess has ever blotted out the fame of the Greeks and Romans, nor ever But either animal may be taken as a good specimen of the wonFill blot it out. 17. God has filled the world with all good things, and derful activity and amazing watchfulness which distinguish the has mixed with it nothing bad.

whole family. The skill of the keenest rifleman is often baffled

when tracking the chamois along the edge of the avalanche or EXERCISE 134.-ENGLISH-LATIN.

up the ice-covered peaks. Far of the daring animal stands, on 1. Cicero a Minervâ omnes artes edoctus est. 2. Cives sex templa some projection of a rock where no hunter's foot can tread, or publice voverunt. 3. Templum Veneri dedicaverunt. 4. Mater in- bounds from crag to crag as if endowed with supernatural fantem fovet. 5. Mater semper liberos fovebit. 6. Uxores maritos energies. No finer specimen of brute skill and courage can be toverunt. 7. Militum clades per urbem magnum ploratum movit. 8. witnessed in Europe. The muscular power by which the brave Nescio quot labores sustinueris. 9. Nescis quot labores sustinuerim. creature balances itself on the narrow ledge of rock, and then 10. Pater te a vitio areuit. 11. Age patri gratias, quum te a vitio springs from this across a fathomless gulf to a mere shelf of arezerit. 12. Cave ne animus vitæ solicitudinibus se admisceat. 13. Magnum fovi in pectore meo amorem. 14. In meo pectore magnus

the opposite precipice, may well excite the envy of the most amor in te fotus est. 15. Quis hoc bellum movit ? 16. Hostium duces daring and best-trained hunters. The contest between human hoc bellum moverunt. 17. Tua mens excita nunquam sedabitur. 18. power and animal energy is here seen in its highest forms. Delete hæc verba, 19. Historiam imperii ejus delevit. 20. Mala non The saigas, or antelopes of Eastern Europe, are often seen sunt facilia deletu. 21. Pater tuus vitium delendum esse censuit. in flocks many thousands in number when making their autamEXERCISE 135.-LATIN-ENGLISH.

nal migration from the barren plains of the north to the shel

tered valleys of the south. Man keeps a sharp look-out for 1. Teach me how I may escape these things. 2. I did not receive their approach, and destroys vast multitudes, not for the sako the letter which should inform me what you were doing. 3. I told of venison, but to enrich himself by the sale of their horns and you your brother's reason. 4. The judge must be informed of the skins. The belles of Europe and Asia wear ornamental combs cause of the affair. 5. His father informs the judges concerning the made from the transparent substance of the saiga's horn, while injories of Augustus. journey. 7. It is fit and pleasant to teach those desirous of learning. the skins may appear, as elegant

gloves, in the shops of London 8. I envy your master who for so large a fee has taught you to be wise and Paris. Thus far this antelope may claim to be a promoter in nothing. 9. I teaeh many scholars the Latin language. 10. I must of civilisation, and to share with the tortoise the honour of be taught to speak Greek. 11. He taught my daughter to play on the adorning beauty's

head. lyre. 12. They may teach him to ride a horse and to use weapons. The gazelle, or Dorcas antelope, has supplied Eastern poets 13. Will you teach me the Greek language? 14. Teach these my sons with many an image suggestive of honest praise or fulsome music. 15. Gladly will I teach you letters.

flattery. The lover has won the Moorish lady's heart by send. EXERCISE 136.-ENGLISH-LATIN.

ing to her the message, “ You have the eyes of a gazelle.” Such 1. Doce me quo modo tibi prodesse possim. 2. Filiam tuam gram no damsel with even the smallest of hearts could doubt. The

brevity was to her mind the very soul of wit, and of its meaning maticam docebunt. 3. Docui uxorem meam Latinam linguam loqui. beauty and speed of the gazelle did not escape the notice of the Græce loqui. 7. A pater doctus multa sum. 8. Musicam a sorore med ancient Hebrew poets and historians. The swiftness of the docentur. 9. Nescio quid te doceam de belli evento. 10. Latinam warrior Asahel and of the Gaditest is likened to that of the linguam docendi sunt pueri. 11. Doctus sum Græce loqui. 12. Multi gazelle

, while in the Song of Solomon the animal is taken as the discipuli a mne Latinam linguam docti sunt.

most expressive symbol of the beautiful. I These antelopes are Fable.--The Mouse and the Kite.

as courageous as they are graceful. When attacked by the lion

of the Sahara, the males form themselves into a circle, with the A kite, caught in a snare, besought a little mouse to set him free by gnawing the meshes of the net (the meshes of the net being gnawed). • See Vol. III., PP. 273, 344, 401. Which being done, the liberated kite seized the mouse and devoured it. + 2 Sam. ii. 18, and 1 Chron, xii. 8. This fable shows what thanks the wicked are wont to give in return Song of Sol. ii. 9, 17. The reader will bear in mind that the for benefits.

roe"

" of these passages is the gazelle,

does and fawns in the centre, and, presenting a line of sharp If the animal now.in the Zoological Gardens, London, may be horns to the enemy, prepare to receive his charge on this row regurded as fair specimen of his race, then we fear the gans of living bayonets. Readers must not confound the rare algazel must have terrible tempers. Perhaps that particular animal (Antilope gazella) of Senegal with the beautiful species we have may be irritated by his imprisonment, but he is by no means & just described. The algazel is little known, but is remarkable type of antelope gentleness. He saluted us with a fierce bellow, for the extraordinary horns which, curving backwards over the snorted indignantly, and looked as if nothing would gratify him neck, form an arc of a large circle. The name usually given to more than to drive his curved horns into our ribs. Not being this antelope is very misleading, for "al” being only the definite able thus to indulge his feelings, he consoled himself by angrily article, the compound epithet al-gazel signifies the gazelle, and tossing up the straw in his compartment. The keepers eri. thus leads many to confound this species with the more famous dently understand the gentleman's temper, as they have fixed Dorcas antelope. The algazel appears to be related to a species metal caps on his horns. around which many a fable has grown. From what animal was Amongst the antelopes of South Africa, the springbok, or the notion of a unicorn derived ? The shape of this heraldic leaping buck (Antilope euchore), would be the most formidable creature, and its possession of a horn, naturally lead us to look rival of the gazelle for the prize of beauty. The individual in for its type among the antelopes. The abu-addas (father-addas) the Zoological Gardens will give an observer some idea of the or white antelope of Nubia (Antilope leucorya) has been selected elegant proportions of the animal, but the graceful freedom of as the animal which may have suggested the notion of the unicorn its motions can be seen only on its native plains. Can the to the ancient naturalists. But as the abu-addas has two long reader picture to himself an army of twenty or thirty thousand horns, it seems impossible to imagine how it could have sug- of these swift and beautiful creatures of the wilderness gallopgested the idea of a one-horned quadruped. The abu-addas is, ing over the far-stretching wastes ? Such are the grand panowe admit, so represented in profile on the monuments of ancient ramas of animal life shown to the savage tribes of Africa. Egypt that only one horn is visible; but it is not probable The blessbok (Antilope albifrons), called also the painted goat, that the old writers on the unicorn were misled by any such may in the opinion of many be considered a more beautiful pictorial peculiarities. Some have thought that the Chiree ante. I antelope than the springbok. The mode in which the colours lope, frequenting the forests of

are arranged on the body prothe lower Himalayas, and which

cured for the animal its name of sometimes has but one horn, must

blessbok or blazebuck, while have given the first notion of the

the peculiar white mark down unicorn. Laughing sceptics may

the face justifies the epithet al inquire why this constant heral.

bifrons.

Thus the animal has dic companion of the British lion

the good fortune to be approshould be traced from any actual

priately named both in Dutch animal. Surely, if the zoologists

and Latin. of olden times could form the

Other interesting species might notion and believe in the exist

be noticed, such as the Prong. ence of a bird which had a worm

buck (Antilope furcifer) of North for its mother and lived for 500

America, the beautiful sasin of years, it would give such men

India (Antilope cervicapra), the small trouble to imagine a uni

dzerens of Mongolia (Antilope corn. We need not, therefore,

gutturosa), and many more, but weary ourselves by searching

our limited space forbids such among the antelopes for the pro

extended details. totype of that valiant beast which

Readers will, probably, not formerly upheld the honour of

have failed to notice that the Scotland, and still nobly aids in

widely spread family of the antesupporting the shield of the house

lopes are not always very elearly of Brunswick. We know that

distinguished from the goats some old museums used proudly

on the one hand and the deer to exhibit the carefully-preserved

on the other, and even aphorns of unicorns, as positive

THE DORCAS ANTBLOPE.

proach, in some particulars, to proofs of the existence of such

the ox kind. The permanent animals. But we also know that cruel and unromantic natu- / horns may serve to distinguish the antelopes from the deer, ralists have proved one to be the tusk of the narwhal, or unicorn but both possess the tear-pits, and one species of antelopes whale, and another to have been manufactured from an ele- the prongbuck, shows a tendency to the branched horn. I phant's tusk! If no antelope can be found with one horn, it will thus be seen that the antelopes touch, at various points, may be some consolation to discover a species furnished with every family of the great ruminating order. Another note. four. This is the chickara of India (Antilope quadricornis), worthy fact is the almost complete absence of these animals which certainly possesses that number, though the second pair from America and Europe

; one species only, the prongbuck, are hardly an inch long.

being found in the former continent, and not more than two These animals present us with remarkable differences, not in the latter. Yet the prairies of the New World seem more merely in their horns, but in their bodily structure and forras. adapted to the habits of such animals than the wild table-lands The nyl-ghau, or blue ox (Antilope picta) approaches a bullock of Central Asia. in bulk, while the pigmy antelope of Africa is not larger than a The countless hosts of antelopes which inhabit many a desert rat. The bulk of the huge nyl-ghau, and its ferocity when region may suggest to us some notion of the living multitudes assailed, preserve it from the attacks of the ordinary hunters, found in places which we regard as tenantless because man is who, even when they have killed it, are seldom able to carry off absent there. their prey. We were looking at the animal in the Regent's Does not the almost innumerable variety of form and strucPark Gardens a few days ago, when a gentleman from India ture in these animals show what amazing modifications may remarked, “I have often seen sixty or seventy of these in a arise from one simple type of animal organisation ? troop, but they were not worth shooting at." The magnificent We trust this very brief survey of a race of creatures Mogul emperor Aurangzebe, who modestly styled himself “the living in remote lands, far from the range of our observaconqueror of the world," was also anxious to vanquish the nyl. tiong, may lead some of our readers to take a wider view over ghau, which he attacked seated on his trained elephant. the vast field of animal life, and induce others to receive

One of the most notable antelopes is the singular gna, which with deeper interest the zoological reports brought from distant we might be pardoned for describing as a horned horse. Some regions. have found in its appearance resemblances to the horse, buffalo, and stag. When a long file is seen galloping over the plains of • A strongly-defined white line along the face of a borse is some South Africa, they might easily be taken for a troop of zebras. times called a blaze.

[graphic]

as

LESSONS IN GEOLOGY.-X.

Soft animal tissues can never be fossilised, but during their

process of putrefaction the gases they emit cause various FOSSILS.

chemical precipitates to be thrown down from the water in which A FOSSIL, as the derivation of the word indicates (fossus, dug they are immersed. up), means anything which is exhumed from the earth. The The student will frequently find a nodule of clay which, when application of the word is restricted to organic remains, the sub- broken, is found to contain the fossil of an ammonite, or some stance of which has undergone mineralisation or petrifaction. other shell-fish, bright with a metallic crust of iron pyrites. The If any of the original material of the body be still unchanged, presence of this is easily accounted for by the fact that albumen, the term sub-fossil is sometimes used, though it is quite una constituent of all animal tissues, contains sulphur, and when necessary; for if any organic body had only been buried a few undergoing decomposition this sulphur escapes as sulphuretted years, without impropriety it might be called a fossil.

hydrogen gas. If the water be impregnated with iron, a sulphide There are three kinds of fossils :

of that metal would be found at the place where the gas was pro1. When the animal or vegetable remain is embedded in clay, duced, and thus the fossil would be built up partially of iron sul. or some recent deposit, and preserved in its natural state. phide. These replacements of matter frequently take place more

2. When the original substance of the body has been removed, than once, and with such wonderful accuracy that a piece of wood, and particles of mineral matter have roplaced the organic par- whose ligneous matter had been replaced atom for.atom by carticles, thus forming an exact model of the embedded body. bonate of lime, and this again by silica or flint-processes which

3. When all the hollow parts of the shell have become filled may have taken ages for their completion-still retains its with fine particles of mud, thus forming a cast of the inside. structure; and, under the microscope, reveals sufficient of the At a subsequent time the shell became removed, and this cast arrangement of the woody fibre to determine its nature. remained to per

The observant petuate the me Fig. 18.

reader will at mory of the

once perceive baried animal.

that the best fosFig. 16a is a

sils will be found good example of

in rocks of the this action. The

finest grain, such "fossil screw" is

limestones, common in the

whereas sandlimestone of the

stones embed middle oolite

fossils which rethe coral-rag- a

tain no delineaand is nothing Fig. 19.

tion of delicate but a cast of the

structure. It freinternal struc

quently happens, ture of the pha

Fig. 20.

especially with sianella (Fig.

Fig. 21.

fossils of car16b). Fig. 17

bonate of lime, shows the cast of Fig. 17.

7

that a process the pleurotoma

of crystallisation ria (Fig. 176) in

Fig. 16.

has caused a resitu. The lime

arrangement of of which the shell

the particles, utcomposed

terly obliterating was, in each in

all indication of stance, either

organic strucdissolved by the

ture. water under

This subject of certain circum

fossilisation is Fig. 22, stances, or other

not sufficiently wise destroyed.

understood to The space it occupied is evident in Fig. 170. In this class are warrant our dwelling further upon it. We have indicated the placed the prints of the footsteps of birds and beasts, which are general outlines of the process, but the more intricate questions found on rocky slabs. In one sense they are the remains of require a greater knowledge of chemistry than we can presume animal life.

our readers possess. We only would observe that it must The Process of Fossilisation.—The simplest form of fossilisa- not be supposed that in all cases the lapse of many years was tion is when water charged with some mineral in solution satu- required for the completion of the mineralisation, for it frorates a substance, and in its pores deposits the mineral matter. quently happens that the very soft tissues of plants, which would

It is in this manner that petrifying springs“ turn into stone” rapidly decay, are beautifully fossilised, especially in siliceous porous bodies immersed in their waters.

matter, indicating the occasional rapidity of the process. This mode of fossilisation may be practically illustrated by In enumerating the characteristic fossils of the various steeping thin vertical slices of deal in a solution of green vitriol systems of rocks, we shall so frequently have cause to refer to -sulphate of iron-for several days. The wood is then removed the generic names, that we give a full classification of the animal and dried, and upon exposing it to a red heat the vegetable kingdom-omitting the families—as arranged by Professors matter is consumed, and nothing but oxide of iron remains, Owen and Huxley. We shall not have occasion to mention many which has so exactly taken the form of the deal that even the of the orders here given, but we judge it important to give a casts of the dotted vessels which characterise this species of wood table of reference, so that the relative position of those fossils are visible under the microscope.

we do not mention may be comprehended. The orders in italics In this case, as in all cases of recent petrifaction, the original are only known in a fossil state. fibre of the wood is left intact, and the pores only are filled

up

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was

KINGDOM, ANIMALIA. with the mineral matter held in solution in the water. But

SUB-KINGDOM, VERTEBRATA. after a lapse of time a further process sets in, and the original

Class I.-MAMMALIA. matter of the body begins to decay. Particle after particle escape, either as gas, or, becoming loosened, drops out

Sub-class. — Placentalia. of its place, and its position is at once killed by an atom of Archencephala :

Examples. mineral matter. Thus, in time, all the body is replaced by the

Order 1. Bimana

Man. deposit in which it is buried, and a fossil produced which faith

Gyrencephala :

(Catarhini: Old World Monkeys. fully preserves the structure of the plant or shell.

2. Quadrumana

Platyrhini: New
Strepsirhini: Lemurs.

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DIVISION II.-AINULOIDA.

Class V.ANNULATA. Order 1. Polychæta .

Lob-worm. 2. Oligochæta .

Earth-worm. 3. Discophora.

Loech. 4. Tardigrada.

Arctiscon. 5. Sagittida

Sagitta.

Class VI.-SCOLECIDA. Order 1. Trematoda.

Fluke. 2. Tæniada

Tape-worm. 3. Acanthocephala Echinorhynchus. 4. Nematoidea

Thread-worm. 5. Gordiacea

Hair-worm. 6. Turbellarin

Planaria. 7. Rotifera

Rotifer. Class VII.-ECHINODERMATA. Order 1. Holothuridæ

Sea-cucumbers. 2. Echinidea

Sea-urchins. 3. Ophiuridae

Sand-stars. 4. Asteridea

Star-fish. 5. Crinoidea

Stone-lily, 6. Blastoidea

Peutremites. 7. Cystidea

Cystidians.

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Examples.

(Digitigrada: Lion, wolf, etc. Order 3. Carnivora.

Plantigrada : Bear, badger.

Pinnigrada : Seal, morse. [pig. 4. Artiodactyla (even-toed, Non-ruminantia: Hippopotamus, 2 or 4)

Ruminantia: Cow, stag, etc.
5. Perissodactyla (odd-s Selipedia : Horse.
toed, 1 or 3)

Pachydermata: Rhinoceros, tapir. 6. Proboscidea.

Elephants. 7. Toxodontia

Toxodon. 8. Sirenia

Dugong, manates. 9. Cetacea

Whale, porpoise. Lissencephala : 10. Cheiroptera

Insectivora : Bat. 11. Insectivora

Hedgehog, mole. 12. Edentata

Sloth, armadillo. 13. Rodentia

Rat, hare, beaver.

Sub-class.-Implacentalia,
Lyencephala :
Order 1. Marsupialia

Kangaroo, opossum.
2. Monotremata

Echidna.

Class II.-AVES (Birds). Order 1. Raptores

Eagle, owl. 2. Scansores

Woodpecker, parrot. 3. Passeres

Thrush, crow, sparrow. 4. Columbæ

Pigeon. 5. Gallinæ

Fowl, peacock. 6. Cursores

Ostrich, apterix. 7. Grallatores.

Heron, snipe. 8. Palmipedes.

Duck, gull.

Class III.--REPTILIA. Order 1. Chelonia

Turtle. 2. Crocodilia

Crocodile. 3. Lacertilia

Lizard. 4. Dinosauria

Megalosaurus. 5. Enaliosauria

Ichthyosaurus. 6. Pterodactylia

Pterodactyl. 7. Ophidia

Snakes.

Class IV.-AMPHIBIA. Order 1. Labyrinthodonta Labyrinthodon. 2. Batrachia

Frog, toad. 3. Saurobatrachia

Proteus, siren. 4. Ophimoorpha

Cecilia (blindworm).

Class V.-PISCES (Fish). Order 1. Dipnoi

Lepidosiren. 2. Elasmobranchii

Cartilaginous fish, sharks, etc. 3. Ganoidei

Sturgeon.
4. Teleostei

Ordinary osseous fish.
5. Marsipobranchii Lampreys,
6. Pharyngobranchii Amphioxus.

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SUB-KINGDOM, ANNULOSA. DIVISION 1.-ARTICULATA.

Class I.-INSECTA. Order 1. Hymenoptera

Saw-fly. 2. Coleoptera.

Beetles. 3. Neuroptera .

Dragon-fly. 4. Strepsiptera

Stylops. 5. Lepidoptera

Butterfly. 6. Diptera

House-fly. 7. Orthoptera

Cricket, earwig. 8. Hemiptera

Bag. 9. Aptera

Flea.

Class II.-MYRIAPODA. Order 1. Chilopoda

Centipede. 2. Chilagnatha

Millepede.

Class III.--ARACHIDNA. Order 1. Pulmonata.

Scorpion. 2. Amphipneusta

Spiders.
3. Trachearia .

Acarus.
4. Pycnogonida (?) Pycnogonium.

Class IV.-CRUSTACEA.
Order 1. Podophthalmia

Crab, etc. 2. Edriophthalmia Isopods. 3. Branchipods

Phyllopoda. 4. Copepoda

Cyclops. 5. Ostracoda

Cypris. 6. Cirripedia

Barnacles. 7. Xiphosura

King-crab. 8. Trilobita

Trilobites. 9. Eurypterida.

Eurypterus.

SUB.KINGDOM, PROTOZOA.

Class I.--STOMATODA. Order 1. Noctilucida (?)

Noctiluca. 2. Infusoria

Vorticella.

Class II.-ASTOMATA. Order 1. Spongiadæ

Sponges. 2. Foraminifera

Nummulites, orbitolites. 3. Thalassicolidæ

Thalassicolla. 4. Gregarinidæ

· Gregarina. The above tabulation is intended for reference. We have left the meanings of the terms unexplained, intending to enter into the explanation of those under which the various fossils we shall deem it necessary to mention will be arranged.

Like all systems of classification, it is only provisional, and as further examination is conducted, it is altered and adapted accordingly.

There is another division of the class “Pisces," which was arranged by Agassiz.

In almost all the fish of the Palæozoic period, the limits of which will be defined in the next lesson, the skeleton passed on to the tip of the tail, causing the lobes to be unequal, hence such fish are said to be heterocercal (different-tailed)-Fig. 18. Very few of these fish now exist; the shark and stargeon are examples.

The great majority of recent fish are homocercal (having tails with like lobes)-Fig. 19. This caudal development will be

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