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aux ambulances. Après la bataille, il courut s'informers lui Le voilà maintenant âne, et non plus ânon ... même de ce qu'il était devenu. Le soldat n'était que blessé. Quel bonheur d'être grand ! Tout devient(9) jouissance ;' Lorsque l'Empereur parut(d), il sembla avoir oublié sa blessure;?

On est quelqu'un, on peut hausser le ton; il leva sur lai des yeux brillant d'un éclat' extraordinaire. Na

Ce qu'on dit a de l'importance, poléon l'examine plus attentivement;& un souvenir confus lui Et l'on n'est plus traité comme un petit garçon." rappelle les traits de cet homme. Tout à coup il remarque

Ainsi dans sa pauvre cervelle, dans la main du soldat les débris d'une boîte d'ébèneo que la

Raisonnait un jeune grison, bulle, en le frappant, a fracassée(e). · Nul doute, c'est Jacopo!

Tout en broutant l'herbe nouvelle." c'est le fils du pêcheur. C'était lui, en effet, lui qui n'avait

Le jour qu'il désirait à la fin arriva. osé, jusqu'à ce jour," pénétrer jusqu'auprès de celui qui, enfant,

Il devint grand, mais il trouva avait été son bienfaiteur; lui qui, ayant pris du service(fdans

Qu'il n'avait pas bien fait son compte.co l'armée française, avait au moins voulu"? combattre pour ce

Lorsqu'il sentit les paniers sur son dos: Napoléon qu'il aimait tant. Toujours il portait sur son coeur13

“Oh! oh," dit-il, " voici de lourds fardeaux :11 la boîte que Napoléon lui avait donnée ; c'est elle qui avait

Mon allure avec eux ne sera pas très-prompte.”'12 amorti! le coup du soldat russe; c'est elle qui lui avait sauvé

À peine achevait-il ce mot, la vie. Napoléon, comme vous le pensez bien, n'en resta (9) pas Qu'un coup de fouet le force 3 à partir au grand trot. là avec Jacopo. Il le plaça dans sa garde 15 et pourvut(h) à son

Il vit bien qu'il fallait1 renoncer à l'espoir avancement. Ses bienfaits s'étendirent sur toute la famille, 16

De n'agir qu'à son gré du matin jusqu'au soir, et le nom de l'Empereur fut béni.

De se complaire(h) en son allure, Plus tard, nous retrouverons encore Jacopo. Quand la fortune

Et de dire Je veux à toute la nature. se lassa 7 enfin des faveurs qu'elle avait accumulées sur la tête da conquérant, que, précipité du haut de son trône, elle l'eut

Grands, petits, pensa-t-il ont chacun leur devoir, is

J'en ai douté dans 16 mon enfance, jeté sur le rocher de Sainte-Hélène, 18 une barque cotoya long

Mais je vois trop, que tout de bon (1) temps les rivages de cette île, 19 tandis qu'un vaisseau 20 station

Le courage et la patience nait en pleine(i) mer à quelque distance. C'était Jacopo qui

Sont-utiles 17 à l'âne, encore plus qu'à l'ânon. avait résolu de délivrer le prisonnier. Tous ses efforts échoué. rental contre la surveillance des Anglais. Désespéré, Jacopo

Moi, mes amis, je crois en sommelj) alla s'établir à Sainte-Hélène ; 22 il parvint(j) à obtenir l'au

Que ce baudet avait raison,(k) torisation de servir l'illustre captif. Il assista à son agonie, à Et que ce qu'il pensait peut 18 s'appliquer à l'homme. sa mort, et jusqu'en 1840, il n'a pas quitté son tombeau.

JUSSIEU. Lorsque enfin est arrivée l'éclatante réparation faite aux månes

COLLOQUIAL EXERCISES. du grand homme, Jacopo a pu accompagner ses cendres ; 23 il 1. L'anon désirait-il être grand ? 10. Que trouva-t-il quand il fut faisait partie du cortège. Aujourd'hui, vous pouvez voir dans 2. Que pensait-il faire ?

devenu grand ? la chapelle des Invalides un vieillard 24 qui, chaque jour, vient 3. De quelle manière espérait-il 11. Que dit-il en sentant les paniers s'agenouiller au pied du tombeau qui contient les dépouilles

aller au marché ?

sur son dos ? mortelles de l'Empereur. C'est Jacopo.

4. Que croyait-il qu'on dirait de 12. Que dit-il aussi de son allure ? lui?

13. Qu'arriva-t-il lorsqu'il achevait COLLOQUIAL EXERCISE.

5. Comment raisonnait-il du bon1. Qu'arriva-t-il au plus fort de 13. Que portait-il toujours sur son

heur d'être grand ?

14. Que vit-il alors ? la mêlée ? cour?

6. Que peut-on faire alors ? 15. Quelles furent ses pensées ? 2. Comment Napoléon fut-il 14. Comment la boite lui avait- 7. De quelle manière est-on traité 16. Que dit-il de ses doutes d'au. saavé? elle sauvé la vie ? alors ?

trefois ? 3. Le soldat fut-il atteint ? 15. Que fit Napoléon pour

8. Qui raisonnait ainsi en lui-17. Que dit-il à l'égard du courage 4. Qu'ordonna alors Napoléon ? ancien ami?

même ?

et de la patience ? 5. Où alla-t-il après la bataille ? 16. Borna-t-il là ses bienfaits ?

9. Que faisait-il en ce temps-là ? 18. Quelle morale l'auteur tire-t-il 6. Le soldat était-il mort? 17. Quand retrouverons-nous Ja.

de cette fable ? 7. Que fit-il en voyant l'Empe copo ?

NOTES. reur ? 18. Où la fortune avait-elle jeté (a) Quand je serai, when I am.

(g) From derenir. 8. Que fit Napoléon ? Napoléon ?

(h) Se complaire, to admire him9. Que remarqua-t-il dans la main 19. Que fit long-temps une barque? (6) Grand, groven up. du soldat ?

self. 20. Où voyait-on un vaisseau ?

(c) From courir, 10. Quel était cet homme ? 21. Jacopo réussit-il dans

(d) From voir.

(i) Tout de bon, in good earnest. 11, Pourquoi Napoléon ne l'avait-il efforts ?

(@) Bien faite, well-shaped.

(1) En somme, finally. pas vu plus tôt ? 22, Où alla-t-il s'établir ?

1) Quel jarret ferme, what a firm (k) Avait raison, was right. 12. Pourquoi avait-il pris du 23. Où revint-il en 1840 ?

stop. service ? 24. Que voit-on aujourd'hui dans

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN FRENCH. la chapelle des Invalides ?

EXERCISE 148 (Vol. II., page 387). NOTES. (a) From parvenir.

1. Avez-vous défendu à mon cousin de parler au jardinier ? 2. Je (9) N'en resta pas là, did not confine ne lui ai pas défendu de lui parler. 3. Mme. votre mère a-t-elle com(b) From partir.

his gratitude to this. (6) From voir. (h) From pourvoir.

mandé au jardinier d'arroser ses roses ? 4. Elle lui a commandé de (d) From paraître.

les arroser. 5. A-t-il oublié de le faire ? 6. Il a négligé de le faire ; (i) Pleine, open. (6) Fracassée, shattered. 6) From parvenir.

il ne l'a pas oublié. 7. Quelle voie prendrez-vous pour aller à Paris ? V) Pris du service, enlisted.

8. Je vous conseille de prendre la voie du chemin de fer. 9. Avezvous dit à M. votre fils de prendre la voie du batean à vapeur ? 10.

Non, Monsieur, je lui ai dit de prendre la diligence. 11. Votre frère ü’ÂNON.

n'a-t-il pas tort de négliger de faire une visite à son beau-frère ? 12. On! quand je seraisa) grand(), que je m'amuserai!'

Il a tort de le négliger. 13. Ce jeune Allemand ne brûle-t-il pas de lire

cette lettre ? 14. Il brûle de continuer ses études. 15. Vous proposezQuel plaisir d'être libre et d'agir à sa tête !

vous de lui confier cet argent ? 16. Je me propose de le lui confier. J'irai, je viendrai, je (c)courrai ;?

17. Négligez-vous de lui reprocher ses fautes ? 18. J'évite de les lui Je veux voir du pays et je voyagerai ;

reprocher. 19. Avez-vous menacé de punir votre fils ? 20. J'ai Tous mes jours seront jours de fête

menacé de le frapper. 21. Ne manquez pas de présenter mes compliAu lieu de rester là, tristement attaché

ments aux amies de ma scur. 22. Je n'y manquerai pas. 23. AvezEt réduit à bronter dans cette étroite sphère.

vous refusé de lui vendre des marchandises ? 24. J'ai refusé de Ini Ainsi que mon père et ma mère,

vendre des marchandises à crédit. 25. Quelle voio me conseillez-vous J'irai fièrement au marché;

de prendre ? 26. Je vous conseille de prendre la voie du chemin de Mes paniers sur mon dos, agitant ma sonnette :

fer. 27. Lui défendez-vous de venir ? 28. Je lui ai défendu d'écrire. Chacan m'admirera.—“ Voyez-vous?"(d) dira-t-on,

29. Avez-vous manqué de payer votre jardinier ? 30. Je n'ai pas

manqué de le payer. 31. J'ai oublié de vous payer. 32. Ne négligez “Comme il a l'oreille bien(e) faite !

pas de m'écrire. 33. Dites-lui d'aller trouver mon père. 34. Ne cessez Quel jarret ferme(s), et quel air de raison !

pas de travailler. 35. Dites-lui de venir la veille de Noël. 36. Je lui C'est une créature, en vérité, parfaite;

ai dit de venir le lendemain.

son

seg

LESSONS IN BOOKKEEPING.—XIII. take place only once a month; and then with reference to time, THE JOURNAL.

as we formerly observed, it might be called the Month-Book ;

and in the same way, according to the regular intervals when BEFORE entering on this lesson it will be advisable for the this collective book is made up, it might be called Weck-Book, student to refer to, and read over carefully, Lesson V. (Vol. II., or even Day-Book. The best name, however, which could be page 276), in which the nature and purport of the Journal and given to it, would be one indicative of its actual use, without the points in which it differs from the Day Book are fully de- reference to time; we have already suggested the name Subscribed. It may be as well to state, for facilitating reference, Ledger, and we may now propose a name which would, perhaps, that in the same lesson will be found a description of all the be more accurate and distinct, as regards the method in which subsidiary books that are generally used in the merchant's it is made up, and the connection which it has with the Ledgercounting-house, etc.

we mean the GENERAL POSTING BOOK. Some of our students The Journal, as we have before remarked, is no longer what its who are, no doubt, keen business-men, and are on the alert to name denotes, a Day Book; but is now used, in Double Entry, discover any improvements that can be made in Bookkeeping, as a book for collecting all the transactions of business for a in order to shorten their labour and produce more accurate regiven period into a focus, previous to their being entered in the sults, or rather to effect less frequent liability to error, will, if Ledger. In an ordinary business, where the transactions are they have gone with us thus far, propose some shorter or more neither too numerous nor too complicated, the formation of this pointed name than the preceding; for once, therefore, we leare book from the various subsidiary books of the concern, may this subject in their hands.

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LESSONS IN ARCHITECTURE.—XIX. tunity, amidst their constant warfare, for the culture of the

arts of peace. DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE IN ENGLAND.-I.

The Norman Conquest introduced little essential improvement. The history of domestic architecture in our own country illus- The residences of the great became imposing, from the necestrates in a very striking manner the rise of civilisation and the sity that they should be constructed for purposes of defence extinction of barbarism. We have not to travel back more than and security. Castles arose in all parts of the country; but a few hundred years to find domestic

they were built for warlike and not for comfort a thing entirely unknown, and

domestic uses. So far as domestic arthe abodes of princes entirely destitute

rangements are concerned, they could of conveniences which are now consi

boast of little accommodation superior dered necessary in the house of every

to that of the Saxon common hall. The peasant. Our Saxon forefathers lived

abode of the residents was within the in the rudest possible style. The homes

principal tower or keep, and this was even of kings and lords consisted simply

usually divided into floors, each consistof one large apartment or “hall," in

ing of a single apartment. On the base. which all the details of domestic life

ment were the cellars and the dungeons ; were carried on by themselves and their

above, the entrance-hall, where stores immediate attendants. Privacy was a

were often kept; over that, the common thing entirely unknown. After the pur

hall, where the inmates cooked, feasted, suits of the day—the chase or the fight

and, for the most part, slept together; —they assembled around one common

while the uppermost story was the dorboard, taking place according to their

mitory of the lord and his guests. The rank in the household; and in the self

door to this uncomfortable residence same apartment all members of the

was on the second floor, and entered by household afterwards disposed them.

stairs, which were raised and lowered at selves for sleep. It was only occasion

will, so that the edifice was inaccessible ally that one end of the common hall

except to the inmates; the walls were was separated from the rest by a screen,

pierced with but few openings to admit affording a rude retiring chamber for

light, as these tended to weaken them the lord and lady of the house, with a

against an enemy; and the roof was few privileged attendants.

surrounded by a high crenellated paraAlmost the only out-offices attached

pet, from which defenders of the castle to the hall were the sheds or pens for

could fight against assailants below. the cattle and the swine. The dogs, more cherished, were allowed a place HADDON HALL (TUDOR STYLE, FIFTEENTH floors were sometimes divided by a par

In keeps of larger dimensions, the in a corner of the hall itself; and

CENTURY).

tition, and the additional apartments another corner was frequently occupied

thus gained were used as council-chamby the store of provisions. Sometimes, however, the latter | ber, chapel, etc.; but in no case was there anything approachwould be placed in receptacles or cellars dug out under the hall. ing the modern idea of private apartments. Examples of these Its flooring was of earth, its walls of wood and clay, and its | Norman keeps are found in that portion of the Tower of London roof of thatch. For

known as the White the admission of

Tower, and in the light, openings

castles of Rocheswere left in the

ter, Colchester, etc. sides, and closed

The comparative by wickerwork

immunity of the when night came

clergy from the on; for warmth, a

strifes and the dan. log-fire was lighted

gers which comin the centre of the

pelled the nobles to apartment, and the

regard their homes smoke escaped by

merely as warlike holes in the roof.

posts and fortifica Such were the

tions, led to the rude habitations of

development of the higher classes

more convenient of our ancestors

plan of residence before and even for

in monastic este some time after the

blishments. Norman conquest.

chief distinguish Domestic architec

ing characteristi ture, it will be seen,

of these places, s had as yet no exist

far as domestic ar ence in the land.

rangement is con The high civilisa

cerned, was erhi tion of the Romans,

bited in the addi who had been in the

tion of apartment country nearly four

and out-offices fo hundred yerirs, had HATFIELD HOUSE (ELIZABETHAN STYLE, SIXTEENTH CENTURY).

the storage of PT failed to leave any

visions, cooking permanent impress on the barbarous tribes which either inha. , etc.; and it is to this source that we must look for the germ bited or ravaged these islands in the following centuries. The the numerous and commodious offices which became attached Roman towns which had been founded in Britain, with their the mansions of the nobility at a much later date. In some fe commodious buildings and stately villas, were razed and de- castles of the twelfth century we find indications of the separ

the departure of the people who erected them. No tion of the culinary apartments from the common ball by par Is were in the land to tempt the aspirations of tions at one end; but these examples were exceptions to tl ish rulers to anything better than the practices general rule, and it was not until the thirteenth century th North; nor, indeed, could they have found oppor- this degree of convenience became generally provided.

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In convenience of domestic arrangement, the castles of the But we must confine ourselves in the present paper to the lords progressed more slowly than the manor houses dispersed dwellings of the nobility and gentry, reserving the houses of through the country. The former were strongholds which at the general population for consideration in another article. once overawed and protected the

Coming to the fourteenth century, towns; the latter were the centres

we find a great advance in the geneof rural occupation. Both belonged

ral arrangements of the houses of to the same proprietors, for the lord

the great. The erection of more of a castle would possess perhaps

commodious residences within the several manor houses in various

castle walls continued throughout parts of his estates, as the residences

this period. The disposition to of his overseers and the granaries

combine convenience with strength for his produce. Built at places less

was rapidly on the increase, and the exposed than the towns to attack,

growing submission of the barons to these houses could often be erected

the authority of the laws favoured with a greater regard to utility than

the arts of peace. But Architecture, to defence; and hence their arrange

as a science, found its chief scope ments in process of time became so

in ecclesiastical buildings, and there far superior to those of the castle

was yet no foundation of settled keeps, that the occupants of the

style in the homes of the nobility. latter would leave them, when they

A great improvement in the accomcould, to sojourn for a time at a

modation was made by the addition manor house in the country. Thus

to the presence-chambers of with. becoming accustomed to greater

drawing apartments for the heads domestic convenience, they desired,

of the household, and it now, for on their return, to introduce similar

the first time, became the practice arrangements, as far as possible,

to partition some of these apartwithin the castle walls ; and in the

ments as bed-chambers. But the thirteenth century, when a greater

large hall was still put to its former degree of peace and order began to

uses, serving for the general mealprevail, we find that the nobles often

room of the residents, most of whom erected buildings on the manor

still slept upon its floor at night. house plan within the castle enclo

The common hall was regarded as sure. Besides this, they occasion.

the most important part of the edi. ally fortified the manor houses after

fice. Its dimensions were imposing, the castle manner, to adapt them OSBORNE HOUSE (RURAL ITALIAN STYLE).

its timber roof so highly ornamented to a more frequent and permanent

in many cases, as to excite admiraresidence than they could otherwise have made in them. The tion at the present day. A splendid specimen of these ancient manor houses, however, were still destitute of arrangements in edifices exists in the Great Hall at Westminster; and another accordance with our modern ideas of comfort and propriety. I good example, attached to the house of a merchant prince at Their chief advan

a later date than tage over the cas

that now before us, tles was in the pos

is found in Crosby session, by gradual

Hall, in the City of development, of

London. offices suited to

Among the mic the general range

nor improvements of domestic affairs.

of the time must The addition of pri

be mentioned the vate apartments

substitution of even for the chief

glazed windows for members of the

the open lattice household was still

throughout the vaalmost unknown,

rious chambers, as it was not yet

and the addition of required by the

hearths or firetastes and habits

places to these as of a comparatively

well as the larger

apartments. There From this sketch

no attempt of the abodes of

yet at regularity the higher classes

of ground-plan, but down to the close

the common hall of the thirteenth

usually occupied century, an idea

the centre of the may be formed as

domestic buildings, to what was the

the private apartcondition of the

ments being placed lower. In the towns

at one end, and the the citizens inha

kitchen and offices bited rude tene

at the other. ments of a single

In the fifteenth storey, built of

century we reach wood and clay. In EXAMPLE OF THE PALLADIAN STYLE.

a transitional pethe country the

riod, in which both people dwelt in sheds scarcely fit for the beasts of the field. And, comfort and elegance began to be studied in domestic edialthough six centuries have elapsed since the period of which fices. The wealth of the country was rapidly on the inwe have been writing, the latter remark is still true of the con- crease through its rising commerce, and the invention of gun. dition of the rural population in many parts of the country.

powder rendered castles and fortified houses comparatively

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barbarous age.

was

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