Account, because it constitutes the real check on the Balance Gebieten, to com- Serein bringen, to bring Berblühen, to fade, Sheet of the Merchant, is now to be debited to every Property mand, bid.

decay. Account on which there is a difference exhibiting a Loss on the Glau'biger, m. credi. Leichtsinnig, light, Bergleichen. (See R. business; and the same Account is to be credited by every Pro tor.

light-minded. 1, above.) perty Account on which there is a difference exhibiting a Gain. Handel, pl. quarrel. Nachtisch, m. dessert. Werkzeug, n. impleConsequently, as soon as these entries are made, all accounts of Helt, m. champion, Screien, to cry. ment, tool both kinds must be balanced as before, and the accounts them. hero.

Schuldner, m. debtor. Wiederhoʻlen, to repeat, selves may be closed up as formerly directed. The difference Heldin, f. heroine. Thurm, m. tower. reiterate. between the amount of the Losses and the amount of the Gains on opposite sides of The Profit and Loss Account, will exhibit at

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. once the Net Gain or the Net Loss, according as the amount of Der Kaufmann war nicht im Stande, The merchant was not able to the one or the other preponderates. If the difference be Net

sich auf mehr als fünf und zwanzig settle with his debtors at Gain, it is then placed to the credit of the Stock Account, and

Procent mit seinen Schuldnern zu more than twenty-five per the Profit and Loss Account is then balanced by debiting it to verglei'chen.

cent. Stock Account. If the difference be Net

Loss, the Profit and Loss Es wundert mich, daß er dieses Jahr, It surprises me that he has come Account is then balanced by crediting it by Stock Account. Of ohne Schulten zu machen, durch'. (got) through this year withcourse the former process will show that the Merchant has gefommen ist.

out making (any) debts. gained by his business, and that his Stock is increased ; the Der Preis einer Waare pslegt nach The price of wares is accnslatter process will show that he has lost by his business, and Umíständen auf- und abzuschlagen. tomed to rise and fall accord. that his Stock is diminished.

ing to circumstances. The Net Stock, independent of Gains and Losses, is at once Ginen Tag um ten andern hatte ich Every other day I had to watch ascertained by deducting from the amount placed to the credit

bei meinein franken Bruder zu with my sick brother. of Stock Account the amount abstracted from the business for wachen. Private Account, that is, for the Merchant's own private use, Man muß fich wundern, daß so etwas One must be surprised that as Household Expenses, etc. This is done systematically by

noch im neun'zehnten Jahrhun'tert such a thing can happen in making Stock Account Dr. to Private Account, as we have done gesche'hen fann.

the nineteenth century. in the Journal, in the first entry under the head of General Der Gesand'te hielt eine lange Rede The ambassador delivered (held) Balance; this entry at once balances Private Account, and

an die Versamm'lung.

along address to the assembly. reduces Stock Account to its proper dimensions. When all the

EXERCISE 190. entries above mentioned have been made in the Stock Account, it will be found that the sums of both sides of this account are verglichen. 2. Die beiden Kaufleute fonnten sich wegen des Preises nicht

1. Die Gläubiger haben sich mit dem Schuldner auf fünfzig Procent the same, a demonstratire proof that the books are correctly balanced, and that the Merchant's Real Worth has been cor

vergleichen. 3. Ich habe Beides mit einander verglichen. 4. Er hat rectly ascertained. Stock Account may no:y be closed up, and ibm das Haus auf fünf Jahre vermiethet. 5. Der junge Mann vermie the Books are completely balanced. If the Ledger will admit thete sich als Knecht. 6. Man muß fich wundern, das so etwas now in of carrying on the business for another period, whether a whole unsern Zeiten geschehen kann. 7. Es wundert mich, bas er vurdgekom. year, or half a year, all the accounts which are closed up by

men und nicht gestorben ist. 8. Cicero hielt eine Rede gegen Catilina. 9. Balance Account must have the balances carried under the Derselbe hielt auch Reren über die Freundschaft

, über das Greisenalter und

10. Casar hielt eine Rete an seine closing-up lines, to the opposite sides of these accounts, in über verschiedene andere Gegenstände. order to carry on the business as before ; but if a new

Ledger der Schule gehört hatte. 12. Wir hörten ein wiederholtes Schreien. 13.

11. Der Schüler wieterholte zu Hause noh einmal, was er ia be required, the balances can be entered in the new Stock Der Preis dieser Waare ist bedeutend aufgeschlagen. 14. Die Früchte fins Account, as New Assets and Liabilities, and Journalised and burd, den Krieg beträchtlich aufgeschlagen. 15. Die Klugheit gebietet zu posted as if they were original entries in the New Ledger. In the old Italian system of Bookkeeping, the question was

weilen auch dem tapfern Manne, einen Feind, der Häntel an ihm juột, u usually put to the Bookkeeper, in order to test the clearness of Die Gesellschaft eines verdorbenen Menschen soll man meiten. 18. Det

meiden. 16. Dar politische Flüchtling muß sein Vaterland meiten. 17. his views on the subject, "What is the reason that the difference

19. Einen Tag am of the Stock Account, added to the difference of the Profit and Arzt besucht ten Kranten einen Tag um den andern. Loss Account, gives the exact difference of the Balance Account?" Leichtsinnig, wie er als Jüngling gehandelt hatte. 21. Als sie ungarijih

20. Gr hantelte noch als Mann fo With this question we leave our students at present, hoping Heldin Jagella und antere ungarische Helden in New-Yorf ankamen, kehrten that, from what we have said, they will be able to answer it.

fie in einem Gasthause ein. 22. Bei der Tafel wurde als Naħtisd ein

mit friegerischen Werkzeugen geschmücter Thurm aus Confect Hereingebraţi, LESSONS IN GERMAN.-XLVI.

worauf in deutscher Sprache die Worte stanten : , 6s leben die ungarisca

Helden und Heldinnen!" SECTION XCVIII.-IDIOMATIC PHRASES (continued).

EXERCISE 191. Einen Tag um ten antern, literally, one day about the other, 1. The creditor has compounded with his debtor at twenty i.c., every other day; as :-Gr geht einen Tag um den antern in die per cent. 2. I could not compound with my creditors respectStadt, he goes every other day into town. Ginen Tag um den intern ing the price. 3. Please to compare one with another. 4. I habe ich Unterricht in der deutschen Sprache, every other day I have have let my house for five years. 5. A diligent scholar repeats instruction in the German language.

what he has heard at school. 6. In war time the price of pro1. Vergleichen=to compare to or with ; as :--Hierin ist ihr Nic. visions rises considerably. 7. It surprises me that he does not manb zu vergleichen, in this there is no one to be compared to her. avoid the society of such people. 8. We should avoid the Mit Gott

, dem Vollkommenen, fönnen wir schwachen, gebrcchlichen Menschen society of those who have no good principles. 9. I visit my uns nicht vergleichen, we, weak and fragile creatures, cannot comsister every other day. 10. He acts just as he did in his youth. pare ourselves with God, the all-perfect. Wem ist das Reich Gottes 11. All the goods have been taken from the merchant, as he gleich, und wem soll ich es vergleichen ? unto what is the kingdom of could not compound with his creditors. 12. Yonth, arın thyself God like, and whereunto shall I resemble it? (Luke xiii. 18.) day by day with more wisdom, as the flower of youth decays. Vergleichen Sie gefälligst tiefe Probeblätter mit dem Manuscripte, please SECTION XCIX.-EXAMPLES ILLUSTRATING THE VARIOUS to compare these proof-sheets with the manuscript. Sic vers

USES OF SOME CONJUNCTIONS AND ADVERBS. gleichen signifies "to accord, to come to an agreement," a3 :Beide Parteien haben sich schon verglichen, both parties have already

Aber, allein, sondern. compounded. Die Gläubiger Haben sich mit dem Schultner verglichen, es ist bald gesprochen, aber schwer It is soon said, but done with the creditors have compounded with the debtor.

gethan' (Schiller).

difficulty. VOCABULARY.

Noch ist er nicht da, aber kommen He is not yet there, but he will wird or gewiß'.

certainly come. Aufschlagen, to rize. Confect', n. comfit, through, "get Die Zeichen werden gegeben, daß The signs are given that the Betrichtlich, consider comfiture.

through,” survive. das Fest geen'bet jei; allein festival is over; but neither ably.

Durch'tommen, to come Gasthaus, n. hotel, inn. weder Wagen, noch Masken, noch the carriages, nor masks,


Zu'schauer weichen aus der Stelle nor spectators leave their divisions it follows the decimal arrangement. Secondly, Because (Göthe). places.

all its parts, whether of length, surface, volume, or weight, Nicht die Sprache an und für sich ist Not the language itself is cor being directly derived from the unit of length, are mutually

richtig, tứchtig und zierlich, fone rect, powerful, and elegant, dependent. Thirdly, Because the names given to the measures dern der Geist ist es, der fich but the spirit which is em and weights are well fitted for adoption into all civilised lanbarin' vertör'pert (Göthe). bodied throughout.


Q. Why is the system called Metric ?-A. Because it is A18.

founded on the meter as the unit of length. foui'se ist mein Liebling, tenn fie hat Louisa is my favourite, for she Q. What is the meter?-A. The meter is a line equal in

ein et'leres Gemüth' und einen has a mind more noble, and length to the ten-millionth part of the earth's meridian, meafe'steren Charakter, als viele a character more firm than sured from the pole to the equator. junge Damen; nichts als Sanft. many young ladies : nothing Q. Can you give an account of the names by which the various muth spricht aus ihren Augen. but gentleness speaks from measures and weights of the Metric System are described P

her eyes.

A. Yes, very simply. There are four prefixes derived from the Alio.

Greek language, and three from the Latin, which, placed before Fuch also soll ich trauen, Ihr nicht To you then shall I trust; not the unit of each denomination, constitute the entire language mir? (Schiller.) you to me?

of the Metric System. They are as follow:Gt hat e8 selbst gethan', und fann He has done it himself, and,

From the Greek--Myria, signifying ten thousand times. alio Niemand tabeln. consequently, can blame no


one thousand times. Hecto,

one hundred times. Auch


ten times. Sie sind davon' heute Nacht, die They are off to-night, and the

From the Latin-Deci,

one tenth part. rifles also.

Centi, Jäger auch (Schiller).

one hundredth part. Milli,

one thonsandth part. So gut er auch ist, so kann ich mich How good soever (Sect. LXII.) bah nie mit ihm befreunden. he may be, I shall never be Q. Can you give an example of the application of these prin

come intimate with him. ciples ?-A. Yes, by repeating the Außerdem

TABLE OF LINEAR MEASURE. Alle biese Sürften wuchsen in feiner All these princes grew up with Myriameter 10,000 meters. METER 1 meter. höhern Erwar'tung auf als über no higher expectation than Kilometer 1,000

Decimeter = To of a meter. eine Republik' zu gebie'ten, und that of governing a republic, Hectometer 100

Centimeter = Th feines ihrer Länder konnte ihnen and none of their states

Dekameter 10

Millimeter = 106 cine andere Erfah'rung geben; could afford them any other Q. Has the length of the meter ever been exactly determined außerdem' besa'ben diese Fürsten experience ; besides, these in English measures 1-A. Yes, by Captain Kater, in the year nichts, als was bie Nic'terlande

princes possessed nothing but 1818, acting under the authority of a Royal Commission, and ihnen gaben (Schiller).

what the Netherlands gave the permission of the French Government.

Q. What was the length thas found 2-A. The length thus

found was 39:37079 inches. Da bu hier bift, will ich mit dir Since you are here, I will go Q. Without reference to an exact standard, how would you autógehen. out with you.

instruct a common carpenter to make a meter ?--A. I would Da ber Wind aus Westen fommt, As the wind comes from the tell him to cut a slip of wood of the length 3 feet 3 inches, wirt es regnen. west, it will rain.

3 eighths, then divide the whole into ten equal parts, and each of these into ten equal parts. I would then have a meter,

sufficiently correct for all practical purposes, divided into LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.-- XLVIII. decimeters and centimeters. THE METRIC SYSTEM.

Q. Can you give a simple relation in whole numbers between The advantage of adopting the Metric System of weights and the principal linear measures of the English and Metric Systems? measures in this country has lately become a question of con.

--A. The following relations are very simple, and sufficiently siderable public interest. By an Act of Parliament passed in exact for practical purposes, the latter especially :-10 metres =

70 yards = 210 feet. 1864, the use of the Metric System was rendered legal. In the 11 yards; and 64 metres = session of 1868 a bill for rendering its use compulsory was read

Q. Proceeding from linear measure, can you give an account a second

time in the House of Commons by a majority of 219 to of metric land measure ?--A. Yes, the unit of land measure is 67, and was only withdrawn ont of deference to a request on the the ar, and the table of land measure is formed in the same part of the Government not to press it forward until the com

manner as before, by the addition of the metric prefixes. pletion of the labours of a Royal Commission then sitting on the

Q. What is the ar ?— The ar is a square standing on a dekacurrency question. Petitions in its favour have been presented meter, and is therefore equal to one hundred square meters or to Parliament by the Associated Chambers of Commerce, and at

centiars. several meetings of the International Statistical Congress, and

Q. Repeat the table of land measure.--A. The table repeated of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, in full is as follows :resolutions have been passed recommending its general adop

TABLE OF LAND MEASURE. tion. Finally, it may be stated that the Metric System has Myriar = 10,000 ars.

AR been already accepted, either wholly or in part, by 360 millions

Kilar = 1,000

Deciar = is of an ar. of people, and that in this country, as well as in Russia and the

Hectar 109

Centiar = Ta United States, there exists a strong and growing feeling that an

Dekar =

Milliar = Totoo . international system, founded on rational principles, such as the Q. Why do you say repeated in full ?-A. Because in those metric, would be of inestimable advantage to science, commerce, countries which have adopted the Metric System, three denominaand education.

tions only are ever used in practice, land being always meaUnder these circumstances, it is proposed to give in the pages sured in hectars, ars, and centiars. of the POPULAR EDUCATOR a familiar account of the Metric Q. What is the exact value of an ar and of a hectar?- A. An System. Ar the catechetical method of instruction presents ar is equal to 119.60333 square yards; a hectar is equal to meny advantages in expounding the principles of a scientific 2:47114 acres. system, the form of question and answer has been adopted as

Q. Can you state the value of a hectar approximately in Engfollows:

lish measures ?--A. Yes, a hectar is very nearly equal to 10 8. What is the Metric System P-A. The Metric System is a roods or 2, acres. rational system of measures and weights designed for the use of Q. Is this value of the hectar too great or too small ?-A. It all civilised nations.

is too great. A more exact relation is the following :-40 Q. Why do you call it a rational system ?-A. For the fol- hectars = 99 acres. lowing reasons : - Firstly, Because in all its multiples and sub Q. This seems to furnish an easy rule for turning hectars into

[ocr errors]

1 ar.

10 »


acres.-A. Yes; consider each hectar as 10 roods, and from the -A. The half- kilogram, or new pound, which exceeds the result deduct 1 per cent.

pound avoirdupois by about 1! oz.; the centner of 50 kilograms, Q. Passing from land measure, can you give an account of or 100 new pounds, which is less than our hundredweight by cubic measure ?-Yes; the unit of volume or cubic measure is about 14 lbs.; the ton, of 1000 kilograms, which is less than the liter, and the table is formed in the usual way.

our ton of 20 cwt. by about 35 lbs. Q. What is the liter?-The liter is a volume equal to the con. Q. Having explained the principles of the Metric System, can tents of a cube each of whose sides is a decimeter.

you state the advantages to commerce that would result from Q. Repeat the table of cubic measure.--A. :

its general adoption ?-A. A uniformity of measures and weights TABLE OF CUBIC MEASURE.

among civilised nations would enable merchants and dealers to

see at a glance what now requires complicated and perplexing Myrialiter = 10,000 liters.

LITER = 1 liter. Kiloliter 1,000


of a litor.

calculations, and whatever renders business easy tends always to Hectoliter

Centiliter =

| its increase. Dekaliter =


Q. Of what advantage would the Metric System be to en. ' Q. Have you any observations to make on these measures - gineers, architects, and artisans ?-A. A uniform system would A. Yes; the first two-namely, the myrialiter and kiloliter—are enable men of these professions to make use of plans and speci

. rarely if ever used in practice. The 'hectoliter is practically fications of works constructed or projected in foreign countries the unit of corn measure.

directly, without the labour of previously reducing them to their Q. What is the exact value of the liter in cubic inches P-A. own peculiar scales as at present. The liter is equal to 61.02705 cubic inches ?

Q. Would the adoption of the Metric System benefit these Q. How do you prove this p—The length of a decimeter is professions in any other way than that which you have just 3-937079 inches ; by calculating the cube of this number by stated ?--Yes ; in consequence of its complete accordance with continued multiplication, we arrive at the number 61.02705.

the principles of decimal arithmetic, and also the mutual depenQ. Can you give any simple relation connecting the cubic dence of all its parts, engineering and architectural calculations measure of the Metric System with English liquid measure

would be rendered much more simple. A. The following is very nearly true, and is sufficiently correct

Q. What advantages to education do you conceive would flow for all practical purposes :-1 hectoliter = 22 gallons.

from the adoption of the Metric System -A. The abolition of Q. Can you give any other P-4. Yes; the following

is very children, and

a great tax on the patience of teachers ; a great

the " Table Book,” which is a grievous load on the memory of simple, but not so exact as the last :-1 gallon = 44 liters.

Q. Passing from cubic measure, can you inform me as to the simplification of the rules of arithmetic by the abolition of anit of weight of the Metric System?-A. The gram, the unit of reduction, practice, and all the perplexing sums in compound weight of the Metric System, is the weight of a cubic centi- addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Good books meter of pure water taken at its greatest density.

on arithmetic, as in the case of geometry and algebra, might be Q. What do you mean by water at its greatest density ?-A. translated from foreign languages, which is now impossible. The density of water, or weight which fills a given bulk, varies

Q. How would the study of physics, natural science, and the with its temperature or degree of heat. The greatest density arts be benefited ?--A. The difficulties which are at present corresponds to the temperature of 40 degrees.

felt by students in consulting foreign authors, in consequence of Q. The unit of weight being thus determined, how do you

the use of various measures and weights, would be wholly restate the table of metric weight ?--A. As follows :


Q. Have you any observations to make on the language of TABLE OF WEIGHT.

the Metric System 2-A. Its language is extremely simple, as it Myriagram 10,000 grams

1 gram.

consists of only eleven words, viz., the seven prefixes, myria, kilo, Kilogram = 1,000

Decigram it of a gram. Hectogram

hecto, deka, deci, centi, and milli, together with the names of 100

Centigram Decagram Milligram

the four units, meter, ar, liter, and gram.

Q. Why are these words taken from the Greek and Latin Q. Have you any observations to make on this table --- A. languages P-A. As all civilised nations have an equal interest Yos; the myriagram is rarely if ever used, and although the in these languages, so all cause for national jealousy in adopting gram is the metric unit of weight, the kilogram is practically them is removed. the unit for all kinds of business and commerce.

Q. Have you any observation to make as to the mode of Q. You have formerly stated that there is a simple mutual spelling them P-A. Each nation ought to spell them after the dependency between the different parts of the Metric System. analogy of its own language : thus the Frenchman would spell Can you give an illustration of this p—A. Yes; the table of the measure of road distance, kilomètre; the Englishman or weight shows the natural dependence of weight on volume, and German, kilometer; the Italian, Spaniard, or Portuguese, kilo. therefore on linear dimension. For instance, since a cubic metro. centimeter of water weighs one gram, one thousand cubic centi. meters, or one liter of water, weighs one kilogram; and a cubic civilised nations -A. Yes, as follows :

Q. Has the Metric System been already adopted by many moter of water, which is equal to one thousand liters, weighs one thousand kilograms, a commercial weight which is com- France, with Algiers . 40,500,000 Mexico


Population. monly called the metric ton. Q. Has the weight of the kilogram been exactly determined Netherlands and colo

Belgium .

5,000,000 Chili .

Brazil in terms of English weights -A. Yes, by Professor Miller, of

23,000,000 New Grenada Cambridge, acting under the authority of a royal commission, Italy

24,000,000 Other South American and with the permission of the French Government, in the year Papal States

700,000 Republics 1844. It is as follows:--1 kilogram = 15432-34874 grains Spain and Colonies 21,000,000 (7000 grains 1 lb. av.).

Portugal and Colonies 8,000,000 Q. Can you state in round numbers the relation between


1,200,000 Metric and English weights ?--A. Yes; for all practical purposes Q. Have any nations adopted the Metric System partially 2– we may assume 10 kilograms 22 lbs.

A. Yes; it has been adopted, for the present, in part by Q. Is the use of the pound weight consistent with the adop


Population. tion of the Metric System ?-A. Yes; in all those countries that Switzerland

2,500,000 Austria have adopted the Metrio System, the half-kilogram is invariably Hanise Towns


8,000,000 1,600,000 8,000,000 2,000,000






500,000 spoken of as a pound, and might be called by us the new pound. Denmark .

3,000,000 Q. Does the half-kilogram differ much from a pound avoir. dapois ?--A. No, it exceeds the pound avoirdupois by about a following countries :

Q. In what countries is its use permissive ? —A. In the tenth part. Q. What are the principal weights for business and commerce United Kingdom


29,000,000 Prussia and North in England ?-A. The pound avoirdupois, the hundredweight of United States of

Germany 112 lbs., and the ton of 20 cwt.


31,000,000 Q. What are the corresponding weights in the Metric System?





Q. Can you mention any recent accessions to the Metric | 73. toth.

80. £46.

86. Two coins of the System 2-A. Yes, On June 13, 1868, the North German 74. 7 feet.

81, 93.9375.

first are equivalent Parliament passed an Act adopting the Metric System, and 75. 16144 per cent. 82. 689; 74 inches. to one of the second, declaring its use permissive from January 1, 1870, and com

76. 3571's min. past 12. 83. 2 per cent.; £1127 87. £1100.

10s. pulsory on and after January 1, 1872. Since that date the 77. 44 per cent.

88. 3 days.

78. 163 per cent. 84. 4 and 5 per cent. 89. £800. kingdom of Bavaria has declared its intention to adopt the 79. €1978.

85. 2-53 m. 12-36 m. 90. £60. Metric System.

Q. Has this question made any progress in our colonies and dependencies ?--A. About two years ago a committee was LESSONS IN ARCHITECTURE-XX. appointed by the government of India to report on the question of uniformity of weights and measures in the different provinces

DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE IN ENGLAND.-II. of India. After long consideration and examination of many LEAVING castles and mansions, we have now to study domestic witnesses, the committee reported in favour of the adoption of architecture as it relates to the wants of the body of the people, the Metric System, and accordingly the Indian Government sent especially what are now known as the "great middle classes? a despatch to the Secretary of State, dated November 6, 1869, of the country. The absence of anything like convenient plan recommending the adoption of the kilogram, with its decimal and settled style even in the houses of the nobility, during two multiples and sub-divisions, as the unit of weight for British or three centuries after the Norman Conquest, has been shown India. As to measures, no decision has been arrived at for the in our previous paper ; and while domestic comfort in the present.

modern sense was a thing unknown to princes, their subjects Q. How is it looked on by other nations who have not already were of course in the rudest possible stage of civilised life. adopted it?-4. Very favourably by England, United States of The mean, low houses of the people were little more than hats, America, and Russia.

and even in the capital the dwellings of the citizens in the Q. How do you show that it is, favourably regarded by twelfth century were mere sheds of wood, of one, or at the most England ?–A. There is a growing feeling in its favour among two storeys. So frequently were these buildings swept away by scientific men, by many of whom it is actually used. The Asso- fire, that at the close of that century it was thought necessary ciated Chambers of Commerce have petitioned Parliament in its to enact that in future the lower storey of all habitations in the favour. The second reading of a bill ordering its adoption was City of London should be built of stone, and that the usual carried last session, May 13, 1868, by a majority of 219 to 67. thatched roofs should give place to tile or slate.

Q. What reason have you for stating that it is looked upon We must come down to the fourteenth century, when trade with favour by the United States and Russia ?-A. Scientific and industry had arisen to improve the condition of all classes men in both countries are in favour of it. The representatives by increasing the general wealth of the country, before we both of Russia and the United States at the Convention which can find the citizens of the towns occupying houses worthy of was held in Paris during the year of the great French Exhibition, an intelligent community. In this and the following century 1867, both declared their belief that their countries would many substantial buildings were erected, the remains of which speedily follow the example of England if she adopted the are occasionally to be seen in the present day. The great Metric System. The United States use the Metric System in merchants of the day frequently vied with the nobility in the their post-office departments at present, and have sent metric stateliness of their town abodes; but it is not these, but the standards to each state in the Union.

dwellings of the less wealthy citizens, that we have now under Q. Can any reasonable objection be urged against its adop- our consideration. tion by England ?-A. I cannot conceive any reasonable objec One

characteristic form of house arose in England in the tion except that which is involved in the difficulty and trouble Middle Ages, and set a style which continued to be in vogue, attending the change of system.

with few modifications, for three or four hundred years. It Q. Is this objection insurmountable ?--A. No. Other nations was a narrow building with a pointed roof, and the gable overhave made the change, some very recently, and I believe that hanging the street; each storey, moreover, projecting over the English people are not inferior in intelligence to other that immediately below. This is the kind of old-fashioned, people.

middle-class house occasionally found in nearly all parts of Q. I will conclude this examination by asking what measures the country at the present day, and which will be familiar ought to be adopted in order to introduce the Metric System to many of our readers. The material with which it was built easily and effectually into England ?- A. An Act of Parliament was usually stone or brick, with a large quantity of timber, the ordering its compulsory adoption on and after a certain day, latter ornamentally_disposed in front of the house in a very say 1st of January, 1875. An order from the Privy Council re- striking manner. These half-timbered houses were in vogue quiring that the children in all primary schools receiving Govern- alike for the shops of the citizens in the towns, the farmhouses ment grants shall be duly instructed in the principles of the in the country, and the residences of small landed proprietors. system. The exhibition of sets of metric measures and weights As an example, we give an illustration of a farmhouse of the publicly exposed in markets, city halls, chambers of commerce, fourteenth century, near Leicester. The style was more suitable public museums, etc. By such means, together with the natural to the country than to the town, for in the latter the prodesire on the part of all scientific men and school teachers to jection of the overhanging storeys had an injurious effect, by inform their friends and neighbours by lectures and otherwise, excluding a great portion of the light and air which should have there can be little doubt of the practicability of introducing the been admitted to the streets. On the other hand, it may be Metric System into England in the space of five years.

remarked that each storey sheltered that below from the

weather; and to this fact, as well as to the solidity of the materials KEY TO LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.-XLVII.

used, the enduring character of the buildings must be ascribed. EXERCISE 64.-MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES (continued).

As far as regards internal accommodation, these houses could 53. A £20, B £40.

not boast of many conveniences. The lower floors were dark, the truth of the rule 61. £4 195. 10d. becomes

the ceilings low throughout, and the apartments often dis

evident. 62. 1.2407. 55. £104 ready money; (2) £31 1s. 84. 63. 25 per cent.

figured by huge beams supporting the upper floors. They were 110 per cent. per (3) £29 10s. 7.d. 64. £436 ls.

very deficient in ventilation, not only by reason of their peculiar 57. £135. 65. 16 stone.

construction, but also from the fixity of the windows, which 56. (1) The sum may 58. £26880.

66. £330 of stock; he rendered the admission of a free current of air difficult even thus be considered 59. 82.685 and £5:434 gains 28. 3d., com- when it was most desired. To this cause must be attributed a as expressed in the nearly (brokerage

discount great deal of the sickness which afflicted England during the following denomi being supposed to being reckoned.

long period when these houses were common. In the smaller dations : Sove be charged for the 67. (1) £3 11s. 67*3d. houses built in this fashion, and packed closely together in reigns, 20d. pieces; purchase, but not for (2) 4 6 1110's. towns, the faults essential to the style were particularly injurious and a fraction of

68. £10000 20d. pieces; 5 per 60. £131 158. 60. 69, 261

to the health of the inhabitants. cent. being toth, if

70. 107 hours.

Such as it was, this style held its ground until the rise of the we take sath of the

71. 10 hours a day.

era of plain square buildings built of brick, and, in the better sum so expressed, 417 5

72. 14 pints.

class of dwellings, occasionally ornamented with flat columns or

54. 8s.



the sale),


65 17
43 18



pilasters of stone. This style was a sort of degraded Italian, the old country mansion; and to this class of house the old ugly enough, but at least possessing the advantage of throwing Roman name for a country house-villa—is applied by common all parts of the building equally open to the influences of the usage. air and sky. A greater contrast cannot well be found than These villa residences are for the most part detached, or that between the fanci.

standing each in its ful timber fronts of the

own grounds of greater gabled houses of former

or less extent; and years, and those flat,

thus they afford wide uzadornod habitations which arose to super

scope for the practice

either of architectural sede them in the reigns

science caprice. of Queen Anne and the

We consequently see Georges, continuing

infinite diversity in common down to the

their construction, and present day.



to classify them all A marked change,

under any recognised however, has, in the

designations would be Victorian era, taken

a matter of impossibiplace in the domestic

lity. But, so far as they architecture of the

are worth attention at country. The unifor

all from an architectumity in which the gene

ral point of view, they rations immediately pre

may mostly be grouped oeding seem to have

into two classes delighted has been su

those in which the de perseded by a ten

sign has more or less dency in the opposite

of the classical eledirection, every man

ment, and those in building in his own

which the Gothic prefashion, sometimes with

rails in a corresponda due regard to style, but at others setting all


To afford the stastyles at utter defiance. FARMHOUSE OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY, NEAR LEICESTER. dent a clue to guide Hence, in the case of

him in his observations, town architecture, there may occasionally be seen in our chief we set before him an example of each of these grand divisions cities a row of buildings, well and expensively constructed, but of style, as adapted to the domestic architecture of the middle no two of which are alike in any essential feature.

classes. The classical element is displayed in the purely Roman In the case of suburban and country residences, the taste for style of the small villa in our second illustration. The Gothic variety and inde

is illustrated in the pendence is still

example of a small more frequently dis

country house conplayed. A class of

structed after what building known as

we have previously the villa has be

described as the common in

“Elizabethan" manrecent years, sup

ner. As a suppleplying a want which

mentary illustrais in itself singu

tion, we give an enlarly characteristic of our time. Our

graving of a highly

popular kind of cotforefathers who

tage or villa archiwere engaged in

tecture, which, al. trade or in the pro

though not strictly fessions for the most

in accordance with part inhabited, with their families, the

any recognised houses in which their

style, has so much

about it that is business was pur.

attractive and me sued. The rapid

ritorious as to con growth of commerce

stitute a type of has in many cases

its own, to which rendered it Leces

the name of "cotsary that the space

tage" is commonly formerly occupied

applied. So far as by private lodgings

this can be idenshould be given up

tified with either to business pur

of the other styles, poses; and the simul.


it must be contaneous increase of

sidered an adaptawealth has enabled

tion of the classical, well-to-do citizens VILLA RESIDENCE OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY-CLASSICAL OR ROMAN STYLE. and professional

modern Italian; but men to consult their own health and tastes by residence at a dis- the gabled roof is a feature which connects it to a certain de tance from the scene of their daily toil. Hence, in many parts of gree with the old English houses of the past, and still mora the country there have sprung up clusters of residences inhabited nearly with the Swiss cottages of the present day, by a class who occupy a position midway between that of the townsman and the country squire of former times. The resi- one into the other

in modern villa and other


, some

In this manner the styles of architecture are frequently run dences themselves are a medium between the

town house and times, as in this

case, to produce an attractive and harmonious


as shown in the

« 前へ次へ »