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Nouns ending in AP, OP, UP. (15.) Compound words formed of (11.) Garde-robe,
-OP galop, gallop. a verb: as, porte-feuille, pocket.
blow. book; rendez-vous, rendezrous. (16.) Nouns, pronouns, verbs, etc.,
Nouns ending in 00. used substantively: as, le boire et le
-OQ coq-d'Inde, turkey. I manger, eating and drinking. (17.) Numbers-cardinal, ordinal, (12.) Moitié, half; and all num
Nouns ending in AR, ER, IR, OR, UR. and proportional-used substantively: bers ending with aine ; douzaine, -AE char,
[mer, sea. as, le dix, the tenth ; le neuvième, dozen ; centaine, hundred, etc. -ER fer,
Exceptions.-Cuiller, spoon; the ninth ; le tiers, the third. (Ex
-IR plaisir, pleasure.
chair, flesh, ceptions opposite.)
gola. -UR not preceded by E,
Exception.-Tour, tower. $6.-RULES FOR DETERMINING THE GENDER BY THE
bonheur, happiness; cæur, -EUR chaleur, hoat; hauteur, (1.) The exceptions to the masculine will be found opposite heart; cheur, chorus; dów height. (Exceptions oppothe termination, in the feminine column; and the exceptions to nominateur,denominator; dés. site.) the feminine, in the masculine column, also opposite :
honneur, dishonour; équateur,
equator ; extérieur, exterior ; (2.) CONSONANTAL TERMINATIONS.
honneur, honour ; intérieur, Nouns ending in EB, UB, MB.
interior; labeur, labour; mal. MASCULINE,
heur, misfortune; multiplica-E3 Horeb, Mount Horeb.
teur, multiplier; pleurs, toars; •UB radoub, refitting a ship.
régulateur, regulator ; venti-13 plomb, lead.
lateur, ventilator. Nouns ending in AC, EC, IC, OC, UC, NC, RC, sc.
Nouns ending in AS, ES, 13, os, US, PS, RS. AC sac, sack.
-As bras, -EC bec, beak.
sandstone. *IC mastic, putty.
• IS souris,
amaryllis, amaryllis ; brebis, ploughshare.
sheep; fois, time; vis, screw; UC duc, duke.
souris, mouse; oasis, oasis. SC tone, trunk.
bone. -RC clerc, clerk.
-US blocus, blockade. SC fisc, revenue.
weather. Nouns ending in ED, ID, OD, UD, ND, RD.
verse. ED pied, foot.
Nouns ending in AT, ET, IT, OT, UT, NT, RT. ID nid, nest.
-AT climat, climate.
forest. •UD Talmud, Talmud.
night. •SD marchand, merchant.
-or cachot, dungeon.
dower. -RD bord, border.
dent, tooth; gent, people ;
jument, mare, [most. ET chef, chief.
Exceptions.--Clef, key; nef,
part, share ; la plupart, the ship, nave. "IF suit, tallow, Exceptions. --Soif, thirst.
Nouns ending in AX, EX, IX, UX, NX. •UP auf, egg.
-AX climax, climax, -BF cerf, stag.
•EX silex, silex. Nouns ending in NG.
-IX pris, price.
Exceptions. - Croix, cross; -30 rang, rank. 1
noix, nut; paix, peace; Nouns ending in cK.
voix, voice ; perdrix, par
tridge ; poix, pitch. - Karack, arrack. I -UX courroux, anger.
Exceptions. - Chaux, limo; Nouns ending in AL, EL, IL, OL, UL.
faux, scythe ; toux, cough. -Albal, ball.
-NX lynx, lynx. -EL sel,
salt, •IL soleil,
Nouns ending in AZ, EZ, IZ. •OL sol, soil.
gas. UL calcul, calculation.
rice. -AX Adam, Adam. -Ex harem,
harem. -IX daim, deer.
Exceptions.-Faim, hunger ; •Ox nom, name.
male faim, excessive hunger. UM parfum,
RUSSIA AND PETER THE GREAT.
In the year 1697, five years before the death of William III.,
a foreigner of singular personal appearance, of rough exterior, -Ax cadran, dial.
and still rougher manners, applied to the English authorities to -EX examen, examination.
[hand. -13 raisin, grape.
Exceptions.--Fin, end ; main,
be allowed to work as a shipwright's labourer in one of the royal Os not preceded by is or GI, SI, TI, Exceptions.-Chanson, song;
dockyards. Not only was permission granted for him to work XI.
cuisson, baking; contre
as he wished at Deptford dockyard, but orders were given to bâton, stick.
façon, counterfeiting; façon, the superintendent there to let the stranger see as much as gazon, turf.
mode; moisson, harvest; possible of the shipbuilder's art, and to afford him every inforblason, blazon.
moussons, trade-winds ; mation he might desire. A good house (one that belonged to rançon, ransom.
the Evelyn family, and in which John Evelyn, the accomplished bison, bison; horizon, hori- -ISON maison, house. (Exceptions diarist and author, 'wrote and studied) was taken for him and zon; oison, gosling ; poison,
his companions at Deptford, so that he might' live near his poison ; tison, firebrand. -GION région, region.
work, and in the dockyard he laboured early and late, and -SION pension, pension,
possessed himself to a remarkable extent with the knowledge bastion, bastion ; bestion, -TION question, question.
of a skilled shipwright. This was not the only object he had in figure-head of a ship.
entering himself at the yard. He knew, none better, that -XION réflexion, reflection. example is worth a hundred precepts, and that he could appeal
from those of his subjects who did not think it became them to by protecting merchants who came from the southward and work, to his own example, by which he had shown them both from Sweden with their wares, encouraged commerce and to how to work and why they should work.
a slight extent Russian manufacture. But he had a difficult This shipwright and dockyard labourer was Peter the Great, task to perform-hard, unimpressionable staff to work upon; Czar of Russia, who a few months before had quitted his capi- and in consequence of the geographical position of Russia, and tal, Moscow, to see and learn new things for his kingdom, of the extreme ignorance which prevailed in Europe as to its chawhich the most important knowledge that he possessed was racter and resources, he had little or no sympathy from without that it sadly needed reformation in every department. Resolved For in that day Russia was to the other nations of Europe what to bring his countrymen out of the barbarism in which they Abyssinia is to them now, a land little known save by bold were immersed, and aware that this could only be done by the adventurers, who, unable to get employment or living in the introduction of civilised elements from without-aware, too, of south, or actuated by curiosity and the love of adventure, the superstitious horror the Russians had for either leaving travelled into the north, and either settled there and were no their own country themselves or for allowing strangers to enter more heard of, or returned and related marvellous accounts of it-he conceived the idea of making a tour of the principal the people and countries which were included in the empire of capitals of Europe, where he might learn for himself what was the Czar of Muscovy, for so Russia was called. Occasicnally worthy to be introduced, and where he might enlist artificers there were state embassies sent from Moscow to some European and scientific men in his service to come to Russia and teach his court in order to make some special representation, and mes. subjects. At the same time he sent ambassadors to the several sengers from European courts occasionally made their way to courts of Europe, that Russia might be represented, and that Moscow to lay before the car some complaint against his he might know from authentic sources what was going on in border-subjects, which the czar was commonly wholly unable the world of politics. Amsterdam was the first city that ar- to attend to. But the interchange of visits was very seldom, rested his attention, where the great amount of shipping, of and there was not till the time of Peter the Great any regular which he was exceedingly fond, drew him with peculiar force. representative of Russia in any capital in Europe. He worked in a dockyard there for some time, living like any Alexis did his best for his countrymen, and dying in 1676, other labourer, and refusing to allow any distinction to be made was succeeded by his son Feodor, who entered fully into all his between him and his fellows. After acquiring all the know- father's plans, and proceeded on his accession to the throne to ledge he could pick up in Amsterdam, he came over to England, develop the policy of improvement begun by the late czar. and was received in the manner stated, the king (William III.), “ He lived the joy and delight of his people, and died amidst moreover, placing at his disposal a yacht, in which it was the their sighs and tears. On the day of his decease Moscow was czar's great delight to cruise about the river Thames and its in the same state of distress which Rome felt at the death of estuaries. In this exercise, also, he had example as much as Titus," wrote a Russian historian of this prince, who reigned experience at heart, for the Russians had hitherto had the six years, and dying, bequeathed his crown to his youngest utmost dread of water in any shape, and could scarcely be child, Peter, a lad of no more than ten years of age. Ivan, induced by any object to venture themselves upon it. Once at Feodor's eldest son, was half-witted, and his sister Sophia, Amsterdam, when, the wind being stiff and the water rough, without authority from any one, took the government upon herhis Russian attendants were anxious to withhold him from going self, and during seven years did nearly as much to throw Russia in his sailing-boat, he is reported to have met them with the back into barbarism as her father and grandfather had done unanswerable retort that they had never heard of a Czar of to bring her out of it. Peter, who knew that the crown had Russia being drowned at sea.
been left to him, was angry, even as a child, at the usarpation Rough, even brutal in his manners-for what was he but the of which he was the victim. He chafed at the restraints to chief barbarian of his empire ?—the Czar Peter had talents which his sister and her ministers and advisers subjected him, which were superlatively great, as compared with those of any and he saw with indignation as he grew older that the forward one else in his dominions. He had the wisdom to see wherein steps taken by his father were being deliberately retraced. his people were wanting, and to recognise the means of supply- Disgust for this policy probably heightened the spirit which ing their wants ; he had the magnanimity to disregard all the descended to him from his father, the spirit of dislike for the carping criticisms of those who, having been born in more civi- old Muscovite party, undying hatred for those soul-numbing lised countries, affected to despise the wild men of the north; principles which hung as tremendous dead-weights on the nation and he had the courage to persist in improving, in spite of and kept it back. Then there was something more than a hint themselves, a nation whose leaders hated to be reformed, and that his sister and her favourite, a profligate barbarian, conwhose fears and superstitions whispered them to cling to the dead templated keeping him out of his inheritance. The people past rather than to draw life and energy from the living present. murmured at the gross misgovernment of the princess, and Rough manners, as indicative of a strong will, were perhaps loudly demanded the termination of her rule. By means of essential to the fulfilment of Peter's purpose. A soft-speaking, large bribes to the soldiers, she succeeded for a while in maingentle-handed man would never have curbed the hitherto un- taining her position by force; but when the means of bribery bridled licence of a savage soldiery, nor have overcome the pig. began to fail, and the conduct of the rulers became too bad headed, unreasonable opposition of priests and landlords, who, even for the Russians to put up with, Peter, then in his sevenlike some priests and landlords in other countries, saw in the teenth year, took advantage of the popular feeling to assert enlightenment of the nation the downfall of their own power. himself. He gained the co-operation of the soldiers, and of all
The Czar Alexis, grandfather of Peter the Great, was the first the men of infinence in the state, for even the heads of the old native prince who seems to have thought the Russians capable Muscovite section knew they conld not have worse rulers than of being anything more than mere savages. Not until his suc- Sophia and her lover, and they hoped to mould the young cession to the throne had the empire suficiently recovered from prince, still a mere youth, into their own effete notions of from the repeated incursions of the Mongolian Tartars, of the Poles- vernment and public policy, who devastated whole districts, and kept possession of strong Peter assumed the reins of power, shut his sister up in a towns like Smolensko-and from the still more fatal wounds nunnery, and banished her lover to a distant part of the empire
. inflicted by civil war, to allow of attention being turned to the Ivan Romanoff, Peter's brother, was nominally associated with general amelioration of the empire. Hitherto the history of him in the empire, but he had no real authority, so that vir Russia consisted of accounts of savage life on a large scale, of the tually from the age of seventeen Peter was lord and autocrat of conflicts which one set of great chiefs waged with another, of the the Russian dominions. struggle for supremacy between the head of the state and the As soon as he had reduced chaos into something like order church, and of the gradual absorption by the czar of all actual at Moscow, Peter began that deadly war against the Turkish power, which he held, nevertheless, as all despotic rulers must power which has burst out at intervals ever since, the last time hold their power, by the good-will of the guards who are the in the shape of the Crimean War, and which will probably
not ministers of their will. Alexis came to the throne in 1645, be ended till the cross shall have been again planted in Conand scen. proved to be the “ still, strong man" who knew how stantinople, and the Turkish power, which entered Europe in to rule, not merely in the interests of his family, but in 1453, shall have been driven once more into Asia, whence it those of his people. He did something towards lessening the came ont. Peter's enterprises against the Turks were rers power of the soldiers, diminished that of the priesthood, and successful. He defeated them with troops inferior in discipline
and armament to their own, and took from them the port of hands. “The Swedes will teach us how to conquer them," Azof, so opening the Blaok Sea to Russian commerce, and said Peter after the battle, and at once he took steps for bringsecuring an outlet for Russian enterprise to the southward. ing another army into the field. Charles XII. continued on a Penetrated with the belief that commercial intercourse with long series of victories. Poles, Saxons, and Russians melted other nations could alone enable Russia to become civilised, away before him; the King of Poland was dethroned at his he conceived the plan of making a watery highway through his dictation, and a nominee of his own raised in his stead; the empire, from the Baltio to the Caspian and Black Seas, by Emperor of Germany had to concede cortain things not by any means of canals which should unite the rivers Dwina, Volga, means to his taste; and all Europe trembled when the King of and Don. To secure the communication on the north-western Sweden marched. This went on from 1702 to 1706, and then side, and to obtain for Russia the command on the Baltio- the czar, having a large army at his back, thought he might perhaps, also, with the idea of more thoroughly breaking with seek peace with honour. But Charles declared that he would the Russian past-he determined to build on an island in the not talk of peace till he reached Moscow, which he proposed Nera, a few miles above the place where that river falls into to burn. Like another invader (Napoleon I.), he found the the Baltio, & city which should be at once the emporium of Russians prepared to do anything rather than see their capital commerce for northern Europe and the capital of the empire. in an enemy's hand. Peter devastated the country, harassed For ten years these wars and these great national works occu- the march of the Swedes, cut off the discontented Cossacks, pied his attention, and then, in 1698, finding himself deficient who were in secret alliance with Charles, and in other ways in technical and material education, and that there was not any hindered his operations. Finally, at Pultowa—which fortress, one in his dominions who was capable of teaching him, he in the Ukraine, Charles was besieging—the czar came up with resolved to set out on his European tour of inspection and self his enemies; a bloody battle ensued, in which the most despeeducation. During his absence—he was away twelve months-rate valour was shown, but the Swedes were utterly routed the government of Russia was administered by a council of 8,000 were slain and 18,000 captured. Charles was obliged regency, composed for the most part of men friendly to his to seek refuge in Turkey, where he employed himself in trying schemes, and the whole being bound under severest threats to promote the anger of the Turks against the Russians, but from a will that never allowed itself to be thwarted with im- he was never thenceforth the thorn he had been in the side of punity, to carry out his orders in the spirit as well as in the the czar. letter.
Peter, freed from external troubles, again turned his attenIn 1699 Peter returned home, with men of all trades and tion to home affairs. St. Petersburg was finished, and the other professions in his train, who were to help him in his public great works were brought to a successful termination ; vast works, and to teach his people the knowledge of other countries. strides were rapidly made in the improvement of all public Generals, military officers of all grades, engineers, shipwrights, institutions; and the czar had the happiness before his death architects, gunsmiths, cutlers, medical men, artificers and me- to find by many infallible signs that he was really looked upon chanics of all kinds, naval officers and experienced seamen, as the father of his country. were gathered out of those countries which had specialities in The Russia which he left in 1725 was so radically altered them. Great Britain and Ireland, Holland, and the Nether- in character to the Russia to which he had succeeded, that it lands furnished the greater part, but artists were allured from could flourish and be prosperous under the hand of a woman, France and Italy, by the tempting offers of the Czar, to under. Peter's widow, who succeeded him as Catherine I. The height take a residence in the cold climate of the north.
to which Catherine II., Alexander, Nicholas, and the present Emboldened by his contact with civilisation, and disgusted emperor have raised it is matter rather of general history than from the same cause with much that he saw when he got home, for an historic sketch. Peter summarily abolished immediately after his return some of the most cherished and most barbarous institutions of the empire. He hanged some objectors who had been troublesome
READINGS IN GREEK.-I. during his absence, and he refused to listen to the complaints THE student having now learnt the formation of the words, and of those, the priests included, who stood forward as the advo- the construction of simple sentences, as set forth in the Greek cates of the old order. His will was supreme, and, being as Lessons, will find it desirable to become acquainted as early as strong and unyielding as that of the most obstinate man in possible with the works of the principal authors who wrote in his empire, carried all opposition before it; and the people, that language. With this object, we propose to give a series of venerating him as the czar, and ignorant of what new coercive selections from the Greek classics, with a short aocount of the power he might have brought with his other novelties from works from which they are extracted, accompanied by brief the south, gave in to him, and suffered him to tame them, even explanatory notes. It is not our intention to give much assistto shaving their beards—this reform almost cost a revolution—ance in the mere translation of the extracts, as the student should without resistance. General Gordon set to work upon the learn as soon as possible to rely upon his own powers of interarmy, and succeeded, by dint of unremitting attention and the pretation, aided by his Greek Lexicon and the Greek Lessons. exercise of the utmost severity, in putting it into shape, though By this means he will not only be able to obtain a fair idea of it required many a defeat from the hands of Swedes before the style and manner of the chief writers of Greece, but also it could be made at all confident in the presence of European to have a model on which to form nis own Greek composition. enemies.
For this purpose we should advise him first to translate each Scarcely was the army removed one degree from the class passage accurately, then render it into idiomatic English, and “ rabble," ere occasion called for a display of its powers. In some days later endeavour to turn this free translation into 1697 Charles XII. of Sweden came to his father's throne, and Greek, which he can compare with the original and correct by commenced that series of wars which astounded and convulsed it. There can be no doubt that there is no method by which Europe. Peter entered into alliances with the King of Den- he will so speedily acquire a sound knowledge of the language. mark and the Elector Frederick
Augustus of Saxony, who had At the same time, in order to assist the student in forming his been chosen King of Poland, and in 1700 the war began style of translation, we shall in each successive set of readby the Danes invading the territory of the Duke of Holstein- ings give a translation of at least one of the extracts in the Gottorp, the brother-in-law of the King of Sweden. Charles previous set, sometimes from original sources, sometimes from XII
. appeared suddenly before Copenhagen, which he blockaded translations of acknowledged merit. Among the extracts by sea and besieged by land, and he so pressed the Danes that given will be some from the New Testament, the grammatitheir king was compelled to make peace on humiliating terms, cal difficulties in which we shall take especial care to explain. and to leave his allies to their fate. From Copenhagen Charles Certainly the most valuable practical result to be obtained went straight and swiftly to Narva, which was besieged by the from a study of the Greek language is the power we ac. Russians with 80,000 men. The Swedes numbered only 10,000, quire of being able to read the New Testament in the lanbat Charles did not hesitate to attack the entrenched camp guage in which it was originally written, and very many men of the besiegers, which, after being breached by the Swedish have carefully studied the language solely with this objoct. artillery, was carried by storm at the point of the bayonet. Owing to the alterations which have taken place in our lanEighteen thousand Russians were killed and 30,000 were
taken guage since the Bible was translated, our translation does not prisoners, and all the baggage and artillery fell into the victors' in every
case convey to the mind
an accurate idea of the force
of the original, and the reader who is able to study the New | δ' ουδέν ενην. Θηρία δε παντοία, πλείστοι μεν όνοι άγριοι, πολλοί Testament in Greek will find that he is able thereby to solve δε στρουθοκαι οι μεγάλοι» ενησαν δε και ωτίδες και δορκάδες: ταύτα many difficulties, and throw a clear light upon passages which δε τα θηρία οι ιππείς ενίοτε εδίωκον. Και οι μεν όνοι, επεί τις previously had been quite beyond his comprehension.
διώκοι, προδραμόντες έστησαν άν5 πολύ γάρ τών ίππων έτρεχαν XENOPHON.
θάττον· και πάλιν, έπει πλησιάζομεν οι ίπποι, ταυτόν εποίουν, και Xenophon was a writer who Hourished B.C. 400-359. He ίπποις. Τα δε κρέα των αλισκομένων ήν παραπλήσια τοίς ελαφείοις,
ουκ ήν λαβείν, ει μη διαστάντες οι ιππείς θηρώεν διαδεχόμενοι τους was a pupil of the great philosopher Socrates, who once saved απαλώτερα δέ. Στρουθον δε ουδείς έλαβεν οι δε διώξαντες των his life in battle. He was also celebrated general ; and the εππέων ταχύ έπαύοντο πολύ γαρ απέσπαθ φεύγουσα, τοίς μέν ποσι Anabasis, or expedition up the country (ava, up), is the account of a campaign in which he took a very prominent part. Xeno δρόμο, ταϊς δε πτέρυξιν, αίρουσα, 19 ώσπερ ιστίω χρωμένη. Τα phon lived at a time when the Greek language was at its best, βραχύ, ώσπερ πέρδικες, και ταχύ απαγορεύουσι τα δε κρέα αυτών
δε ωτίδας, άν τις ταχύ ανιστη, έστι λαμβάνειν πέτονται γάρ when dialects were dying out, and Greece was beginning to have
ήδιστα ην. a uniform speech (κοινη διαλεκτος), in which the Attic was the
NOTES. principal element. The “Anabasis” has always had a great
1. 'Opalov (der. from ópoy, together), sven, lovel. charm for all classes of readers, on account of its minuteness of
2. 'Αρώματα, spices : hence our aroma, aromatic. detail, picturesque simplicity of style, and the air of reality
3. Στρουθοι, ostriches, and truth which pervades it. Its plainness and simplicity make
4. Δορκάδες, gazelles (δέρκω, to look), from the brilliancy of their eyes; it the most desirable work for beginners to take up. It is an wriões, bustards, so called from their large ears (ous, motos, an ear). account of an expedition undertaken by Cyrus the Younger to 5. Προδραμόντες έστησαν άν, λασίng run forward, would stop ελοτέ. Αν overthrow his brother, Artaxerxes, King of Persia, and of the re- gives a frequentative sense to the verb. treat of the Greek troops after the death of Cyrus under the
6. Ουκ ήν, it was not ; sc. possible. command of Xenophon himself. Cyrus collected a large army,
7. Διαδεχόμενοι. Δια in composition has a sense of division and altercomposed principally of Greeks, and marched across Asia Minor nation. It means that they stood at different intervals, and thus
caught them, towards Persia. The Greek soldiers, who at first did not know
8. oi de... twinnéw, those of the cavalry who pursued them. Called the object of the expedition, when they suspected that they the partitive genitive. were marching against Artaxerxes, were inclined to be mutinous, 9. 'Απέσπα. Τhe nom. to this is στρουθος. and resolved to ask Cyrus what were his real intentions. It is 10. Αίρονσα, raising them ; so. πτέρυγας. at this point that we take our first extract,
The student should parse προδραμόντες, έστασαν, θηρώεν, Έδoξε ταύτα, και άνδρας ελόμενοι συν Κλεάρχω πέμπουσιν, οι απέσπα, ανιστη. ηρώτων Κύρον τα δόξαντα τη στρατιά. “Ο δ' άπεκρίνατο ότι ακούοι 'Αβροκόμαν, εχθρόν άνδρα, επί τω Ευφράτη ποταμώ είναι, Babylon, and a battle was fought in which Cyrus was glain by
The army of Cyrus met with Artaxerxes at Cunaxa, near απέχοντα δώδεκα σταθμούς προς τούτον ουν έφη βούλεσθαι ελθείν his brother, after which the chief Greek generals were treacheκάν μέν ή εκεί, την δίκην έφη χρήζειν επιθείναι αυτό, “ήν δεί | rously killed by the Persians. Xenophon was left head of the φεύγη, ημείς εκεί προς ταύτα βουλευσόμεθα.” 'Ακούσαντες δε
helpless host, and he led them back through innumerable diffiταύτα οι αιρετοι 8 αναγγέλλουσι τους στρατιώταις· τοις° δε υποψία | culties to Greece. When they came to the sea-shore, they broke μεν10 ήν, ότι άγει προς βασιλέα, όμως δε έδόκει έπεσθαι. Προσαι- | out into transports of joy:τoυσι δε μισθόν· ο δε Κύρος υπισχνείται ημιόλιον12 πάσι δώσειν ου πρότερον έφερον, αντί δαρεικού13 τρία ημιδαρεικά του μηνός τω XENOPHON.—"ANABASIS," Book IV., Chap. 7. στρατιώτη:14 ότι δε επί βασιλέα άγει, ουδε ενταύθα ήκουσεν ουδείς 'Επειδή δε βοή πλείων τε εγίγνετο και εγγύτερον, και οι άει έν γε το φανερώ.15
επιόντες έθεον δρόμων επί τους αει βοώντας, και πολλά μείζων
εγίγνετο η βοή, όσο δηλ πλείους εγίγνοντο, έδόκει δή μείζον το 1. "Εδοξε ταύτα, these things seemed good, they determined on this course, είναι τώ Ξενοφώντι. Και αναβάς εφ' ίππον και Λύκιον και τους viz., to ask Cyrus the object of the expedition. The neuter plural ιππέας αναλαβών παρεβοήθει- και τάχα δή ακούουσι βοώντων των ταύτα is followed by the singular verb έδοξε, according to the rule | στρατιωτών, « Θάλαττα ! θάλαττα !” και παρεγγυώντων. Ένθα that a neuter plural in Greek takes a verb in the singular.
δή έθεον άπαντες και οι οπισθοφύλακες, και τα υποζύγια ελαύνετο 2. Ελόμενοι, 2 aor. Imid., from αιρέω.
και οι ίπποι. Επει δε αφίκοντο πάντες επί το άκρον, ενταύθα δη 3. Κλεάρχη, a general of the Greek forces,
περιέβαλλον αλλήλους και στρατηγούς και λοχαγούς5 δακρύοντες. 4. Ακούοι, opt. mood, because independent sentence following a prin- και εξαπίνης, ότου δή παρεγγυήσαντος, οι στρατιώται φέρουσε cipal sentence, of which the verb απεκρίνατο is in an historic tense. 5. Käv, contracted for kai tav.
λίθους και ποιούσι κολωνόν μέγαν. 'Ενταύθα ανετίθεσαν δερμάτων 6. Δίκην επιθεϊναι, to lay a penalty upon, to punish. So δίκην δούναι, το πλήθος ώμοβοΐνων και βακτηρίας και τα αιχμάλωτα γέρρα, και ο φαμ α penalty, to be punished. Compare the Latin pαnas summere, pαnas ηγεμών αυτός τε κατέτεμνε τα γέρρα και τους άλλους διεκελεύετα3 dare.
7. "Hv dd. Here the construction changes from the oratio obliqua to the oratio recta, giving Cyrus' own words : "and if" (said he) "he fly"
1. "Ebcov dpóny, were running with (at full) speed. Dative of manner. 8. Aiperoi, chosen by their comrades as spokesmen.
2. "Oow on, by exactly as much as they grew more; exactly as their num. 9. Τοις, the article used for the demonstrative pronoun τούτοις, to
bers increased the shouting increased. them. Note that the article originally was a demonstrative pronoun,
3. Meiçóv Ti, something greater (than usual), something important. and appears as such in Homer, etc. This old use of it is retained to.* Bombeiv is to assist, being literally to run; Béw, to a shout, Bon.
4. Napeßoner, he ran to give aid, or to the noise. lapa means motion in expressions like the present one, and in o uèr—ó de, etc. 10. Mėv, on the one hand, followed by de, on the other.
5. Λοχαγούς, captains (άγω) of a cohort (λόχος). 11. Προσαιτούσι. Προς, when compounded with a verb, has the sense
6. "Οτου δή παρεγγυήσαντος, some one or other ιαείπα prompted ελιετά of addition. They ask additional pay.
(genitive absolute). 12. “Ημιόλιον... ού, half as much αφαίη ας (ήμισυ, half, όλος, whole); ου
7. 'Ωμοβοΐνων, of raw or-hides (ώμος, ταις; βούς, οα).
8. Αιχμάλωτα, taken captive; lit., taken by the spear (αίχμη, 4 8ear; genitive, because it is attracted into the case in which the demonstra
άλωτός, talen). tive would be, if expressed. If put out at length, the sentence would
9. Διεκελεύετο. Δία in composition has a distributive force. Seest run, ημιόλιον εκείνον και πρότερον έφερον. 13. Aape.kov, a dareik, a Persian coin named after King Darius, as we
orders round to the rest. speak of a napoleon, a sovereign, etc. 14. Του μηνός τη στρατιώτη. The article here has a distributive sense.
PNEUMATICS. - VI. To each soldier per month. Myvòs is genitive of time. 15. "Εν γε το φανερή, αι least openly.
COMMON PRESSURE-GAUGE-SAFETY TUBE - ATMOSPHERIC When in the plains near the Euphrates, they came upon some In our last lesson we found that if a gas be kept under a mi
RAILWAY-BLOWING MACHINES-VENTILATION OF MINES, singular animals :
form pressure, and heat applied, it will increase in bulk of XENOPHON.—"ANABASIS,” Book I., Chap. 3. its volume at oo for every degree the temperature is raised. 'Εν τούτω δε τω τόπω ήν μεν η γη πεδίον άπαν ομαλόν,1 | Suppose, now, that the gas be comined so that it cannot increase ώσπερ θάλαττα, αψινθίου δε πλήρες ει δέ τι και άλλο ένην in volume, we shall find that as the temperature increases the "Αης ή καλάμου, άπαντα ήσαν ευώδη, ώσπερ αρώματα2 δένδρον | elastic force will increase too, and in the same proportion as its
volume would were it free to expand. The rule may be stated it, the funnel preventing the escape of the liquid. If, on the thus :
other hand, the pressure inside becomes less than that without, If any gas be confined so that it cannot expand, and its owing to the absorption or condensation of the gas, the pressure temperature be raised from 32° to 212°, the elastic force will of the air will force the liquid into the bulb, and air will then be increased by 0-366 of its original amount.
bubble up through it. In this way the tube prevents the Sometimes the steam in an engine is exposed to a high tem- difference between the pressures from becoming dangerous, and perature after it is first evolved, and is then said to be super at the same time, under ordinary pressure, excludes all air. I heated. Its tension is increased by this, and thus it can accom. We have seen that power may be stored up in compressed air; | plish more work, and at the same time “priming," or the hence it is sometimes employed to drive an engine in place of
condensation of the steam in the cylinders, is to a great extent steam. Of course some power must be first employed to comprevented.
press the air, and therefore in ordinary circumstances no adAfter what we have now seen respecting the change produced vantage will be gained by the substitution, but in many special in the volume of a gas by variations in the temperature or cases it may be and is employed. If steam has to be conveyed pressure, we can very easily tell the specific gravity of a gas to any great distance, there is a considerable loss by condensaif we know the weight of any volume of it, and also its tem- tion in the pipes, and in some places it is inconvenient or perature and pressure. We have merely to ascertain the volume impracticable to have the boiler near the machine. In such it would occupy at the standard temperature and pressure, and cases, therefore, the steam may be employed in the compression then compare its weight with that of the same volume of air. of air, and by this the power may be transmitted to the place In the same way we can calculate the weight of any volume of where it is required. gas, or the volume that a given weight of it would occupy. In mining operations this is especially advantageous. A
We described in our last lesson a manometer for measuring narrow seam of coal, in which there is no room for an engine, high pressures like that produced in the boiler of an engine. has sometimes to be cut out by a machine, and even if the This acted by the elastic force of compressed air: a spring is engine could be placed there, the steam and smoke would premore commonly used, but it is somewhat liable to lose its elas- vent a man being by it; such machines are therefore driven by ticity, or to become injured by the moisture of the steam. compressed air. The same remarks apply to a narrow tunnel, These, however, only record high pressures, and not minor as, for example, that which is now being driven through Mont changes like those produced by alterations of temperature. Cenis; and here, too, compressed air is used instead of steam. We want, therefore, some means of measuring these, and for There is also this further advantage attending the use of air, this purpose we employ a U-shaped tube, open at each end. that the machine can be more easily moved, for a portion of the The bend is filled with water if very low pressures are to pipe may be made flexible, which cannot well be done with be measured, and with mercury if to be used for those rather steam-piping. greater.
The most important application of the pressure of air to If the gas whose tension is to be ascertained is allowed to driving machinery is seen in the atmospheric railway. At press on the liquid in one limb, it will depress it and raise that present this has not come into practical use, but it appears in the other, and the difference in level between the two will probable that the principle will ultimately be adopted in our indicate the pressure. A sliding-scale is usually attached to underground railways, as it will effect å saving in working show this difference. In this way we shall find that the pressure expenses as well as in construction, to say nothing of the much of the gas, as usually supplied to our houses, is seldom equal greater safety which would be ensured by its use, and the to two inches of water, a very small amount indeed when we greater purity of the air in the tunnel. remember that the pressure of the air will sustain a column of The original plan proposed, and actually carried out on a water over thirty feet high. It is, however, found to be quite short piece of line near Paris, was somewhat as follows:-A sufficient to overcome the resistance caused by the friction of large iron tube, having all along the top an opening which was the gas against the pipes, and a greater pressure would only closed tightly by a flexible lid, was laid along the middle of the cause a greatly increased loss by leakage from the mains. line. This tube was made uniform in size, and a pair of pistons, This pressure is produced by weights placed upon the gaso made to fit it, were fixed one to each end of a little carriage
meter, and can in this way be regulated to a which travelled along in the tube. From the middle of this considerable extent. It is found, however, that carriage rose an arm which projected through the slit, and was considerable variations occur, it being greater attached to the carriage on the line. A coulter-shaped piece of just before the majority of people light it in metal was placed on each side of the arm, so as to open the slit their houses, and again in large towns about for it to pass along, and the aperture closed of itself as soon as eleven o'clock, when many burners are turned off. the arm had passed. The pistons were also attached to short These variations in pressure cause a loss in illumi-arms, so that the valve admitted no air in front of them. At nating power, and several regulators have accord- each end of this tube was fixed a powerful double-acting airingly been devised to obviate this. The principle pump, and whenever it was required to start the train, the on which they act is merely that a conical valve is pump at the end to which it was going was set to work. It moved by the pressure so as to close to a greater or soon produced a vacuum in the tube, and the pressure of the less extent the pipe along which the gas passes. air behind the piston was sufficient to drive the train. There
There is a small but useful piece of apparatus, were, however, many practical difficulties in the carrying out known as the safety-pipe (Fig. 17), which may be of this plan. The valves could not be got to close well, and explained here, as it acts in a similar way to the hence there was a considerable leakage of air which greatly pressure-gauge just mentioned. In many chemical diminished the power. All the strain, too, was transmitted experiments in the laboratory, as well as in the through the arm, and thus there was danger of breakage. From manufactory, a large amount of gas is evolved by these and many similar causes the design was not carried out
the changes taking place within some closed elsewhere. Fig. 17.
vessel. If no escape be allowed for this, the More recently, however, an altogether different plan was
pressure may increase to such an extent as to tried with much greater success. In this the tube was built of burst the vessel; while, on the
other hand, it is desirable not to brickwork, and made of such a diameter as to take in it an allow the gas to be lost. A safety-pipe, similar to that shown in ordinary-sized railway carriage. A trial line, of nearly a mile in the annexed figure, is therefore introduced. This allows a portion length, was constructed in the grounds of the Crystal Palace at of the gas to escape
when the pressure reaches a certain limit. It Sydenham. The line was made with steeper gradients and is, in fact, a safety-valve of low pressure. A glass tube has a sharper curves than any line yet worked, so as to give the bulb e blown near the middle, and each end
is then bent back system a full trial. The tunnel was carefully constructed, so as upon itself. The upper end is also shaped into a funnel, which to be of uniform size, and one end of the carriage was made should be rather larger than the bulb. Water or mercury, ac- nearly to fit it, an aperture of a few inches being left all cording to the pressure required, is now ponred into the funnel
, round. A brush fixed round the carriage nearly filled this, 80 28 to fill the bend and part of the bulb. If the
pressure inside and was found
to exclude the air sufficiently. The ends of the the vessel becomes too great, the liquid will be forced into the part tunnel were closed by air-tight doors, and in a building near C of the tube, and any excess of gas will then bubble
up through one end was fixed a large fan, constructed somewhat after the