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plan of a centrifugal pump, and so arranged that by causing it | They consist of two ordinary bellows, placed one abore to rotate in one direction it exhausted the tube, 'while on re- the other. When the ander board E (Fig. 18) is lowered, the versing it the air was condensed. The pipe leading from this valve c opens and admits the air ; this is forced, by the rising entered the tunnel at a little distance from the end. The car of the board, through the valve B into the upper bellows. A riage being now placed just in the mouth of the tunnel at the weight A, placed on the top, drives the air with a constant further end, the engine was set to work, and, as soon as a slight pressure out of the nozzle D. The board F is fixed, and a amount of exhaustion was produced, the pressure outside forced is usually worked by a it rapidly along. As the whole area of the carriage was exposed lever. Though these to the pressure, it was found that only a very small degree of bellows are powerful rarefaction was required, a pressure of a few ounces to the inch enough for a blackbeing quite sufficient to impart to it a great velocity. As soon smith's forge, when the as the carriage had passed the portion of the tunnel where metal has only to be the exhaust-pipe entered, it ceased to be carried forward by softened sufficiently to the pressure of the air, but it had acquired an amount of cause it to weld, they momentum sufficient to propel it with considerable violence will not answer for a beyond the end of the tunnel. The doors at the end were, how. furnace for melting iron; ever, closed by powerful springs. The air, therefore, enclosed and a fan, driven by between them and the carriage became more and more com- steam, is usually em
Fig. 19. pressed, until the pressure was sufficient to open the doors, ployed in this case. The and allow the carriage to run slowly out. The air acted, in air enters at the axle, and is thrown off by centrifugal force from fact, as a buffer, and brought the carriage to rest with scarcely the edges, and conducted along large tubes to the furnace. any shock. When the carriage was to be sent back to the other Another purpose for which these machines are employed is end, the engine first exhausted the tube until the carriage passed in the winnowing of corn. In former times, and in some places the opening, the doors were then closed, the engine reversed, and at the present day, the corn, when threshed, is thrown up in the then the air behind was condensed, and drove the carriage to air, and the wind carries away the chaff. The plan now adopted the other end on the same principle as a boy drives a pea is to allow it to fall through a narrow slit, and canse a rapid through his pea-shooter by the pressure of his breath.
current of air, produced by rotating fans, to remove the chaft. The experiment appeared satisfactory, though no practical One great advantage of this plan is that the strength of the use has yet been made of it. The carriage, with passengers in blast may be so regulated as not only to remove the chaff, but it, could be started from one end, driven round the curves, and to separate also the small and shrivelled grains. up and down the steep inclines, and yet stop at the other end, The pneumatic screw is another simple blowing machine, ased nearly a mile off, in the space of about one minute. The system for purposes of ventilation. It acts on exactly the same prinappears to possess many advantages. Much greater inclines ciple as the Archimedian screw, an axle with a spiral flange can be allowed, and all danger of the carriage running off the being made to rotate in a cylinder. This is placed at one end line on sharp curves is avoided. There is also much greator of the tube or shaft, and produces a powerful current, the safety from accidents. Collision is impossible, for two car- direction of which depends upon the direction in which the riages can never be travelling in opposite directions at the same screw revolves. time, nor can one overtake the other. The boiler, too, being This machine is sometimes employed for the ventilation of away from the train, cannot injure the passengers if it explodes, mines, and is fixed above one of the shafts. A second shaft and the only inconvenience then would be that the passengers allows fresh air to pass down it, and replace that removed by would have to walk along the line to the nearest station. the fan, and thus a constant current of air is kept up through Further, as the trains would travel very rapidly, one line would, the mine. The main galleries below are so arranged, by in most cases, be sufficient, and the additional expense incurred means of boarding and doors, that the fresh air must traverse by the careful building of the tunnel would, in many places, be the greater part of the mine before it can find its way to the compensated for by the smaller amount of land required. The "upcast" shaft, as it is termed. As the air will always find tunnel, too, unlike our present ones, would be well ventilated, as the most direct road, great care is required in the arrangements the air would be entirely changed each time a train passed for effecting this. through. There are, of course, many practical difficulties which In most mines in England blowing machines are now dismight occur in the actual working, but the plan seems to pensed with, and in their stead a large furnace is placed at the promise well, and to be worthy of a thorough trial.
base of one of the shafts. This greatly rarefies the air above it, We must now notice the construction of a few common and thus renders it much lighter than that around. It ascends, pneumatic machines, and perhaps the most important are those therefore, and a fresh supply rushes down the second shaft to used for blowing. In furnaces for reducing and melting metals take its place, and in this way good ventilation may nearly it is found impossible to cause a sufficient degree of heat to be always be obtained. The plan, too, is more simple than the produced unless a large additional quantity of air be forced into use of fans, and less liable to get out of order. Sometimes the the fire, so as to quicken combustion. In mines, too, and furnace is placed in a recess, part of the way up the shaft; underground passages ventilation must be carried on by artificial sometimes, too, only one shaft is sunk, and divided by bratticing means, and for these and other purposes blowing machines are into three or more divisions, one for the pumps and working employed.
machinery, the other two for the "upcast” and “downcast." The most simple of these is the common household bellows, This plan is, however, very dangerous, and many of the fearful
so familiar to all. In the accidents we hear of in mines are to be attributed to its
opens this valve, and air rushes in at the cracks of the doors and windows to supply enters, but as they are again pressed together this valve closes, its place. A good fire, therefore, adds greatly to the ventilation and air is then forced to escape by the nozzle. With of a room. As, however, the heated air rises, it is an important this kind, however, only an intermittent current can be pro- thing to have some outlet for this, and an opening into the duced, for while the boards are being separated, air is drawn chimney near the top of the room will usually be effectual. in at the nozzle as well as at the valve, though in a less In public buildings the foul air is usually
carried off near the degree. This was often found to be a serious disadvantage, roof, and arrangements ought to be made by which fresh air and therefore two bellows, working alternately, were nsed can enter in a number of small streams at different places, in in many furnaces. Double-acting
bellows are, however, used stead of flowing in a large body through an open door, and thus now in nearly all forges, and these produce a uniform stream. creating a violent draught.
LESSONS IN ASTRONOMY.-II.
and expressed their wonder at its manifest disproportions. Still
such is the hold that preconceived notions obtain over the EARLY ASTRONOMICAL INSTRUMENTS HISTORY OF
human mind, especially when those views are supported by SCIENCE (continued) — COPERNICUS AND HIS SYSTEM
priestly authority and made matters of religion, that for TYCHO BRAHE-KEPLER.
centuries no one seems to have referred to the old theory of In judging of the various systems devised by the ancients to Anaxagoras, or proposed any new one to clear up the difficulty. account for the grand mechanism of the heavens, we must bear At length, however, about the year 1472, there was born one, in mind, and make allowance for, the very imperfect nature and Nicholas Copernicus, who, leaving all the speculations of former construction of the instruments they possessed; and when this observers, inquired for himself into the motions of the celestial is done, instead of wondering at the errors they made, we shall bodies. He first examined all the ancient observations he could often be surprised at the accuracy of their observations; some find, and then commenced for himself a system of close and of these which still exist being sufficiently accurate to be at careful study of the heavens. He compared the actual places times of service to astronomers in the present day,
occupied by the sun and planets with those which, according to The simplest and probably the most ancient astronomical former theories, they ought to occupy, and thus obtained a instrument consisted of a vertical pillar set upon an even sur- better knowledge of their irregularities and variations than any face, so that, by observing the shadow, the direction of the sun astronomer before his time. He continued this course for many and its altitude at any period might be measured ; by noticing, years, and at length arrived at the conclusion that Mercury and also, the direction in which the shortest shadow was cast by the Venus revolved around the sun, instead of round the earth. He pillar, they could ascertain the north and south points of the gradually extended his reasoning further, and at last started heavens. It is believed by many that the obelisks and stone his celebrated theory, which regarded the sun as the centre of pillars which were common among Eastern nations were con- the system, with the earth and the other planets all revolving structed for some such purpose, and that they were frequently in regular order around it. By this grand idea all the complisurmounted by a ball, in order that the position of the shadow cated and bewildering schemes which had puzzled so many might be more easily marked. Some of these obelisks were observers were at one stroke swept away. Instead of the afterwards removed to Rome for the same purpose. These cumbrous machinery of crystal spheres revolving one within the instruments were called gnomons.
other, the utmost simplicity is seen to prevail ; order and reguThe telescope, which has made such astounding revelations to larity take the place of almost inextricable confusion; and as men of modern times, and which has so greatly extended their the observer transfers his station of observation from the earth knowledge of the universe, was quite unknown in early ages. to the sun, the planets, which had previously appeared to Instruments for measuring time were also very imperfect, wander on in ever-varying directions among the stars—now although, as will be seen further on, the importance of noticing retracing their steps, and then, after an interval of rest, starting the exact moment of the occurrence of any of the celestial afresh-are seen to be steadily moving on in elliptic orbits phenomena is very great. Various forms of the sun-dial were around the central luminary of the system. The movements of in ise, but these could only be of service when the sun was the inferior planets Mercury and Venus, the reason why they shining, and even then could not give very accurate indications. were never seen very far removed from the sun, the retrograde Other instruments were therefore planned, and the one most motions of the planets, and their irregular movements, were commonly employed was the clepsydra, or water-clock, in which all clearly explained by this grand yet simple theory. the hour was shown by the amount of water that had passed We can with difficulty form an idea of the prejudice with through an aperture. Sand was afterwards used in the place of which this scheme would be received; the earth was by it water, as its flow was found to be more regular and even. degraded from its central place, and reduced to the rank of one
Rather strangely, we have come back very recently to a of the planets; and that which men had always been wont to method of measuring minute intervals of time similar to this old regard as fixed and immovable, was now declared to be in rapid plan. A vessel is provided with a small aperture from which a flight around the sun, and, at the same time, to be ever whirling fine stream of mercury is issuing, and when it is required to note round on its own axis. He himself foresaw the effects of this any brief interval-as, for instance, that occupied in the passage prejudice, and hence he seems to have been long before he fully of a planet between two lines situated in the field of view of a accepted the theory, and then to have waited still longer before telescope-the mercury is diverted into a separate vessel at the he ventured to make it public. His work on the subject, entitled moment of the disc of the planet coming into contact with the “On the Revolution of the Heavenly Bodies," was finished in first line, and allowed to flow on until it has passed the second, the year 1530, but he delayed publishing it for several years, when the stream is allowed to flow as at first. The amount of although a few friends, to whom he had communicated and mercury in the vessel is then accurately weighed, and by com- explained his views, at once adopted them and urged him to do paring it with the amount which is known to flow out in a given so. At last, however, he gave his consent to its being printed, interval-say, for instance, five seconds—the exact duration of but his dedication almost takes the form of an apology for the passage can be noted.
venturing to suggest such views, and his ideas were put forward A few other rade instruments were also occasionally employed, rather in the shape of an hypothesis than of a definite system. but their construction was very imperfect, and we are not there We must not, however, suppose that Copernicus formed a fore surprised at the slow progress of the science. Among the complete system to account for all the motions of the planets ; Romans, too, science never found a congenial home; glory in his life was too short for this task. His work was rather to war being the object of their ambition, rather than the peaceful indicate the true theory of the universe, leaving it for others to yet glorious triumphs achieved by intellect. After the age of trace out more accurately the exact curves in which the planets Ptolemy little progress appears to have been made, and even moved, and to ascertain their various distances, sizes, and rates known truths were to a great extent forgotten. His system was of motion. This work was taken up by Kepler, who has someindeed universally received for many centuries, more especially times been called the “ Legislator of the Heavens," as it was he as it was supported by the authority of Aristotle ; and fresh who first laid down the laws and rules which govern the moveadditions to it, in the shape of eccentrics and epicycles, were ments of the heavenly bodies. We shall notice more about this made ; but few, if any, new discoveries appear to have been celebrated astronomer shortly, but must first look at the labours effected, and no noteworthy name appears on the
pages of of another distinguished man who preceded him-Tycho Brahe.
He was of Danish extraction, and was born very shortly after After the fall of the Roman empire the science found a home the death of Copernicus. It is said that his attention was first among the Arabians, who, in the eighth century, seem to have directed to the science of astronomy by an eclipse which dovoted much attention to its study, and to have made con happened at the time predicted, in the year 1560, and incited siderable advances in it. By them the length of the solar year him to learn something of the wonderful science which enabled was calculated to within a very little of its true amount; the such predictions to be made. When at the University of Leipsic, obliquity of the
ecliptic was also measured ; and at a place in much of his night was often devoted to observation of the stars, the desert, near Palmyra, the length of a degree was ascertained and thus he soon attained considerable proficiency; but there with very creditable accuracy. The Ptolemaic system was, how is one thing which tends rather to lower him in our estimation, ever, firmly received, though many of the more thoughtful and and that is his partial rejection of the Copernican system, and careful observers seem to have been far from satisfied with it, the proposal of a new one, in which the earth occupied the
central place, with the moon and sun revolving round it, while bination of several circular movements; and again he diligently all the planets revolved round the sun.
calculated its position, till, just as he seemed to be on the verge The Copernican system, however, was, we must remember, at of success, the planet once more wandered away from the path this time a mere theory unsupported by proof, and the main which he had assigned to it; and once more he had to commence reason of Brahe's rejection of it was that, if the earth revolved his observations from the beginning. In this way he continued in a large orbit, he thought the fixed stars ought to appear in a to try one hypothesis after another, submitting each to the test different position when seen from one extremity of the orbit to of most careful observation, till at length no fewer than nineteen that which they occupied when seen from the other extremity; different theories had been proposed, and the movements of the and not being able to observe this change, he concluded that the planets compared with those which were calculated by these earth must be at rest. The principle of this argument was theories;
and yet the true solution of the problem was still unright, and in reality there is a minute difference in the appearance found. His perseverance, however, never failed, and he toiled of the stars; it is, however, too minute to be observed, except on, though eight long years had been occupied in the task. One by the most delicate instruments. The reason why it is not important negative result he had, however, arrived at, and this more clearly seen is that, great as is the diameter of the earth's was that, whatever was the nature of the curve the planeta orbit, the distance of even the nearest fixed star is so immensely described, it was not a circle, nor a combination of circles. This greater that the change produced is scarcely visible. We may was one great step towards the solution of the task. From the notice this same effect as we are carried rapidly along in a train; very earliest ages it had been assumed that, as the circle the objects situated near to the line of railway seem to move seemed the perfection of form, all the heavenly bodies must more past us very rapidly, those further off have a less apparent in circles; but Kepler now cast off this trammel, and then speed, while lofty objects in the distance scarcely seem to move applied himself afresh to his task. at all. Every minute changes the apparent position of those In looking at the greatness of his work we must remember which are near, while it is only after the lapse of some little time that the difficulty is much increased by the fact that our station that we perceive the motion of those at a distance; and, sup- of observation is itself in rapid motion. Could we view the posing the line of rails were perfectly straight, we might travel planets from the sun, we should easily see their courses ; but on for hours, and not be able to detect the slightest alteration in as we cannot do this, allowance has to be made in every calcuthe apparent position of the sun. We see thus that the con- lation for the movement of our standpoint, and this motion was clusion which Brahe arrived at was wrong, though his premises not then clearly understood. were right; and we shall find further on the great importance Having discarded the theory of motion in circles, Kepler now which is attached to this change of position, or "parallax," as proceeded to try other forms, testing them as before, and the it is called, all the distances of the heavenly bodies being deter- first that occurred to him was the ellipse. The same series o mined by means of it.
calculations was accordingly gone through again, and this time His famo, however, as an astronomer rests upon the care and the motion of the planet was found to agree with that assigne accuracy of his observations, A new star which appeared in the to it by the theory. The great problem of the heavens was not year 1572, and continued visible for about a year and a half, solved, and the joy with which Kepler enunciated the first was specially observed by him, and he recorded a large number the laws which bear his name can scarcely be imagined. Th of very careful observations on the planets and stars, some of law may be stated as follows:- The planets revolve arota which are of great use for reference at the present time. To him, the sun in elliptical orbits, the sun being situated in one of th too, we are indebted for a catalogue of many of the fixed stars, foci. which, though it contained a much smaller number than that of As this is one of the fundamental laws of astronomy, we mus Hipparchus, was greatly superior to it in accuracy.
explain it rather more fully. In every circle there is a pois A table showing the allowance to be made in the apparent called the centre, such that all straight lines drawn from it position of the heavenly bodies, on account of the effect the circumference are equal. No such point is to be found in produced by the refraction of the air, was also calculated by ellipse; but in the longest diameter two points can be found him. The nature of this refraction will be fully explained further situated that, if straight lines be drawn from one to any point on. We may mention, however, that it causes all bodies near the circumference, and thence to the other, the sum of the the horizon to appear at a greater altitude than they really have lines will always be equal. These points are called the foci. attained ; and hence, in important observations, allowance must Explanations of the practical methods by which the curve be made for its action.
an ellipse may be traced from any two points as foci, ha About the year 1575 Tycho Brahe attracted the attention of already been given in Problem LVIII. of “Lessons in Geometry Frederick II. of Denmark, who gave him a small island on the —" How to trace the curve of an ellipse by mechanical cont Baltic, and an annual allowance. Here he built himself a large vances” (see Vol. II., page 252); it is therefore unnecessary house and observatory, which he called Uraniborg, the “Castle repeat them here in detail. It will be needful, however, to of the Heavens, and in this he lived for years, occupied with the reader's attention to what is termed the “eccentricity" his favourite science, and assisted by the best instruments which an ellipse, as it is a term that is constantly used in speaking could be procured. After the king's death, some of those who the orbits of the heavenly bodies. In Fig. 84 (Vol. II., P were envious of his honours succeeded in depriving him of his 252), G is the centre, and the fraction of which the numerato allowance and his observatory. He did not, however, despair, Ga and the denominator is GC-or, in other words, the prop for soon after he was received at Prague by the emperor, tion between G A and G C, which is the half of the major ari and an observatory erected for him and his pupils. Here he is called the eccentricity. In the figure, however, this is rep remained until his death, which happened a few years later. sented very much greater than it is in orbits of any of the
Among his pupils was Kepler, to whom we have already nets, and their paths therefore differ less from a circle. referred. He acquired from Brahe the habit of accurate observa- The consideration of the remaining two laws of Kepler un tion, and was far more successful than his master in the theories be deferred till our next lesson. which he formed. Naturally he was possessed of a quick and kively imagination. He commenced with careful observation, and then formed his theories in accordance with the facts; and pro
READINGS IN LATIN.-II. ceeding in this way, he soon made several important discoveries. The task to which he now devoted his time and energies was
VIRGIL. to discover the nature of the paths described by the planets. VIRGIL was a Roman poet who was born in the year 70 B.C. Starting with the hypothesis of the sun being in the centre of died 19 B.C. He flourished in the period which is known as the system, he began to watch attentively their places, and, to "golden ege" of Latin poetry, of which he was one of the un simplify matters, he confined himself at first to the motions of brilliant ornaments. The works by which he is best known the planet Mars.
(1) the Bucolios, a book of pastoral poetry, consisting of He calculated the place it ought to occupy according to the eclogues, as they are called; (2) the Georgics, four books theory of its revolving in a circular orbit, and soon found that what is known as “ didactio" poetry, containing instruction the place it really occupied in the sky differed considerably from the art of agriculture and similar occupations; and (3) that assigned to it. This theory was thus at once shown to be Æneid, an epic poem in twelve books, each of consider incorrect, and he had therefore to form a fresh one by the com- length, the subject of which is the wanderings of the Th
hero, Eneas, after the taking of Troy by the Greeks, his landing Littora myrtetis lætissima : denique apertos
115 in different metres which have come down to us, but are not so Divisæ arboribus patriæ; sola India nigrum generally read. The chief characteristics of Virgil's style are his Fert ebenum; solis est thurea virga Sabæis. polish, ingenuity, and skill. He cannot lay claim to any great originality, for both his subjects and his method of treatment
110. Fluminibus, paludibus, ablatives of place, by streams, in marshes, are alike taken from Greek models, though his writings contain 112. Lætissima. Lætus, glud, is here used, as it often is, in the passages of great beauty and true poetical sentiment; but, like sense of aðounding. There is a similar allusion to the locality of the our English Pope, he remodelled and put into shape the metre myrtle in Georg. IV. 124, where Virgil speaks of “amantes litterat he employed, which up to his time had been rugged and un
myrtos." polished. The Bucolics, or Eclogues--for by the latter name
113. Bacchus. The god of the vine, used here for the vine itself ; se they are more generally known-may be described as scenes
we find Ceres used for corn, Vulcanus for fire, Mars for war,
Minerva for intellect. of pastoral life taken from the poetical point of view, and
115. Geloni, a tribe inhabiting the neighbourhood of the Dnoiper ; though very beautiful, they are totally unnatural, and the their country is the modern Ukraine. Characters in them have been cleverly compared to the ladies 116. Divisæ, etc., countries are divided among trees-i.l., each tiu and gentlemen in the garb of shepherds and shepherdesses that has its own country. we see sometimes in English family pictures. While they speak 117. Solis. To the Sabeans alone the frankincense tree belongs. The in many cases the sentiment of Italians of Virgil's day, all the Sabæans inhabited part of Arabia. scenery and surroundings are most distinctly Greek, and the The third extract is from the Eneid, and is the celebrated dopoems are, in fact, very close copies of the pictures of life found scription of Fama (Rumour). in some of the Greek writers, the very names employed being
VIRGIL.-Æn. IV. 173–188. Greek. Our first extract is taken from the seventh Eclogue,
Extemplo Libyæ magnas it Fama per urbes, which represents an improvisatorial trial of musical skill between
Fama, malum, qua non aliud velocius ullum two shepherds.
Mobilitate viget, viresque acquirit eundo;
175 VIRGIL.—EC. VII. 1–19.
Parva metu primo, mox sese attollit in auras, Forte sub argutâ consederat ilice Daphnis,
Ingrediturque solo, et caput inter nubila condit. Compulerantque greges Corydon et Thyrsis in unum,
Tilam Terra parens, irá irritata deorum Thyrsis oves, Corydon distentas lacte capellas,
Extremam ut perhibent Cao Enceladoque sororem Ambo fiorentes ætatibus, Arcades ambo,
Progenuit, pedibus celerem et pernicibus alis;
180 Et cantare pares, et respondere parati.
5 Monstrum horrendum, ingens, cui quot sunt corpore plume Huc mihi, dum teneras defendo a frigore myrtos,
Tot vigiles oculi subter, mirabile dictu, Vir gregis ipse caper deerraverat; atque ego Daplmim
Tot linguæ, totidem ora sonant, tot subrigit auras, Aspicio. Ille ubi me contra videt, “ Ocius,” inquit,
Nocte volat cæli medio terræque, per umbram "Huc ades, o Melibee; caper tibi salvus et hædi;
Stridens, nec dulci declinat lumina somno;
185 Et si quid cessare potes, requiesce sub umbra.
10 Luce sedet custos, aut sunni culmine tecti, Huc ipsi potum venient per prata juvenci;
Turribus aut altis, et magnas territat urbes, Hic virides sacrâ prætexit arundine ripas
Tam ficti pravique tenax quam nuncia veri. Mincius, eque sacrâ resonant examina quercu."
NOTES. Quid facerem ? Neque ego Alcippen nec Phyllida habebam, 173. Libyæ. The ancient name for the northern part of Africa. Depulsos a lacte domi quæ clauderet agnos;
15 179. Cous and Enceladus were two of the giants of the Greek Et certamen erat, Corydon cum Thyrside, magnum.
mythology. Posthabui tamen illorum mea seria ludo.
180. Pedibus, an ablative of reference, swift of foot and untiring of wing. Alternis igitur contendere versibus ambo
“The ablative denotes that part of the subject with regard to which Cæpere, alternos Musæ meminisse volebant.
something is predicated of the subject : ager pedibus, weak in the fest."
(Madvig, " Latin Grammar," 259.) NOTES.
181. Cui quot sunt, etc., who has, for every feather on her body, e (The numbers refer to the lines.)
watchful eye beneath, for every eye, etc. 1. Arguta, shrill. The epithet has reference to the sound of the 184. Cæli medio terræque, midway between heaven and earth; so we find wind in the branches, and may be translated whispering.
"locum medium utriusque," a placo midway between both (Cæsar, 2. In unum, together, or into one place; supply locum.
Bel. Gal. I. 34). 3. Oves governed by compulerat understood, from compulerant in 186. Luce, in the daylight, by day; opposed to nocte, both ablatives the previous line.
of time. 4. Arcades. Arcadia was looked upon as the land of pastoral We subjoin a translation of Extract 3, from Cæsar, in our last poetry, and so Arcades is used as synonymous with poetæ.
Readings in Latin :5. Pares goes with parati, both equally prepared to, or it may be construed with cantare, equals in singing, an irregular construction, as if
CESAR.“ ON THE WAR IN GAUL,” Book IV., cap. xiv. it were" pares in cantando." Vir gregis, the monarch of the herd. And when Cæsar observed this he gave orders to move the
6. Mihi. This is called the dativus ethicus, or dative of reference. war-galleys some little distance from the transports, and to row Here it is used in much the same sense as the possessive meus, and them up and station them opposite to the exposed side of the
(1) to defend, as here; (2) to ward of. Defendit æstatem is used by enemy, as their appearance was somewhat strange to the barHorace to mean wards of the heat.
barians and their movements more handy for his purpose, and 7. Atque is generally used to express some sudden change : and io! with slings, arrows, and engines to attack the enemy and drive a sudden I see Daphnis.
them from the position. And this manœuvre was a great help 9. Tibi, used as mihi in line 6.
to our men, as the barbarians, amazed at the shape of the 11. Ipsi, of their own accord ; a frequent use of this pronoun. galleys and the motion of the oars, and the strange natare of 14. Quid facerem? What could I do?
the engines, halted, and gradually retreated. And as our 16. Et, etc. And on the other hand there was a contest- Corydon against soldiers hung back, chiefly on account of the depth of the sea, Thyrois a great one. The sentence Corydon cum Thyrside is put in the standard-bearer of the tenth legion, having prayed to the apposition with certamen, which it explains.
19. Alternos. Their Muses wished to remember alternate strains, and gods that what he was about to do might have a prosperous therefore to recall them to the minds of the shepherds.
issue, called out, “ Leap, comrades, unless you would betray the Our next extract is from the 2nd Georgic, which treats of standard to the enemy : I at least will surely do my duty by the
state and our general!" And having spoken thus in a lond
voice, he leaped from the vessel and went, standard in hand, VIRGIL.-GEORG. II. 109-117.
against the enemy. Then our men, having admonished one Nec vero terræ ferre omnes omnia possunt.
another not to allow of such a disgrace, leaped down in a body Huminibus salices, crassisque paludibus alni
110 from the vessel, and when the men on the ships next them saw Nascuntur, steriles saxosis montibus orni;
them, they also followed them and approached the enemy.
the culture of trees.
destined... ds end harden...brd n intér...nt B LESSONS IN SHORTHAND.-XII.
derogatory...dr gtr hardy...brd interpret...nt & prt LIST OF BEST OUTLINES.
despondence...ds pnd ns harlot...hr It
intone...n tn devour...dv r harm...he m
intoxicate...nt ks kt 177. To understand the following mode of representing outlines devout...dv t hart...hrt
January...jar by means of types, the reader must be familiar with the consonants digestion...d jst n haven...h yn jealousy...jls of the Phonotypic Alphabet, as given in the last column in the Table dilapidation...dlp din headland...h d Ind
journey...jr n of Consonants, paragraph 7, Lesson II. The letters placed after any director...dr k tr
Kindly... End 1 word in the following list, represent the corresponding phonographic directory...dr ktr
heathen...h dn kindle...k nd 1
herd...hrd or shorthand letters in that Table. When two, three, or four letters discourage..ds krj (62) hereditary...b r dt r
lark... rk are placed together, without a space between them, they represent a discretion..ds kr/n (62) heretofore...hRt fr latitude... It td (808 SINGLE STROKE together with a circle (s), tick (/), or hook (for l, r, distant...ds tnt
heritage... I rt j
altitude) n, f, e, or tion); or a SINGLE STROKE that is halved (to represent an distribute...ds tr bt hermit...hr mt
latitudinarian...It td nra additional t or d) or doubled (to represent an additional ir or dr);
disturb...ds trb Highlands... I Inds
laziness...l 2 ns thus, ks, kn, pt mcan S; but k, n, with a space between divert...dyrt (see advert) hobby...h b
diverge...dv rj highlander... Indr(111) length...L
lesson... Ls n represent
division...d vzn The DOWNWARD I, r, h are marked by SMALL CAPITALS. Italic
holiday...hid lineality...In It dormant...dr mnt Holland...h Ind
linen...i nn is used to show:-1, The stroke s ; 2, the upward ; 3, the doubtful...dt fi home...hm
lion...en EXTRA-alphabetic curves for fr, vr, Or, dr, fl, vl; 4, a joined vowel doubtless... dt Ls
homily...I ml liturgy...It rj like sign (< or ») for w. (8 standiog alone, as in courtesy, “krt s," Economy...kn m honorary.. nr r London... In da necessarily means the stroke s.)
efficient...f Ant hook... I k
Londoner... La d or The learner should write this list of words in shorthand, inserting effrontery...frnt r horizontal...h rs nt long...I 9,
embarrass...mb rs horn...hon
lyric...rk the vowels, and that he may know if he has correctly interpreted the
embellish...mbil horrible.hr bi Madam...md m phonotypes, he should send a column or two to some member of the embody...mb d horror...he R
mainly...m Phonetic Society for examination. When he can translate the out
emperor...mp rr horse...hRs
man-servant....u na rin lines readily and correctly, he should, for the sake of practice, write energetic...n r jt k horticulture...hRt k ltr march...mrc out the list, making each word six times. To simplify the Table for enlighten...n i tn
hospital... hs pt 1
martial...mrni the learner, the positions which some of the outlines would take in enliven...nl vn host...hst (loop)
mediate...mdt the Reporting Style are not marked.
enormous... nr ms hostage...hs tj
meditate...md tt enraptured...n r p trd hot...ht
merchant...m r çat Note. During the publication of these Shorthand Lessons in the POPULAR enthusiasm...n * zs m hotel...h ti
merciful... In rs fl EDCCATOR, a course of experiments in writing has been instituted by Mr.
enthusiast...n 3 zst hound...h nd Pitman, in conjunction with the Phonetic Society, and it is found that no
metaphor...mt fr benefit results to the writer from representing w by two shorthand signs, as enthusiastic...n * zs tk hull... hl
metropolis...mt r pls in Lessons II. and v. The heavy downstroke is therefore appropriated to entire...nt a
human... hmn military...m ltr another use, and is made to represent the double consonant rk, this being entirety...ntrt humanity... hm nt misapply...mas p! the most frequent diphthongal consonant of which r is the basis ; as a heavy esteem...st m
humble.. hm bi miscalculate..ms kIL mm is made to represent mp. The proposal to write w in all cases by the
moderate...md rt light upstroke commencing with a hook, was made last December, and the exaggerate...ks j rt humbug...hmb g question was settled in April. The history of this further slight improve excessive...kss V hundred...n drd moral...mrl ment in Phonography will be found in the Phonetic Journal for 17th and expeditiously...ks pd sal hunter...h ntr Mormon...mr mn 24th April, 1869.
extemporé...ks t mp r hurl...hr
mortal...m rt L
Facetious...fs/8 hurricane...h r kn Abandon...bn dn conform...fem
mortar...mr tr certainly...srt ni
falsity...f Ls t hurried...hrd abrupt...br pt conscience...ns
Narcotic...or ktk certificate...srt fkt
farewell...f R1 abstinence...bs tn ns chairman...cr mn
narrative..,nr tv conscientious...s n ss
fashionable...fsn b1 abundant... bnd nt challenge...cl nj consist...sst
north...nr 4 hydrogen... Hd r jn
fault...f It acquire...kr
northern...nr drn character...kr k tr consonant...sn nt
hypocrisy...p kr s
favoured...f vrd active...kt v charcoal...erk constituent...st (loop) favourite...f urt
bypocrite...p krt numerous...mrs actual...kt L
Ordinance...Id a charge...grį tnt
Identify...jdnt f actually...kt 1
financial...fn n si
ignominious...g nmns ordnance ..rd ons acutely...kt1 charm...gr m tsn (hook on the left
ornament...in mnt ignoramus...g nr ms
flesh... As advert...d vrt (see divert) chart... Rt
continental...t nnt í
ignorant...g nrnt ornamental..on mn agent...ja t (see giant) charwoman...cr womn continuation...ta sn
illegal...ll gl ostentation...st nt altitude... It t d (see church...Gr g contradictory..trdktr foolish...fi/
illegitimate...1 1jt mt ostentatious...st ni latitude) circular...srk I R contribution ... tr bn forasmuch..frs mg
illusive.., LS V
overhead... d America...mrk
(hook on the left)
forbid...fr ba circulate...srk lt
imbecile...mbs 1 Patriarch...pt srl ancestor... DSS t R circus...srks
forego...f Rg controvert...tr vrt
imitative...m t tv parlour...pr 1 R anticipate...n ts pt
immaterial...m mtrl partner...prt or apartment... prt mnt cleanly... kln 1
immoral...m mr 1 passionate...pint (k arrival...r vi
Frenchman...frmgmn immortal...m m rt
on the left) artery...kt r
friend...frnd cohesion...k usn (160) cork...k k k articulate...rt klt
imperative...mp rtv patient...PS nt
imperfect...m prf kt artificial...rtf si
patron...p trn furnish...frn collect...kl k t coroner...kr nr
imperial...mpre pattern...pt ru artistic...r tst k
impersonal.. m prs nl persecutor...prsk association... Sin colony...kl n corporeal...kr pri
Galvanise...gl v ns impertinent..mp rtant person...p Is D attentive...tnt v comfort...(dot com) frt
correct...kr kt garden...grd n impiety...mpt persuade..prs wd Australasian...s tr 1 sn commerce...k mrs counter...knt R genteel...j nt 1
impoverish...mp or pertinent... It is Australian...s tr In
countenance...knt n ns gentile...jn tl commercial...k mr 1
indebted...nd ta Better...bt r
petrify...pt rf gentle, gently...jnt i independent...nd pnd nt Philadelphia... ! courteous...kr ts commissariat..k ms rt binder...bnd R commission...k msn courtesy...kr ts get...gt
philosopher...fils i bondage...bnd j
coward...krd commotion...k mín
giant...jnt (see agent) indicate...nd kt bookseller...b k sl R
photograph...At gri giantess...jnts creator...kr tr
indolent...n d Int (In the following words,
indulgent...nd 1 jnt
ponder... pnd brevity...brvt a dot for the prefix, at criminal...kr m nl govern...g vrn inefficient...nf fint
poor...p (see pat Calamity...klm t the commencement of criticism...kr tos m governor...g vr nr inevitable...n vt bl
potato...ptt caleulate...kl klt the first consonant.) cultivate...klt vt grandfather...gr nd får inferior...nfrr candidate...k nd dt
prefer...prfr communicate...n kt culture...kl tR
gratitude...grt td inhabit...nh bt (124) candlestick...k nd Lst k communion...nn
prejudice...prjds Debar...d br
guardian...gr dn inhabitant...nh b tnt premier...pr mr Canterbury...knt r b r, companion...pn n declare...d kl R
Hammer...h mr initial...ni capital...k pt 1
prevent...prr nt comparatively...prt vl declared...d kl rt handle... nd 1 (When innate...n nt captivity... k pt vt
primer...pr mr competitor...pt tr defeat...df t
neither the stroke h insurance... s rns carnal...kr n L
printer...prnt confederate...f d rt defect...df kt
nor the tick is ex, intelligence...nt i jns private...pret carter...k & tr
should be inserted intemperance.... tmp rns profit...prft catalogue..kt lg conferred...f rt demonstrate...d mn stt when vocalising.) intend...nt nd
Pronoun...pr en cavern...k vrn confirm...frm department..d prt mnt handsome...nds m intention...nt nja