« 前へ次へ »
hero, Eneas, after the taking of Troy by the Greeks, his landing Littora myrtetis lætissima : denique apertos
115 in different metres which have come down to us, but are not so Divisæ arboribus patriæ; sola India nigrum generally read. The chief characteristics of Virgil's style are his Fert ebenum; solis est thurea virga Sabæis. polish, ingenuity, and skill. He cannot lay claim to any great originality, for both his subjects and his method of treatment
110. Fluminibus, paludibus, ablatives of place, by streams, in marshes, are alike taken from Greek models, though his writings contain 112. Lætissima. Lætus, glud, is here used, as it often is, in the passages of great beauty and true poetical sentiment; but, like sense of aðounding. There is a similar allusion to the locality of the our English Pope, he remodelled and put into shape the metre myrtle in Georg. IV. 124, where Virgil speaks of “amantes litterat he employed, which up to his time had been rugged and un
myrtos." polished. The Bucolics, or Eclogues--for by the latter name
113. Bacchus. The god of the vine, used here for the vine itself ; se they are more generally known-may be described as scenes
we find Ceres used for corn, Vulcanus for fire, Mars for war,
Minerva for intellect. of pastoral life taken from the poetical point of view, and
115. Geloni, a tribe inhabiting the neighbourhood of the Dnoiper ; though very beautiful, they are totally unnatural, and the their country is the modern Ukraine. Characters in them have been cleverly compared to the ladies 116. Divisæ, etc., countries are divided among trees-i.l., each tiu and gentlemen in the garb of shepherds and shepherdesses that has its own country. we see sometimes in English family pictures. While they speak 117. Solis. To the Sabeans alone the frankincense tree belongs. The in many cases the sentiment of Italians of Virgil's day, all the Sabæans inhabited part of Arabia. scenery and surroundings are most distinctly Greek, and the The third extract is from the Eneid, and is the celebrated dopoems are, in fact, very close copies of the pictures of life found scription of Fama (Rumour). in some of the Greek writers, the very names employed being
VIRGIL.-Æn. IV. 173–188. Greek. Our first extract is taken from the seventh Eclogue,
Extemplo Libyæ magnas it Fama per urbes, which represents an improvisatorial trial of musical skill between
Fama, malum, qua non aliud velocius ullum two shepherds.
Mobilitate viget, viresque acquirit eundo;
175 VIRGIL.—EC. VII. 1–19.
Parva metu primo, mox sese attollit in auras, Forte sub argutâ consederat ilice Daphnis,
Ingrediturque solo, et caput inter nubila condit. Compulerantque greges Corydon et Thyrsis in unum,
Tilam Terra parens, irá irritata deorum Thyrsis oves, Corydon distentas lacte capellas,
Extremam ut perhibent Cao Enceladoque sororem Ambo fiorentes ætatibus, Arcades ambo,
Progenuit, pedibus celerem et pernicibus alis;
180 Et cantare pares, et respondere parati.
5 Monstrum horrendum, ingens, cui quot sunt corpore plume Huc mihi, dum teneras defendo a frigore myrtos,
Tot vigiles oculi subter, mirabile dictu, Vir gregis ipse caper deerraverat; atque ego Daplmim
Tot linguæ, totidem ora sonant, tot subrigit auras, Aspicio. Ille ubi me contra videt, “ Ocius,” inquit,
Nocte volat cæli medio terræque, per umbram "Huc ades, o Melibee; caper tibi salvus et hædi;
Stridens, nec dulci declinat lumina somno;
185 Et si quid cessare potes, requiesce sub umbra.
10 Luce sedet custos, aut sunni culmine tecti, Huc ipsi potum venient per prata juvenci;
Turribus aut altis, et magnas territat urbes, Hic virides sacrâ prætexit arundine ripas
Tam ficti pravique tenax quam nuncia veri. Mincius, eque sacrâ resonant examina quercu."
NOTES. Quid facerem ? Neque ego Alcippen nec Phyllida habebam, 173. Libyæ. The ancient name for the northern part of Africa. Depulsos a lacte domi quæ clauderet agnos;
15 179. Cous and Enceladus were two of the giants of the Greek Et certamen erat, Corydon cum Thyrside, magnum.
mythology. Posthabui tamen illorum mea seria ludo.
180. Pedibus, an ablative of reference, swift of foot and untiring of wing. Alternis igitur contendere versibus ambo
“The ablative denotes that part of the subject with regard to which Cæpere, alternos Musæ meminisse volebant.
something is predicated of the subject : ager pedibus, weak in the fest."
(Madvig, " Latin Grammar," 259.) NOTES.
181. Cui quot sunt, etc., who has, for every feather on her body, e (The numbers refer to the lines.)
watchful eye beneath, for every eye, etc. 1. Arguta, shrill. The epithet has reference to the sound of the 184. Cæli medio terræque, midway between heaven and earth; so we find wind in the branches, and may be translated whispering.
"locum medium utriusque," a placo midway between both (Cæsar, 2. In unum, together, or into one place; supply locum.
Bel. Gal. I. 34). 3. Oves governed by compulerat understood, from compulerant in 186. Luce, in the daylight, by day; opposed to nocte, both ablatives the previous line.
of time. 4. Arcades. Arcadia was looked upon as the land of pastoral We subjoin a translation of Extract 3, from Cæsar, in our last poetry, and so Arcades is used as synonymous with poetæ.
Readings in Latin :5. Pares goes with parati, both equally prepared to, or it may be construed with cantare, equals in singing, an irregular construction, as if
CESAR.“ ON THE WAR IN GAUL,” Book IV., cap. xiv. it were" pares in cantando." Vir gregis, the monarch of the herd. And when Cæsar observed this he gave orders to move the
6. Mihi. This is called the dativus ethicus, or dative of reference. war-galleys some little distance from the transports, and to row Here it is used in much the same sense as the possessive meus, and them up and station them opposite to the exposed side of the
(1) to defend, as here; (2) to ward of. Defendit æstatem is used by enemy, as their appearance was somewhat strange to the barHorace to mean wards of the heat.
barians and their movements more handy for his purpose, and 7. Atque is generally used to express some sudden change : and io! with slings, arrows, and engines to attack the enemy and drive a sudden I see Daphnis.
them from the position. And this manœuvre was a great help 9. Tibi, used as mihi in line 6.
to our men, as the barbarians, amazed at the shape of the 11. Ipsi, of their own accord ; a frequent use of this pronoun. galleys and the motion of the oars, and the strange natare of 14. Quid facerem? What could I do?
the engines, halted, and gradually retreated. And as our 16. Et, etc. And on the other hand there was a contest- Corydon against soldiers hung back, chiefly on account of the depth of the sea, Thyrois a great one. The sentence Corydon cum Thyrside is put in the standard-bearer of the tenth legion, having prayed to the apposition with certamen, which it explains.
19. Alternos. Their Muses wished to remember alternate strains, and gods that what he was about to do might have a prosperous therefore to recall them to the minds of the shepherds.
issue, called out, “ Leap, comrades, unless you would betray the Our next extract is from the 2nd Georgic, which treats of standard to the enemy : I at least will surely do my duty by the
state and our general!" And having spoken thus in a lond
voice, he leaped from the vessel and went, standard in hand, VIRGIL.-GEORG. II. 109-117.
against the enemy. Then our men, having admonished one Nec vero terræ ferre omnes omnia possunt.
another not to allow of such a disgrace, leaped down in a body Huminibus salices, crassisque paludibus alni
110 from the vessel, and when the men on the ships next them saw Nascuntur, steriles saxosis montibus orni;
them, they also followed them and approached the enemy.
the culture of trees.
destined...ds tnd harden...bad n intér...nt e LESSONS IN SHORTHAND.-XII.
derogatory...drg tr hardy...hrd interpret...nt B prt LIST OF BEST OUTLINES.
despondence...ds pnd ns harlot...hr It intone...n tu devour...dv r harm...hr m
intoxicate...nt ks kt 177. To understand the following mode of representing outlines devout...dv t. hart...hrt
January...jar by means of types, the reader must be familiar with the consonants digestion...d jst n haven...h yn jealousy...jls of the Phonotypic Alphabet, as given in the last column in the Table dilapidation...dlpdfn headland...h d lnd
journey...jr 9 of Consonants, paragraph 7, Lesson II. The letters placed after any director...dr k tr
health...hl 3 Kindly...knd 1 word in the following list, represeut the corresponding phonographic directory...drktr
heathen...h dn kindle...k nd L
herd...hrd or shorthand letters in that Table. Wheu two, three, or four letters discourage..ds krj (62) hereditary...b rdt r
Landscape... Inds kp
lark... rk are placed together, without a space between them, they represent a discretion...skrsn (62) heretofore...hrt fr latitude...lt td (see SINGLE STROKE together with a circle (s), tick (h), or hook (for l, r, distant...ds tnt
heritage... II rt j
altitude) n, f, v, or tion); or a SINGLE STROKE that is halved (to represent an distribute...ds tr bt hermit...hr mt
latitudinarian...It td nra additional t or d) or doubled (to represent an additional ir or dr); disturb...ds trb Highlands... I Inds laziness...l z ns thus, ks, kn, pt mean
; but k, n, with a space between divert.dyrt (see advert) bobby...h b
lesson... LS n represent
division...d vzn The DOWNWARD I, r, h are marked by SMALL CAPITALS. Italic
holiday...hld lineality...In It
dormant...dr mnt Holland...h Ind linen... L nn is used to show :-1, The stroke s ; 2, the upward S, 11; 3, the doubtful... dt A home...hm
lion...n EXTRA-alphabetic curves for fr, vr, or, dr, fl, vl; 4, a joined vowel doubtless... dt Ls
homily... I ml liturgy...It rj like sign (< or ») for w. (Š standing alone, as in courtesy, "kr t s,” | Economy...kn m honorary.. nr r
London... Ln dn necessarily means the stroke s.)
efficient...f snt hook...Ik
Londoner...Lu d nr The learner should write this list of words in shorthand, inserting effrontery..frnt r horizontal...h rs nt long...L 9.
embarrass...mb rs horn... hrn
lyric...irk the vowels, and that he may know if he has correctly interpreted the
embellish...mbil horrible...hr bi Madam...md m phonotypes, he should send a column or two to some member of the
embody...mb d horror...hB E mainly...
mL Phonetic Society for examination. When he can translate the out- emperor...mprr horse...hRs
man-servant... as rest lines readily and correctly, he should, for the sake of practice, write energetic...n r jt k horticulture...het k ltr march...mrc out the list, making each word six times. To simplify the Table for enlighten...n i tn hospital...hs pt 1
martial...mrn the learner, the positions which some of the outlines would take in enliven...nl vn host... hst (loop)
mediate...mdt the Reporting Style are not marked.
enormous...or ms hostage... hs tj
meditate...md tt enraptured...n rp trd hot...ht
merchant...mr gut Note.-During the publication of these Shorthand Lessons in the POPULAR
merciful... rs fl EDUCATOR, a course of experiments in writing has been instituted by Mr. enthusiasm...nt zs m hotel...h ti
metaphor...mnt fr Pitman, in conjunction with the Phonetic Society, and it is found that no enthusiast...n zst benefit results to the writer from representing w by two shorthand signs, as enthusiastic...n * zs tk hull...hl
metropolis...mt r pls in Lessons II. and V. The heavy downstroke is therefore appropriated to entire...nt R
military...m ltr another use, and is made to represent the double consonant rk, this being entirety...n trt humanity... hm nt misapply...ms p! the most frequent diphthongal consonant of which r is the basis ; as a heavy esteem...st m
humble...hm bl miscalculate...s kikit m is made to represent mp. The proposal to write w in all cases by the light upstroke commencing with a hook, was made last December, and the exaggerate...ks j rt
moderate...md rt humbug...hmb g
hundred...n drd moral...mr 1 question was settled in April. The history of this further slight improve excessive...kss V ment in Phonography will be found in the Phonetic Journal for 17th and expeditiously...ks pd ss 1 hunter...h ntr Mormon... mr mn 21th April, 1869.
extemporé...ks t mp r hurl...hr L
Facetious...fs /s hurricane...h r kn Abandon... bn dn conform...frm
mortar...mr tr certainly...srt ni
falsity...f Ls t
hurried...hrd Narcotic...nrktk abrupt...b r pt certificate...srt fkt conscience... ns
farewell...f R1 abstinence...bs tn ns chairman...gr mn
narrative...or tv conscientious...f n ss
fashionable...ffn bl abundant...bnd at
north...nr challenge...cl nj consist...sst
hydrogen... d r jn
fault...f It acquire...kr
northern...or d m character...kr k tr consonant...sn nt
hypocrisy...p kr 8
favoured...f vrd active...kt v
constituent...st (loop) favourite...f vrt charcoal... rk 1
bypocrite...p krt actual...kt L
Ordinance...rd n 19 charge...grį tnt
felicity...f ls t
constitution...st (loop) financial...fn n si actually...kt 1 charger...r jr
ignominious...gn m ns ordnance ..rd ons acutely...kt1 charm...gr m tjn (hook on the left
ornament...ru mnt ignoramus...g nr ms
continental...t n nt L advert...d vrt (see divert) chart... rt
ornamental..rn inoti ignorant...g nrnt
flourish... BS agent...jn t (see giant) charwoman...gr umn continuation...t n In
illegal...ll gi ostentation...st n tsa altitude...It t d (see church...Gr G
illegitimate...1 1jt mt ostentatious...st nt je latitude)
contribution ... tr bsn forasmuch...frs me illusive... LS v circular...srk 1 R
overhead...yr d America...mrk
(hook on the left)
Patriarch...pt rre ancestor... nss t r circus...srks
forego...f Rg controvert...tr vrt
imitative...mt tv parlour...prle anticipate...n ts pt
former ...fr mr
immaterial...m mtrl partner...prt nr
forsake...fr sk apartment... prt mnt cleanly... klnl converse... Ur's
immoral...m mr 1
passionate..plot(icek arrival...r vi
Frenchman...frn g mn immortal...m mrt L
on the let) artery...Rt r
friend...frnd cohesion...k 1sn (160)
imperative...mp rtv patient...p / nt articulate...rt klt
fulfil...flfl corner...kr nr colleague...k lg artificial...rt fri
imperfect...m prf kt patron...p trn
imperial...mp TL pattern...pt rn artistic...r tst k
impersonal.. m prs nl persecutor...prskt association... Sin
impertinent..mp rt nnt person...P rs 1 attentive...tnt v
correct...kr k t garden...grd n comfort...(dot com) frt
impiety...mpt persuade...prs wd Australasian...s tr 1 [n commerce...k mrs counter...knt R genteel...j nt
impoverish...mp or s pertinent... it out Australian...s tr In countenance...knt n ng gentile...jn tl
indebted...nd ta commercial...k mr sl Better...bt r
petrify...pt of courteous...kr ts gentle, gently...jnt i independent...nd pnd nt Philadelphia....dll commissariat...k ms rt binder... bnd R
courtesy...kr ts get...g t commission...k msn
philosopher... fils fa bondage...bnd j
coward...krd giant...j nt (see agent) indicate...nd kt commotion...k msn bookseller...b k sl B
photograph...It gif creator...kr tr
giantess...jn ts indolent...n d Int (In the following words,
photography...It grf bravery... brvr
as far as converse, write
creature...krt r golden...gld a indulgent...n d 1jnt ponder... pnd & brevity... bryt
a dot for the prefix, at criminal...kr m nl govern...g vrn inefficient...n f S nt Calamity...klmt the commencement of criticism...kr tss m governor...g vr nr inevitable...n v t bl
potato...ptt caleulate...kl klt the first consonant.) cultivate... klt vt grandfather...gr nd får inferior...n fer
prefer...prfr candidate...k nd dt communicate...n kt culture...kl te gratitude...grt td inhabit...nh bt (124) prejudice...prjds candlestick...k nd Lst k communion...nn Debar...d br
guardian...gr dn inhabitant...nh b tnt premier...pr mr Canterbury...knt rb r companion...pn n declare...d kl R
h mr initial...n capital...k pt 1
prevent.pre nt comparatively...prt vl declared...d kl rt
handle...nd L (When innate...n nt captivity... k pt vt
neither the stroke insurance.... s rns competitor...pt tr defeat...df t carnal...krn L
printer...prnt R confederate...f d rt defect...df kt
nor the tick h is ex, intelligence...nt 1 jns private...pret carter...k e tr confer...fr
delivery...dl vr should be inserted intemperance...nt mp rns profit...prft catalogue...kt lg conferred...f rt demonstrate...d mn stt wben vocalising.) intend...nt nd
pronoun...pr un cuvern...k vrn confirm...fr m department..d prt mut handsome...nds m intention...at njn
poor...p R (see pure)
propose... pr ps subdivide...sbd vd ward...wo r d (173)
LIST OF CONTRACTIONS. prosecutor...prs k tr successful...skssf L warrant...wornt (173) Protestant...prts tnt successor...skss r weakness...wk ns
object provide...prv d suffrage... sfr į wealth...wl $ provincialista...prvnfis m suggestion...sjst n wear...Wr
objection provoke...prv k suggestive...sjst weariness...wrns pure...pr (see poor) suit...st
danger purport...pr p rt swear...SWT
wedding...wd y putrefy...p tif sweet...swt
publication pyramid...pr md swell...SWL
Wednesday... Ens d Quarrel...k wri swift...sw ft
Phonographer quarry...k wr swim...sw m
Wells...Ls (see Wales) swindle...sw nd L
immediate quart...k wrt Welsh...wls
6 Phonographic quarter...kr tr Swiss...sws
west...wst (loop) question...ks tn Switzerland...st SR Ind whatsoever to the
w Phonetic Society Railway...rl (we) symbol...sm bl
gram. what join s vr Teetotaler...tt tl r ransom...m sm
Temperance Soc., refer...fr telegraph... tl grf whensoever...ns er
[etc. rehearse...r h rs (160) telescope...tls k p wheresoever...w r s vr
temperance...t mp rns whisper...ws pr right-hand...rt nd
influence-d* thanksgiving... Ysg whitewash...wtws
represent-ed rotandity...r ondt turnpike...t rnp k whole...hl Sacred...skrd Ultimate... Lt mt whosoever...to the gram.
w influential *
representation sacrifice...skr fs unavoidable...n vd bl who join s vr
representative saucers...SS RS
unregenerate...n rjnrt wickedness...wk d ns scissors...sZ RS unwarrantable.n went bi widow...wd
window...wn d seat...st upright...p rt
something sepulchre...sp 1 kr | Venture...unt r winter...wntr
Y Y interest sharp...fr p
witness... wt ns vertical...tr t kl
Spelling Reform shawl.../1
voluntary...v Int r woman... wmn shelter..1 tr volunteer... Int E wonder...wndr
subject shilling. In Wade...wd
wood...wd shortener...fr t nr wafer...w.fr
subscription situation...st sn wages... wjs
manuscript somehow...sm (join s) wagon...ugu
surprise worse...w rs fpacious... sp ss wait... wt wound (p. tense)...wnd
messenger spectator...sp kt tr wakeful...rok A wound (a hurt)... und spontaneous.. spnt ns Wales...wls (sce Wells) writing...rt 9
thankful * standard...stnd Rd wallow...w 1
written...rt n station...stín (hook on waltz... volts
Yard...y rd the left)
more than *
1 transgression (152) 178. When P occurs between m and t, I between s and another consonant, or K between ng and sh, or ng and t, the p, t, or k may be e nevertheless
y y understand omitted in Phonetic Shorthand, but not in Longhand and Printiug; as
e whatever P. 'stamped (from stamp), cramped, (thumped.
(8980007 USA Poteret
1.2 ل ل ي مر >>> \ژاد /
whenever I mostly, 6.° restless, es postpone ; also in postage
182. Transaction should be written at length because the contracted #temps, ti testament, J New Testament, 1 testimony, etc.
form would clash with transgression. K. anxious, o sanction, Hj distinct, 1 distinction.
PHRASEOGRAPHY. 179. Tick THE.-The, the most frequent word in the English 183, In longhand, swift writers join all the letters of a word tolanguage, may be expressed by a short slanting stroke joined to gether, and sometimes write several words without lifting the pen. the preceding word, and generally written downward ; thus, În Phonography also several words may often be united. This pracin the, for the, of the, - with the, > to the ; tice, which is called Phraseography, gives great assistance to the
writer in following a rapid speaker. The following examples will but when more convenient, it is written upward ; thus, I at the, show how other useful phrascograms may be formed. on the. The first stroke of on the is made sloping to keep the sign
List of PHRASEOGRAMS. distinct from VI. (The scarce diphthong
ay should be accompanied with the nominal consonant, thus ay, to prevent its being
1 and have
b it is
- to be read as on the.) The tick the never begins a phrase.
and the *
b it is not 180. Of The.—The connective phrase " of the,” is intimated by writing the words between which it occurs NEAR TO EACH OTHER, 6° as well as
it is said tons showing that the one is of the other ; thus,
v could not
it should be
we have not Iga love of the beautiful , 32 subject of the work.
had not *
it would be The prefix con or com (see par. 120) cannot be mistaken, in practice,
Me we have seen for this mode of expressing of the.
J do not
6 which cannot 181. A or An.--A or an is joined to the preceding word by 1 or -; in a,with a, L at a, on a. The forms e has not *
you can >
n I am *
^ you cannot separately. 182. The pupil is recommended to be sparing in his use of con- 1 I do
you may tractions in the commencement of his practice. In the Reporting I have Style, every legible contraction may be brought into use
. The ad
mo you must vanced writer may use the following contractions. Some consist I will * 6 that is * merely in joining the prefix or affix to the rest of the word. Words
ma you must not marked (*) are written above the line.
e is not
you will do
thus, if a,
A should be
✓ I had,
184. I may be abbreviated by writing only the first stroke, when it | Cultellus a konife
cutlass. will join easily to the consonant. (See I an, I will.) Most of these Diabolus Satan
to think worthy daigner phrases may be vocalised ; thus, 1, I do, 6. as well as, etc. The Elar
ivoire first word in a phrase must occupy its own position; thus,
Feretrum be, h of your, - you can, y could not be ; but a logogram Ferest
Merce. may be SLIGHTLY raised, or lowered, to suit the position of a fol. Fidelitas fidelity
feodalité, feaulté fealty.
giant. Gubernari to govern
to govern, Gula the throat gonlet
gullet Incantare to enchant enchanter
enchant. Inimicitia enmity
inimité LESSONS IN ENGLISH.--XXXVII.
enmity. Lectarium a bed
loyal. The words which the English owes to the Romance languages Macer
meagrc are very numerous. Of this number, by far the largest portion Magister master
master, comes from the French. This portion is too large to be here Magnus great
main. enumerated, though a few specimens may be given. Before,
Medietas the middle moitie
moicty. however, we proceed to set down instances, let it be observed
Mirabile tronderful merveille
marrel Nomen a name vom
noun. that we shall prefer those which retain some marked resem
Numerus a number nombre
nu sember, blance to their originals, or still appear in their native form.
oil ENGLISH WORDS FROM THE FRENCH.
oil. Paganus a villager paysan
peasant. From CHEVAL, a horse (Lat. caballus), come
Panarium a basket
a step Chevalier, a knight.
pace. Cavalier, a knight or horseman.
pilgrim. From CHARTRE or CHARTE, ( churter (Lat. charta), come
people. Prepositus placed over prévost
propost. Chart, a sea-map. | Cartoon, a drzu'ng oa large paper, Presbyter an elder
priest. Charter, a criting bestorring pris a painting.
prove. viloges. | Cartouch, a case for brils or cart Pullus
poultry Chartist, a person desirous of a new, ridges.
poop. charter. Cartrage or Cartrid.e, a crse for Ratio
raison Cartel, a teriting containing stipula gunpourler
Recipere to receive recevoir
recride. tions, etc. Cartulary, a register, a monastic re Regpare
round. From BARRE, a bar (the same word), come to bar, to hinder. Sapor
savour. Barricade, a fence or temporary for- Barrier, a boundary or obstacle.
tuile Barring-out, a boyish game.
Traditor o traitor
traitor. The following are a few separate instances :--Bottle, brilliant, Visus
riec. escape, engagement, flask, forage, flank, guarantee, guard, gar A careful survey of a French dictionary on the part of one nish, grimace, hash, harangue, hardy, lodge, marquis, mason, who is skilled in derivation, would bring to light an extent of packet, robe, wardrobe, saloon, supper, dinner (breakfast is obligation owing by the English to the French language, of Saxon), tirade, troubadonr. The words which denote the vari- which ordinary students have no idea. A few words are subous officers in civil government are mostly Norman-French, as joined by way of specimen, taken under several letters of the might be expected from the conquest of England by William the alphabet. Norman ; e.g., king and earl are Saxon, but prince, duke,
FRENCH WORDS IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. marquis, baron, count, mayor, etc., are of French origin, at least
French. so far as the English is concerned.
Latin. The ignorance of older philologists may be exemplified in the
aquila. derivation which they gave of parliament. Parliament is a
ala. word of French extraction, from the word parler, to speak; the 'Amour
amor. ment, as the student now knows, is merely the terminational Angle
angulus. suffix. But the wisdom of our forefathers made ment into mind, Antre
antre (Shakespeare) antrum (a care). and stated that the parliament was so called because men there Arc
arcus. freely spoke their mind! The history of this derivation is no Baton
baculus. better than the philology, for in the French parliament liberty Baume
bilis. of speech was not predominant.
purgos (Greek). French words have been a medium by which Latin words
apothēkė (Greek). have come into the English: the extent of our obligation to both Bulle
bulla. those languages can be known only when we have seen speci- , Cage
cage mens of this transference.
capsa. FRENCH WORDS AS A MEDIUM FROM THE LATIN TO THE
champagne campania (open country). Cap
cinis. Ala a ving aile (of old, aisle) aisle.
cerisus, Auctor originator anteur author. Chaise
chair Bonitas goodness bonté bounty. Chaloupe
caminus. Calefacere to varm
clavis. Caunlis a pipe chenal channel. Coin
cuneus. Canna a reed canne
comitatus. Caput the head chef chief. Corps
corpus. Carmen a song charme charm. Couple
copula. Catena a chain chaine chain. Duel
duellum. Computare to reckon compter
imperium. Cooperire to cover convrir
roughly acquainted with those authors which are in every man's Fable
mouth. For instance, it is very common to quote Shakespeare; but Face
it makes a sort of stare to quote Massinger. I have very little credit Faim
for being well acquainted with Virgil ; but if I quote Silius Italicus, I Fardel
may stand some chance of being reckoned a great scholar. In short, Fibre
whoever wishes to strike out of the great road, and to make a short Figue
cut to fame, let him neglect Homer, and Virgil, and Horace, and Flute flute
Ariosto, and Milton, and, instead of these, read and talk of Fracastofaith fides.
rius, Sannazarius, Lorenzini, Pastorini, and the thirty-six primary Front
sonnetteers of Bettinelli; let him neglect everything which the Fruit
suffrage of ages has made venerable and grand, and dig out of their Gai
graves a set of decayed 'scribblers, whom the silent verdict of the Geai jay
public has fairly condemned to everlasting oblivion. If he complains Gingembre
of the injustice with which they have been treated, and call for a new Golie
trial with loud and importunate clamour, though I am afraid he will Goût
not make much progress in the estimation of men of sense, he will be Many French terms are employed in English either in their sure to make some noise in the crowd, and to be dubbed a man of very
curious and extraordinary erudition.-Sydney Smith. native form or slightly altered, and of these some even in France are of modern origin. We have dragoon from the name
THE BIBLE. of the soldiers with whom Louis XIV. carried on the war, which The Bible is the only book which God has ever sent, the only one he received the name of his dragonades, against his French Protes- will ever send, into this world. All other books are frail and transient tant subjects in order to compel them to become Catholics. as time, since they are only the registers of time; but the Bible is From the noun dragoon we have the verb to dragoon into. A durable as eternity, for its pages contain the records of eternity. roné, in slang language, a black-leg, is literally a wretch who other books are weak and imperfect, like their author, man; but the deserves to be broken on the wheel-metaphorically one who has volume is limited in its usefulness and influence, but the Bible came
Bible is a transcript of infinite power and perfection. Every other the same manners as the courtiers of the profligate Duke of forth conquering and to conquer, rejoicing as a giant to run his Orleans, Regent of France, who is said to have given the name course, and like the sun, “ there is nothing hid from the heat thereof." to his abandoned associates. Guillotine, a term which we derive The Bible only, of all the myriads of books the world has seen, is from France, is the name of an instrument for decapitating equally important and interesting to mankind. Its tidings, whether political offenders ; it received its name from the inventor, and of peace or of war, are the same to the poor, the ignorant and the was first used amidst the early horrors of the first revolution in weak, as to the rich, the wise, and the powerful. The Bible indeed is that country. Translations from the French have led to the in- the only universal classic, the classic of all mankind, of every age and coming amongst us of many French terms and phrases, greatly
country, of time and eternity.--Grimké. to the corruption of our mother English. Formerly, translations were said to be “done into English.” The phrase is not GEOMETRICAL PERSPECTIVE.-XIV. inappropriate, for many translations from the French are miser. In Problem XXXIX., page 24, it was stated that the door at the ably done, a large portion of every page consisting of French side was at an angle of 40° with the wall upon which it hung, Fords and idioms in an English dress--resembling a Frenchman and that the wall was perpendicular with the PP. The
rule for aiming to speak English by putting on an English costume. finding the vp in this particular case was explained. We wish Commonplace novels, too, have brought into vogue many Gallicisms. Most blameworthy is this defacement and corruption of now to say more upon this part of the subject. It very freour language, when they are perpetrated by historians, of whom stated as being at an angle with another plane, or with another
quently happens that the angle of the given line or object is better things might be expected. This practice has been well object either parallel or at a right angle with the pp. For taken off by the Spectator, in No. 185 of that work, which is example, the wall of a building may retire at an angle of 300 strongly recommended to the perusal of those who possess it or with the PP, and some other projection may extend from it at can readily borrow it.
a given angle with this wall, which it can do either from a hori. Having read the remarks in the Spectator, and read also zontal or a perpendicular connection. We must then know how what has been written in this lesson, let the student proceed to to determine its angle with the Pp. It is true it is not always write an essay on
necessary to know the angle of the PP for the sake of executing THE FRENCH ELEMENT IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE.
the drawing, as the given angle can be in some cases conWords with their proper Prepositions.
structed upon the vanishing line of the plane with which the Words. F. R.
projection is connected instead of the PP; but we cannot pass Disqualify for, qualis, of what kind.
over this way of stating the question, as many have imagined Dissatisfied with, satis, enough.
a difficulty without any substantial reason for doing so. It may Dissent from, sentio, I feel.
be necessary to know the angle the projection makes with our Distinct from, tinctus, dyed, coloured,
position for reasons altogether independent of the drawing; it Distinguish from, between, tinguo, I dye, colour,
may be to answer the inquiry of an employer; or the draughts. Distrustful of, trauen, to trust.
man, knowing how the parts of a building are placed with each Divested of, vestis, a garment.
other, may wish to satisfy himself as to the appearance the whole Divide between(two), among} divido, I divide.
will have when viewed from some particular point. But what
is of more immediate importance to us now is, that it opens dubito, I doubt.
out a new way to explain the difficulties that arise sometimes
from a confusion in the mind respecting the treatment of vanish. Eager in, begierig, desirous of.
ing lines, vanishing planes, and vanishing points, all these being Embark in, on board of, for, embarquer, to go into a barque. so closely combined in the principles and practice of construction. Embellished with, bellus, beautiful.
Thus, by considering them under every possible connection, we Emerge from, mergo, I dip.
become more familiar with them, and they are more readily Employ in, on, about, employer, to put to use.
comprehended in their details, however numerous they may be, emulus, a rival. Enamoured of,
and also when united together as a whole. amor, love,
1st. Suppose a retiring wall A forms an angle of 30° with the COMPOSITION.
PP, and there is a projection from this wall at a right angle Report the following extracts in the same manner as before :- with A, the projection will then be at an angle of 60° with the ON THE CHOICE OF AUTHORS.
PP, or with our position. If we are to read, it is a very important role in the conduct of the of 1200 with a projecting wall, the projecting wall will also be
2nd. Suppose a retiring wall at an angle of 30° forms an angle company, by introducing it only to the best books. But there is at an angle of 30° with our position in the opposite direction.
3rd. Suppose the retiring wall at an angle of 30° with the PP forgotten authors
, because it passes as a matter of course that he who forms an angle of 30° with the projecting wall, the latter will be quotes authors which are so little read, must be completely and tho at an angle of 600 with the pp (see Fig. 66). We do not say