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published

weave...WV

propose... pr ps subdivide...sbd vd ward...wo r d (173)

LIST OF CONTRACTIONS. prosecutor...prs k tr successful...skssf L warrant...wornt (173) Protestant...prts tnt successor...skss r weakness...wk ns

acknowledge

object provide...prv d suffrage... sfr į wealth...wl $ provincialista...prvnfis m suggestion...sjst n wear...Wr

anything*, nothing

objection provoke...prv k suggestive...sjst weariness...wrns pure...pr (see poor) suit...st

danger purport...pr p rt swear...SWT

wedding...wd y putrefy...p tif sweet...swt

wedge...wj

especial-ly

publication pyramid...pr md swell...SWL

Wednesday... Ens d Quarrel...k wri swift...sw ft

weight...wt

establish-ed-ment

Phonographer quarry...k wr swim...sw m

Wells...Ls (see Wales) swindle...sw nd L

immediate quart...k wrt Welsh...wls

6 Phonographic quarter...kr tr Swiss...sws

west...wst (loop) question...ks tn Switzerland...st SR Ind whatsoever to the

immediately

w Phonetic Society Railway...rl (we) symbol...sm bl

gram. what join s vr Teetotaler...tt tl r ransom...m sm

wheel...wol

impossible *

Temperance Soc., refer...fr telegraph... tl grf whensoever...ns er

[etc. rehearse...r h rs (160) telescope...tls k p wheresoever...w r s vr

inconsistent

rather relish...Ils

temperance...t mp rns whisper...ws pr right-hand...rt nd

influence-d* thanksgiving... Ysg whitewash...wtws

represent-ed rotandity...r ondt turnpike...t rnp k whole...hl Sacred...skrd Ultimate... Lt mt whosoever...to the gram.

w influential *

representation sacrifice...skr fs unavoidable...n vd bl who join s vr

information *

representative saucers...SS RS

unregenerate...n rjnrt wickedness...wk d ns scissors...sZ RS unwarrantable.n went bi widow...wd

instruction

window...wn d seat...st upright...p rt

something sepulchre...sp 1 kr | Venture...unt r winter...wntr

Y Y interest sharp...fr p

witness... wt ns vertical...tr t kl

Spelling Reform shawl.../1

voluntary...v Int r woman... wmn shelter..1 tr volunteer... Int E wonder...wndr

y knowledge

subject shilling. In Wade...wd

wood...wd shortener...fr t nr wafer...w.fr

wool...vol

language

subscription situation...st sn wages... wjs

worm...OR M

manuscript somehow...sm (join s) wagon...ugu

surprise worse...w rs fpacious... sp ss wait... wt wound (p. tense)...wnd

together

messenger spectator...sp kt tr wakeful...rok A wound (a hurt)... und spontaneous.. spnt ns Wales...wls (sce Wells) writing...rt 9

mistake

thankful * standard...stnd Rd wallow...w 1

written...rt n station...stín (hook on waltz... volts

Yard...y rd the left)

more than *

transcript
wander... wndr yellow...y 1
stereotype...st rt p want...wnt

yes...ys
my natural

transgress
CONTRACTIONS.

1 transgression (152) 178. When P occurs between m and t, I between s and another consonant, or K between ng and sh, or ng and t, the p, t, or k may be e nevertheless

y y understand omitted in Phonetic Shorthand, but not in Longhand and Printiug; as

next

e whatever P. 'stamped (from stamp), cramped, (thumped.

(8980007 USA Poteret

1.2 ل ل ي مر >>> \ژاد /

never

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y notwithstanding

whenever I mostly, 6.° restless, es postpone ; also in postage

182. Transaction should be written at length because the contracted #temps, ti testament, J New Testament, 1 testimony, etc.

form would clash with transgression. K. anxious, o sanction, Hj distinct, 1 distinction.

PHRASEOGRAPHY. 179. Tick THE.-The, the most frequent word in the English 183, In longhand, swift writers join all the letters of a word tolanguage, may be expressed by a short slanting stroke joined to gether, and sometimes write several words without lifting the pen. the preceding word, and generally written downward ; thus, În Phonography also several words may often be united. This pracin the, for the, of the, - with the, > to the ; tice, which is called Phraseography, gives great assistance to the

writer in following a rapid speaker. The following examples will but when more convenient, it is written upward ; thus, I at the, show how other useful phrascograms may be formed. on the. The first stroke of on the is made sloping to keep the sign

List of PHRASEOGRAMS. distinct from VI. (The scarce diphthong

ay should be accompanied with the nominal consonant, thus ay, to prevent its being

1 and have

b it is

- to be read as on the.) The tick the never begins a phrase.

and the *

b it is not 180. Of The.—The connective phrase " of the,” is intimated by writing the words between which it occurs NEAR TO EACH OTHER, 6° as well as

it is said tons showing that the one is of the other ; thus,

v could not

it should be

we have not Iga love of the beautiful , 32 subject of the work.

had not *

it would be The prefix con or com (see par. 120) cannot be mistaken, in practice,

Me we have seen for this mode of expressing of the.

J do not

6 which cannot 181. A or An.--A or an is joined to the preceding word by 1 or -; in a,with a, L at a, on a. The forms e has not *

of course

you can >

1
to a, are not recommended; the words should be written

n I am *

^ you cannot separately. 182. The pupil is recommended to be sparing in his use of con- 1 I do

you may tractions in the commencement of his practice. In the Reporting I have Style, every legible contraction may be brought into use

. The ad

they will

mo you must vanced writer may use the following contractions. Some consist I will * 6 that is * merely in joining the prefix or affix to the rest of the word. Words

ma you must not marked (*) are written above the line.

e is not
6 this is

you will do

we are

we have

may be

thus, if a,

of a,

A should be
-4- should do

ivory.

can

I had,

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pas

peuple

reason.

a tile

184. I may be abbreviated by writing only the first stroke, when it | Cultellus a konife

coutelas

cutlass. will join easily to the consonant. (See I an, I will.) Most of these Diabolus Satan

diable

devil.

to think worthy daigner phrases may be vocalised ; thus, 1, I do, 6. as well as, etc. The Elar

deign, ivory

ivoire first word in a phrase must occupy its own position; thus,

Extraneous outucard

étranger

strange.

Feretrum be, h of your, - you can, y could not be ; but a logogram Ferest

a bier
bière

bier,
fierce
féroce

Merce. may be SLIGHTLY raised, or lowered, to suit the position of a fol. Fidelitas fidelity

feodalité, feaulté fealty.

Gigas
lowing one; thus,
I had not, y I do not.

a giant
géant

giant. Gubernari to govern

gouverner

to govern, Gula the throat gonlet

gullet Incantare to enchant enchanter

enchant. Inimicitia enmity

inimité LESSONS IN ENGLISH.--XXXVII.

enmity. Lectarium a bed

litière

Litter.
FRENCH STEMS.

Ievare
to lift
lever

to lift.
Lex
a laro
loi

loyal. The words which the English owes to the Romance languages Macer

lean
maigre

meagrc are very numerous. Of this number, by far the largest portion Magister master

maitre

master, comes from the French. This portion is too large to be here Magnus great

magne

main. enumerated, though a few specimens may be given. Before,

Medietas the middle moitie

moicty. however, we proceed to set down instances, let it be observed

Mirabile tronderful merveille

marrel Nomen a name vom

noun. that we shall prefer those which retain some marked resem

Numerus a number nombre

nu sember, blance to their originals, or still appear in their native form.

Nutrix
a nurse
nourrice

Ny73e.
Oleum

oil ENGLISH WORDS FROM THE FRENCH.

huile

oil. Paganus a villager paysan

peasant. From CHEVAL, a horse (Lat. caballus), come

Panarium a basket

panier

ponnier. Passus

a step Chevalier, a knight.

pace. Cavalier, a knight or horseman.

Pauper
needy
pauvre

poor,
Chivalry, knighthood.
Cavalry, house-troops.
Peregrinus a stranger pelerin

pilgrim. From CHARTRE or CHARTE, ( churter (Lat. charta), come

Populus
the people

people. Prepositus placed over prévost

propost. Chart, a sea-map. | Cartoon, a drzu'ng oa large paper, Presbyter an elder

prêtre

priest. Charter, a criting bestorring pris a painting.

Probare
to make good prouver

prove. viloges. | Cartouch, a case for brils or cart Pullus

a chicken
poulet

poultry Chartist, a person desirous of a new, ridges.

· Puppis
the stem
poupe

poop. charter. Cartrage or Cartrid.e, a crse for Ratio

reason

raison Cartel, a teriting containing stipula gunpourler

Recipere to receive recevoir

recride. tions, etc. Cartulary, a register, a monastic re Regpare

to rule
regner

reign.
cord.
Rotundus round

rond

round. From BARRE, a bar (the same word), come to bar, to hinder. Sapor

taste
sareur

savour. Barricade, a fence or temporary for- Barrier, a boundary or obstacle.

Supernus supreme

souverain

sovereign. Tegula

tuile Barring-out, a boyish game.

tile. tification.

Traditor o traitor

traitre

traitor. The following are a few separate instances :--Bottle, brilliant, Visus

sight
vue

riec. escape, engagement, flask, forage, flank, guarantee, guard, gar A careful survey of a French dictionary on the part of one nish, grimace, hash, harangue, hardy, lodge, marquis, mason, who is skilled in derivation, would bring to light an extent of packet, robe, wardrobe, saloon, supper, dinner (breakfast is obligation owing by the English to the French language, of Saxon), tirade, troubadonr. The words which denote the vari- which ordinary students have no idea. A few words are subous officers in civil government are mostly Norman-French, as joined by way of specimen, taken under several letters of the might be expected from the conquest of England by William the alphabet. Norman ; e.g., king and earl are Saxon, but prince, duke,

FRENCH WORDS IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. marquis, baron, count, mayor, etc., are of French origin, at least

French. so far as the English is concerned.

English,

Latin. The ignorance of older philologists may be exemplified in the

| Adage

adage

adagium. Aigle

eagle

aquila. derivation which they gave of parliament. Parliament is a

Aile

aisle

ala. word of French extraction, from the word parler, to speak; the 'Amour

amour

amor. ment, as the student now knows, is merely the terminational Angle

angle

angulus. suffix. But the wisdom of our forefathers made ment into mind, Antre

antre (Shakespeare) antrum (a care). and stated that the parliament was so called because men there Arc

arcus. freely spoke their mind! The history of this derivation is no Baton

arc

batoon

baculus. better than the philology, for in the French parliament liberty Baume

balm

balsămum. Bile

bile

bilis. of speech was not predominant.

Bourg

burgh

purgos (Greek). French words have been a medium by which Latin words

Boutique

booth

apothēkė (Greek). have come into the English: the extent of our obligation to both Bulle

bull

bulla. those languages can be known only when we have seen speci- , Cage

cage mens of this transference.

Caisse

capsa. FRENCH WORDS AS A MEDIUM FROM THE LATIN TO THE

Campagne

champagne campania (open country). Cap

cape

caput. ENGLISH.

Coche

conch
Latin.
Meanings.
French. English. Cendre

cinders

cinis. Ala a ving aile (of old, aisle) aisle.

Cerise

cherry

cerisus, Auctor originator anteur author. Chaise

chair Bonitas goodness bonté bounty. Chaloupe

sloop
Bos
an ox
bæuf

beef.
Char

chariot

carrus.
Brevis
short
brief

brief.
Cheminée

chimney

caminus. Calefacere to varm

échauffer
chafe. Clé or clef

clef

clavis. Caunlis a pipe chenal channel. Coin

coigne

cuneus. Canna a reed canne

Comté

county

comitatus. Caput the head chef chief. Corps

corpse

corpus. Carmen a song charme charm. Couple

couple

copula. Catena a chain chaine chain. Duel

duel

duellum. Computare to reckon compter

count.
Empire

empire

imperium. Cooperire to cover convrir

Epouse

spouse

sponsa,

case

cane.

corer.

Foi

AN

tin
stannum.

roughly acquainted with those authors which are in every man's Fable

fable
fabula.

mouth. For instance, it is very common to quote Shakespeare; but Face

face
facies.

it makes a sort of stare to quote Massinger. I have very little credit Faim

famine
fames.

for being well acquainted with Virgil ; but if I quote Silius Italicus, I Fardel

fardeau
phortos (Greek).

may stand some chance of being reckoned a great scholar. In short, Fibre

fibre
fibra.

whoever wishes to strike out of the great road, and to make a short Figue

fig
ficus.

cut to fame, let him neglect Homer, and Virgil, and Horace, and Flute flute

Ariosto, and Milton, and, instead of these, read and talk of Fracastofaith fides.

rius, Sannazarius, Lorenzini, Pastorini, and the thirty-six primary Front

front
frons.

sonnetteers of Bettinelli; let him neglect everything which the Fruit

fruit
fructus.

suffrage of ages has made venerable and grand, and dig out of their Gai

gay
gaudium,

graves a set of decayed 'scribblers, whom the silent verdict of the Geai jay

public has fairly condemned to everlasting oblivion. If he complains Gingembre

ginger
zinziber.

of the injustice with which they have been treated, and call for a new Golie

gulf
kolpos (Greek).

trial with loud and importunate clamour, though I am afraid he will Goût

gout
gustus.

not make much progress in the estimation of men of sense, he will be Many French terms are employed in English either in their sure to make some noise in the crowd, and to be dubbed a man of very

curious and extraordinary erudition.-Sydney Smith. native form or slightly altered, and of these some even in France are of modern origin. We have dragoon from the name

THE BIBLE. of the soldiers with whom Louis XIV. carried on the war, which The Bible is the only book which God has ever sent, the only one he received the name of his dragonades, against his French Protes- will ever send, into this world. All other books are frail and transient tant subjects in order to compel them to become Catholics. as time, since they are only the registers of time; but the Bible is From the noun dragoon we have the verb to dragoon into. A durable as eternity, for its pages contain the records of eternity. roné, in slang language, a black-leg, is literally a wretch who other books are weak and imperfect, like their author, man; but the deserves to be broken on the wheel-metaphorically one who has volume is limited in its usefulness and influence, but the Bible came

Bible is a transcript of infinite power and perfection. Every other the same manners as the courtiers of the profligate Duke of forth conquering and to conquer, rejoicing as a giant to run his Orleans, Regent of France, who is said to have given the name course, and like the sun, “ there is nothing hid from the heat thereof." to his abandoned associates. Guillotine, a term which we derive The Bible only, of all the myriads of books the world has seen, is from France, is the name of an instrument for decapitating equally important and interesting to mankind. Its tidings, whether political offenders ; it received its name from the inventor, and of peace or of war, are the same to the poor, the ignorant and the was first used amidst the early horrors of the first revolution in weak, as to the rich, the wise, and the powerful. The Bible indeed is that country. Translations from the French have led to the in- the only universal classic, the classic of all mankind, of every age and coming amongst us of many French terms and phrases, greatly

country, of time and eternity.--Grimké. to the corruption of our mother English. Formerly, translations were said to be “done into English.” The phrase is not GEOMETRICAL PERSPECTIVE.-XIV. inappropriate, for many translations from the French are miser. In Problem XXXIX., page 24, it was stated that the door at the ably done, a large portion of every page consisting of French side was at an angle of 40° with the wall upon which it hung, Fords and idioms in an English dress--resembling a Frenchman and that the wall was perpendicular with the PP. The

rule for aiming to speak English by putting on an English costume. finding the vp in this particular case was explained. We wish Commonplace novels, too, have brought into vogue many Gallicisms. Most blameworthy is this defacement and corruption of now to say more upon this part of the subject. It very freour language, when they are perpetrated by historians, of whom stated as being at an angle with another plane, or with another

quently happens that the angle of the given line or object is better things might be expected. This practice has been well object either parallel or at a right angle with the pp. For taken off by the Spectator, in No. 185 of that work, which is example, the wall of a building may retire at an angle of 300 strongly recommended to the perusal of those who possess it or with the PP, and some other projection may extend from it at can readily borrow it.

a given angle with this wall, which it can do either from a hori. Having read the remarks in the Spectator, and read also zontal or a perpendicular connection. We must then know how what has been written in this lesson, let the student proceed to to determine its angle with the Pp. It is true it is not always write an essay on

necessary to know the angle of the PP for the sake of executing THE FRENCH ELEMENT IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE.

the drawing, as the given angle can be in some cases conWords with their proper Prepositions.

structed upon the vanishing line of the plane with which the Words. F. R.

projection is connected instead of the PP; but we cannot pass Disqualify for, qualis, of what kind.

over this way of stating the question, as many have imagined Dissatisfied with, satis, enough.

a difficulty without any substantial reason for doing so. It may Dissent from, sentio, I feel.

be necessary to know the angle the projection makes with our Distinct from, tinctus, dyed, coloured,

position for reasons altogether independent of the drawing; it Distinguish from, between, tinguo, I dye, colour,

may be to answer the inquiry of an employer; or the draughts. Distrustful of, trauen, to trust.

man, knowing how the parts of a building are placed with each Divested of, vestis, a garment.

other, may wish to satisfy himself as to the appearance the whole Divide between(two), among} divido, I divide.

will have when viewed from some particular point. But what

is of more immediate importance to us now is, that it opens dubito, I doubt.

out a new way to explain the difficulties that arise sometimes

from a confusion in the mind respecting the treatment of vanish. Eager in, begierig, desirous of.

ing lines, vanishing planes, and vanishing points, all these being Embark in, on board of, for, embarquer, to go into a barque. so closely combined in the principles and practice of construction. Embellished with, bellus, beautiful.

Thus, by considering them under every possible connection, we Emerge from, mergo, I dip.

become more familiar with them, and they are more readily Employ in, on, about, employer, to put to use.

comprehended in their details, however numerous they may be, emulus, a rival. Enamoured of,

and also when united together as a whole. amor, love,

1st. Suppose a retiring wall A forms an angle of 30° with the COMPOSITION.

PP, and there is a projection from this wall at a right angle Report the following extracts in the same manner as before :- with A, the projection will then be at an angle of 60° with the ON THE CHOICE OF AUTHORS.

PP, or with our position. If we are to read, it is a very important role in the conduct of the of 1200 with a projecting wall, the projecting wall will also be

2nd. Suppose a retiring wall at an angle of 30° forms an angle company, by introducing it only to the best books. But there is at an angle of 30° with our position in the opposite direction.

3rd. Suppose the retiring wall at an angle of 30° with the PP forgotten authors

, because it passes as a matter of course that he who forms an angle of 30° with the projecting wall, the latter will be quotes authors which are so little read, must be completely and tho at an angle of 600 with the pp (see Fig. 66). We do not say

Dote on,
Doubt of,
Dwell in, at, on,

Emulous of,

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VPI

DVPI

PS

HL

DE2

inches.

at an angle of 120°, because we always prefer to make use of Before proceeding to work this problem, we wish to give the the angle formed by the nearest approach of the projection to student some directions about the scale. In this case we the line of our position, or the picture plane.

have given the representative fraction of the scale, and not 4th. Again, suppose an inclined shutter, or a roof which is the number of feet to the inch. It is a common practice united horizontally with a wall, is said to be at an angle of 40° with architects and engineers to name the proportion of the with the wall, the shutter or roof would be at an angle of 50° scale upon which the drawing is made, in the manner we with the ground.

have done here, leaving the scale to be constructed if neces. All this will be very evident if we consider that “ if any num- sary. The meaning of the fraction is that unity is divided ber of straight lines meet in a point in another straight line on one into the number of equal parts expressed by the denomi. side of it, the sum of the angles which they make with this straight nator. Thus a scale of feet is signifies that one standard line, and with each other, is equal to two right angles.” (See foot is divided into 48 equal parts, each part representing a Lessons in Geo

foot on paper, the metry, V., Vol. I.,

result is inch page 156.) There

to the foot. It fore (Fig. 67), if A Fig. 70.

also means that is 30° with the

the original obPP, and B 90° with

ject, whether a A, then B will be

building or piece 600 with the PP,

of machinery, is the whole making

X

48 times larger two right angles.

than the drawing With regard to

which represents the last supposi

it. If the scale tion, we shall see

had been written, that the lines of

yards , it would the wall, the roof

be the same as DNP3 or shutter, and

inch to represent the ground, form

a yard. The way a right-angled tri

to arrive at this is angle, the three

as follows: interior angles of

inches. which are together h

of 4 = 4 inch to equal to two right

the foot. angles. Therefore, SEI

50° OVP2 as the angle of the

of 31 = { inch to wall with the

the yard. ground is 90°, and

The above method the shutter or roof

of stating the 400 with the wall,

scale ought to be the shutter will be

understood by at an angle of 50°

every one engaged with the horizon

upon plan-dram. (Fig. 68). Conse

ing. quently, this angle

To return to the of 500 must be

a

problem. The constructed for the

principal

consi vanishing line, and

deration relates to the subject treated

Fig. 63.

the shutter. The as an inclined

inclination may be plane. (See Pro

upwards, at an anblems XXXI.,

gle of 40° with the XXXII., and

wall, or it may be XXXIII.) From

downwards at the all this we deduct

same angle. We a rule for finding

will represent both Vanishing points

cases. First, when for lines or planes

inclined downwhich are stated

wards. Draw the to be at given VP3

HL, which is 4 feet angles with other

from the groundlines or planes not

Fig. 66.

Fig. 67.

line; from is draw parallel with the В.

a perpendicular to picture plane :

E; this will be the When the sum of

radius for drawing the two angles of the given bbjects is greater than a right angle, the semicircle meeting the ul to determine del and Dr". it is subtracted from the sum of two right angles, and the remain- Find the vanishing point for the wall vp!, and its distance der is the extent of the angle sought. This will explain the re- point dvpl; also find the vp? by drawing a line from E to vp sults of the first, second, and fourth suppositions above. at a right angle with the one from E to vpl, because if the

When two angles of the given objects are together less than a shutter had projected from the wall in a horizontal position, it right angle, the sum will be the angle sought. This answers to would have vanished at vp, that is, if it had been perpenthe third supposition. We now propose a problem to illustrate dicular or at right angles with the wall. In short, the vanishing our remarks abont the wall and the shutter.

point for the horizontal position of a line must always be found PROBLEM XLI. (Fig. 69).-A wall at an angle of 40° with whether the line retires to it horizontally or not, because the VP our position is pierced by a window of 4 feet 3 inches high and for an inclined retiring line is always over or under the VP 4 feet broad; a shutter projects from the top of the window at an (according to the angle of inclination) to which it would bare angle of 40° with the wall: the window is 5 feet from the retired if in a horizontal position. (See Prob. XXXI., Fig. 53.) ground, and its nearest corner is 4 feet within the picture ; other Consequently, the vanishing point for an inclined retiring line conditions at pleasure. Scale of feet te

is found by drawing a line from, in this case, the DVP", accord

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ing to the angle of inclination, to where it cuts a perpendicular wards, establishing its vp above the eye or HL.) Consequently, line drawn through the vp>; thus we find its vanishing point, we must draw the vanishing line for the vp3 downwards from whether its inclination be downwards or upwards; therefore DVP?. The sides of the shutter, t w and mv, must be drawn draw a line from DVP2, at an angle of 50° with the hi, cutting in the direction of vps, and cut off from DVP3, first by drawing the perpendicular from vp at vp), the vanishing point. We a line through t to y; make y a equal to the length of the have made the nearest corner of the window 2 feet to the shutter; draw from « to DVP3, producing w. All the early left of the eye, represented by the distance i to b; a line from part of the problem, relating to the wall and windows, b must be ruled to PS,

and the remaining lines upon which we wish to cut

w v and t m, will be but off 4 feet to find a, the

a repetition of the shutter nearest point within; a line

under the first position. Fig. 71. from c, which is 4 feet from

We can prove the truth of b, must be drawn to DE',

this method of drawing the and where it cuts the line

perspective inclination of a b ps in a is the point re

plane by another method. quired. Draw the perpen

A

Draw the right angle dicular a hm. Draw from

cad (Fig. 68); make a b DVP' through a to p; make

equal to the length of the pr equal to the width of

shutter, and at an angle the window. Draw back

of 40° with a cor 500 again from r, cutting

with a d; draw b c paDvpl in s; draw the per

rallel to a d; a c will be pendicular st; the base

equal to the height of b of the window is drawn

above a. This must now from f, on the line of

be applied to Fig. 70. contact, 5 feet from the

Draw a line from vp2 ground, to the vpl; the

through t to e on the line height of the window,

of contact; make e f 4 feet 3 inches, is

equal to the height of marked from f to e; vp3

babove a, viz., ca a line from e to vpl,

(Fig. 68). Draw from cutting the perpendi

s back to vp?; it will culars from a and s in

Fig. 69.

be found to cut the m and t, will give the

corner of the shutter top of the window.

in w, proving by both The opening of the

methods that t w is window is mth n.

the perspective length Now we must draw

of the further side of the shutter; the cor

the shutter. ner nearest us is v,

A plan of a build. consequently it in

ing may be made, clines uproard towards

having all its proporthe wall, but down

tions, angles, and vards from it; there

other measurements fore, the VP for the

arranged and noted, shutter must be above

yet nothing may be the HL, which we

said as to its position have explained. To

with the picturemeasure or set off the

plane, and from this length of the shutter,

plan several perspecThe have raised a line

tive elevations may be of contact for that

raised. When such is purpose from o, found

the case, all that is by drawing from yp?

vpi necessary will be to through s to meet the DEL

draw a PP across the ground-line. From t

paper in such a posidirected fromvp3 draw

tion with the plan, a line through w; this

that by drawing visual will be the further

rays, the picture-plane side of the shutter; its

we have chosen may length must be deter

receive the view we mined thus From t directed from DVP3

wish to take of it. DVP3!

Suppose A (Fig. 71) is draw & line to the

the plan of a build. line of contact, meet

ing, and we wished to ing it in y; make y x

have two views of itequal to the length of the shutter, the same as the length of the one taken with an end and front in sight, the other with a window; draw from back again to pvp, cutting t w in w; view of the front and the

opposite side-we should then place draw w v, directed by vpl, and v m directed by vp3.

the PP at such an angle with the side or front as might be We will now draw the shutter at the same angle with the considered to be the best for our purpose. ppl would receive wall, but inclined upwards from it (Fig. 70). The important the visual rays from the front and the end B; pp would redifference in working the problem under these conditions arises ceive those from the front and the end C. In short, any line from the upward inclination of the shutter from the wall, but may be drawn which represents the pp at any angle with the inclined downwards to meet the wall. This last view of the plan, or opposite any side we may wish to project. This will position of the shatter is the proper one for our purpose, because give a very useful illustration of the way to treat a subject after a little consideration

we shall perceive that it is a retiring when its proportions are given, as is frequently the case, withplone, but downwards ; therefore its vp is below the eye or Hl. out any reference to the view to be taken of it; in other words, (In the former case the shutter was a retiring plane, but up the angle it forms with the picture-plane.

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22

VP 2

HL

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