hero, Eneas, after the taking of Troy by the Greeks, his landing Littora myrtetis lætissima : denique apertos
in Italy, his wars with the native tribes, and final settlement. Bacchus amat colles, Aquilonem et frigora taxi.
All these are written in the Heroic or Hexameter rhythm; and Adspice et extremis domitum cultoribus orbem,
in addition to them Virgil composed several other short pieces Eoasque domos Arabum, pictosque Gelonos.

115 in different metres which have come down to us, but are not so Divisæ arboribus patriæ; sola India nigrum generally read. The chief characteristics of Virgil's style are his Fert ebenum; solis est thurea virga Sabæis. polish, ingenuity, and skill. He cannot lay claim to any great originality, for both his subjects and his method of treatment

110. Fluminibus, paludibus, ablatives of place, by streams, in marshes, are alike taken from Greek models, though his writings contain 112. Lætissima. Lætus, glud, is here used, as it often is, in the passages of great beauty and true poetical sentiment; but, like sense of aðounding. There is a similar allusion to the locality of the our English Pope, he remodelled and put into shape the metre myrtle in Georg. IV. 124, where Virgil speaks of “amantes litterat he employed, which up to his time had been rugged and un

myrtos." polished. The Bucolics, or Eclogues--for by the latter name

113. Bacchus. The god of the vine, used here for the vine itself ; se they are more generally known-may be described as scenes

we find Ceres used for corn, Vulcanus for fire, Mars for war,

Minerva for intellect. of pastoral life taken from the poetical point of view, and

115. Geloni, a tribe inhabiting the neighbourhood of the Dnoiper ; though very beautiful, they are totally unnatural, and the their country is the modern Ukraine. Characters in them have been cleverly compared to the ladies 116. Divisæ, etc., countries are divided among trees-i.l., each tiu and gentlemen in the garb of shepherds and shepherdesses that has its own country. we see sometimes in English family pictures. While they speak 117. Solis. To the Sabeans alone the frankincense tree belongs. The in many cases the sentiment of Italians of Virgil's day, all the Sabæans inhabited part of Arabia. scenery and surroundings are most distinctly Greek, and the The third extract is from the Eneid, and is the celebrated dopoems are, in fact, very close copies of the pictures of life found scription of Fama (Rumour). in some of the Greek writers, the very names employed being

VIRGIL.-Æn. IV. 173–188. Greek. Our first extract is taken from the seventh Eclogue,

Extemplo Libyæ magnas it Fama per urbes, which represents an improvisatorial trial of musical skill between

Fama, malum, qua non aliud velocius ullum two shepherds.

Mobilitate viget, viresque acquirit eundo;

175 VIRGIL.—EC. VII. 1–19.

Parva metu primo, mox sese attollit in auras, Forte sub argutâ consederat ilice Daphnis,

Ingrediturque solo, et caput inter nubila condit. Compulerantque greges Corydon et Thyrsis in unum,

Tilam Terra parens, irá irritata deorum Thyrsis oves, Corydon distentas lacte capellas,

Extremam ut perhibent Cao Enceladoque sororem Ambo fiorentes ætatibus, Arcades ambo,

Progenuit, pedibus celerem et pernicibus alis;

180 Et cantare pares, et respondere parati.

5 Monstrum horrendum, ingens, cui quot sunt corpore plume Huc mihi, dum teneras defendo a frigore myrtos,

Tot vigiles oculi subter, mirabile dictu, Vir gregis ipse caper deerraverat; atque ego Daplmim

Tot linguæ, totidem ora sonant, tot subrigit auras, Aspicio. Ille ubi me contra videt, “ Ocius,” inquit,

Nocte volat cæli medio terræque, per umbram "Huc ades, o Melibee; caper tibi salvus et hædi;

Stridens, nec dulci declinat lumina somno;

185 Et si quid cessare potes, requiesce sub umbra.

10 Luce sedet custos, aut sunni culmine tecti, Huc ipsi potum venient per prata juvenci;

Turribus aut altis, et magnas territat urbes, Hic virides sacrâ prætexit arundine ripas

Tam ficti pravique tenax quam nuncia veri. Mincius, eque sacrâ resonant examina quercu."

NOTES. Quid facerem ? Neque ego Alcippen nec Phyllida habebam, 173. Libyæ. The ancient name for the northern part of Africa. Depulsos a lacte domi quæ clauderet agnos;

15 179. Cous and Enceladus were two of the giants of the Greek Et certamen erat, Corydon cum Thyrside, magnum.

mythology. Posthabui tamen illorum mea seria ludo.

180. Pedibus, an ablative of reference, swift of foot and untiring of wing. Alternis igitur contendere versibus ambo

“The ablative denotes that part of the subject with regard to which Cæpere, alternos Musæ meminisse volebant.

something is predicated of the subject : ager pedibus, weak in the fest."

(Madvig, " Latin Grammar," 259.) NOTES.

181. Cui quot sunt, etc., who has, for every feather on her body, e (The numbers refer to the lines.)

watchful eye beneath, for every eye, etc. 1. Arguta, shrill. The epithet has reference to the sound of the 184. Cæli medio terræque, midway between heaven and earth; so we find wind in the branches, and may be translated whispering.

"locum medium utriusque," a placo midway between both (Cæsar, 2. In unum, together, or into one place; supply locum.

Bel. Gal. I. 34). 3. Oves governed by compulerat understood, from compulerant in 186. Luce, in the daylight, by day; opposed to nocte, both ablatives the previous line.

of time. 4. Arcades. Arcadia was looked upon as the land of pastoral We subjoin a translation of Extract 3, from Cæsar, in our last poetry, and so Arcades is used as synonymous with poetæ.

Readings in Latin :5. Pares goes with parati, both equally prepared to, or it may be construed with cantare, equals in singing, an irregular construction, as if

CESAR.“ ON THE WAR IN GAUL,” Book IV., cap. xiv. it were" pares in cantando." Vir gregis, the monarch of the herd. And when Cæsar observed this he gave orders to move the

6. Mihi. This is called the dativus ethicus, or dative of reference. war-galleys some little distance from the transports, and to row Here it is used in much the same sense as the possessive meus, and them up and station them opposite to the exposed side of the

(1) to defend, as here; (2) to ward of. Defendit æstatem is used by enemy, as their appearance was somewhat strange to the barHorace to mean wards of the heat.

barians and their movements more handy for his purpose, and 7. Atque is generally used to express some sudden change : and io! with slings, arrows, and engines to attack the enemy and drive a sudden I see Daphnis.

them from the position. And this manœuvre was a great help 9. Tibi, used as mihi in line 6.

to our men, as the barbarians, amazed at the shape of the 11. Ipsi, of their own accord ; a frequent use of this pronoun. galleys and the motion of the oars, and the strange natare of 14. Quid facerem? What could I do?

the engines, halted, and gradually retreated. And as our 16. Et, etc. And on the other hand there was a contest- Corydon against soldiers hung back, chiefly on account of the depth of the sea, Thyrois a great one. The sentence Corydon cum Thyrside is put in the standard-bearer of the tenth legion, having prayed to the apposition with certamen, which it explains.

19. Alternos. Their Muses wished to remember alternate strains, and gods that what he was about to do might have a prosperous therefore to recall them to the minds of the shepherds.

issue, called out, “ Leap, comrades, unless you would betray the Our next extract is from the 2nd Georgic, which treats of standard to the enemy : I at least will surely do my duty by the

state and our general!" And having spoken thus in a lond

voice, he leaped from the vessel and went, standard in hand, VIRGIL.-GEORG. II. 109-117.

against the enemy. Then our men, having admonished one Nec vero terræ ferre omnes omnia possunt.

another not to allow of such a disgrace, leaped down in a body Huminibus salices, crassisque paludibus alni

110 from the vessel, and when the men on the ships next them saw Nascuntur, steriles saxosis montibus orni;

them, they also followed them and approached the enemy.

the culture of trees.

destined...ds tnd harden...bad n intér...nt e LESSONS IN SHORTHAND.-XII.

derogatory...drg tr hardy...hrd interpret...nt B prt LIST OF BEST OUTLINES.

despondence...ds pnd ns harlot...hr It intone...n tu devour...dv r harm...hr m

intoxicate...nt ks kt 177. To understand the following mode of representing outlines devout...dv t. hart...hrt

January...jar by means of types, the reader must be familiar with the consonants digestion...d jst n haven...h yn jealousy...jls of the Phonotypic Alphabet, as given in the last column in the Table dilapidation...dlpdfn headland...h d lnd

journey...jr 9 of Consonants, paragraph 7, Lesson II. The letters placed after any director...dr k tr

health...hl 3 Kindly...knd 1 word in the following list, represeut the corresponding phonographic directory...drktr

heathen...h dn kindle...k nd L

herd...hrd or shorthand letters in that Table. Wheu two, three, or four letters discourage..ds krj (62) hereditary...b rdt r

Landscape... Inds kp

lark... rk are placed together, without a space between them, they represent a discretion...skrsn (62) heretofore...hrt fr latitude...lt td (see SINGLE STROKE together with a circle (s), tick (h), or hook (for l, r, distant...ds tnt

heritage... II rt j

altitude) n, f, v, or tion); or a SINGLE STROKE that is halved (to represent an distribute...ds tr bt hermit...hr mt

latitudinarian...It td nra additional t or d) or doubled (to represent an additional ir or dr); disturb...ds trb Highlands... I Inds laziness...l z ns thus, ks, kn, pt mean

; but k, n, with a space between divert.dyrt (see advert) bobby...h b
diverge...dv rj highlander...1 Indr(111) length...Ly

lesson... LS n represent

divine...dv n
hold...h ld

linear... In

division...d vzn The DOWNWARD I, r, h are marked by SMALL CAPITALS. Italic

holiday...hld lineality...In It

dormant...dr mnt Holland...h Ind linen... L nn is used to show :-1, The stroke s ; 2, the upward S, 11; 3, the doubtful... dt A home...hm

lion...n EXTRA-alphabetic curves for fr, vr, or, dr, fl, vl; 4, a joined vowel doubtless... dt Ls

homily... I ml liturgy...It rj like sign (< or ») for w. (Š standing alone, as in courtesy, "kr t s,” | Economy...kn m honorary.. nr r

London... Ln dn necessarily means the stroke s.)

efficient...f snt hook...Ik

Londoner...Lu d nr The learner should write this list of words in shorthand, inserting effrontery..frnt r horizontal...h rs nt long...L 9.

embarrass...mb rs horn... hrn

lyric...irk the vowels, and that he may know if he has correctly interpreted the

embellish...mbil horrible...hr bi Madam...md m phonotypes, he should send a column or two to some member of the

embody...mb d horror...hB E mainly...

mL Phonetic Society for examination. When he can translate the out- emperor...mprr horse...hRs

man-servant... as rest lines readily and correctly, he should, for the sake of practice, write energetic...n r jt k horticulture...het k ltr march...mrc out the list, making each word six times. To simplify the Table for enlighten...n i tn hospital...hs pt 1

martial...mrn the learner, the positions which some of the outlines would take in enliven...nl vn host... hst (loop)

mediate...mdt the Reporting Style are not marked.

enormous...or ms hostage... hs tj

meditate...md tt enraptured...n rp trd hot...ht

merchant...mr gut Note.-During the publication of these Shorthand Lessons in the POPULAR

merciful... rs fl EDUCATOR, a course of experiments in writing has been instituted by Mr. enthusiasm...nt zs m hotel...h ti

hound...h nd

metaphor...mnt fr Pitman, in conjunction with the Phonetic Society, and it is found that no enthusiast...n zst benefit results to the writer from representing w by two shorthand signs, as enthusiastic...n * zs tk hull...hl

metropolis...mt r pls in Lessons II. and V. The heavy downstroke is therefore appropriated to entire...nt R


military...m ltr another use, and is made to represent the double consonant rk, this being entirety...n trt humanity... hm nt misapply...ms p! the most frequent diphthongal consonant of which r is the basis ; as a heavy esteem...st m

humble...hm bl miscalculate...s kikit m is made to represent mp. The proposal to write w in all cases by the light upstroke commencing with a hook, was made last December, and the exaggerate...ks j rt

moderate...md rt humbug...hmb g

hundred...n drd moral...mr 1 question was settled in April. The history of this further slight improve excessive...kss V ment in Phonography will be found in the Phonetic Journal for 17th and expeditiously...ks pd ss 1 hunter...h ntr Mormon... mr mn 21th April, 1869.

extemporé...ks t mp r hurl...hr L

mortal...mit L

Facetious...fs /s hurricane...h r kn Abandon... bn dn conform...frm

mortar...mr tr certainly...srt ni

falsity...f Ls t

hurried...hrd Narcotic...nrktk abrupt...b r pt certificate...srt fkt conscience... ns

farewell...f R1 abstinence...bs tn ns chairman...gr mn

narrative...or tv conscientious...f n ss


fashionable...ffn bl abundant...bnd at

north...nr challenge...cl nj consist...sst

hydrogen... d r jn

fault...f It acquire...kr

northern...or d m character...kr k tr consonant...sn nt

hypocrisy...p kr 8

favoured...f vrd active...kt v

constituent...st (loop) favourite...f vrt charcoal... rk 1

numerous.... mrs

bypocrite...p krt actual...kt L

Ordinance...rd n 19 charge...grį tnt

Identify...jdnt f

felicity...f ls t

constitution...st (loop) financial...fn n si actually...kt 1 charger...r jr

ignominious...gn m ns ordnance ..rd ons acutely...kt1 charm...gr m tjn (hook on the left

ornament...ru mnt ignoramus...g nr ms


continental...t n nt L advert...d vrt (see divert) chart... rt

ornamental..rn inoti ignorant...g nrnt

flourish... BS agent...jn t (see giant) charwoman...gr umn continuation...t n In

illegal...ll gi ostentation...st n tsa altitude...It t d (see church...Gr G

foolish...IS contradictory..trdktr

illegitimate...1 1jt mt ostentatious...st nt je latitude)

contribution ... tr bsn forasmuch...frs me illusive... LS v circular...srk 1 R

overhead...yr d America...mrk

(hook on the left)
forbid...fr bd

imbecile...mbs 1
circulate...srk It

Patriarch...pt rre ancestor... nss t r circus...srks

forego...f Rg controvert...tr vrt

imitative...mt tv parlour...prle anticipate...n ts pt

former ...fr mr
cistern...est rn
convenient...vn nt

immaterial...m mtrl partner...prt nr

forsake...fr sk apartment... prt mnt cleanly... klnl converse... Ur's

immoral...m mr 1

passionate..plot(icek arrival...r vi

Frenchman...frn g mn immortal...m mrt L
co-operate...k p rt
clerk...kl a k

on the let) artery...Rt r

cork...k kk

friend...frnd cohesion...k 1sn (160)

imperative...mp rtv patient...p / nt articulate...rt klt

fulfil...flfl corner...kr nr colleague...k lg artificial...rt fri

imperfect...m prf kt patron...p trn

collect...kl k t
coroner...kr nr

imperial...mp TL pattern...pt rn artistic...r tst k

furniture...frn tr
corporal...kr pr 1
college...kl j

impersonal.. m prs nl persecutor...prskt association... Sin

Galvanise...gl vns
colony...kl n
corporeal...kr pr.

impertinent..mp rt nnt person...P rs 1 attentive...tnt v

correct...kr k t garden...grd n comfort...(dot com) frt

impiety...mpt persuade...prs wd Australasian...s tr 1 [n commerce...k mrs counter...knt R genteel...j nt

impoverish...mp or s pertinent... it out Australian...s tr In countenance...knt n ng gentile...jn tl

indebted...nd ta commercial...k mr sl Better...bt r

petrify...pt of courteous...kr ts gentle, gently...jnt i independent...nd pnd nt Philadelphia....dll commissariat...k ms rt binder... bnd R

courtesy...kr ts get...g t commission...k msn

index...nd ks

philosopher... fils fa bondage...bnd j

coward...krd giant...j nt (see agent) indicate...nd kt commotion...k msn bookseller...b k sl B

photograph...It gif creator...kr tr

giantess...jn ts indolent...n d Int (In the following words,

photography...It grf bravery... brvr

as far as converse, write

creature...krt r golden...gld a indulgent...n d 1jnt ponder... pnd & brevity... bryt

a dot for the prefix, at criminal...kr m nl govern...g vrn inefficient...n f S nt Calamity...klmt the commencement of criticism...kr tss m governor...g vr nr inevitable...n v t bl

potato...ptt caleulate...kl klt the first consonant.) cultivate... klt vt grandfather...gr nd får inferior...n fer

prefer...prfr candidate...k nd dt communicate...n kt culture...kl te gratitude...grt td inhabit...nh bt (124) prejudice...prjds candlestick...k nd Lst k communion...nn Debar...d br

guardian...gr dn inhabitant...nh b tnt premier...pr mr Canterbury...knt rb r companion...pn n declare...d kl R


h mr initial...n capital...k pt 1

prevent.pre nt comparatively...prt vl declared...d kl rt

handle...nd L (When innate...n nt captivity... k pt vt

primer...pr mr

neither the stroke insurance.... s rns competitor...pt tr defeat...df t carnal...krn L

printer...prnt R confederate...f d rt defect...df kt

nor the tick h is ex, intelligence...nt 1 jns private...pret carter...k e tr confer...fr

delivery...dl vr should be inserted intemperance...nt mp rns profit...prft catalogue...kt lg conferred...f rt demonstrate...d mn stt wben vocalising.) intend...nt nd

pronoun...pr un cuvern...k vrn confirm...fr m department..d prt mut handsome...nds m intention...at njn

poor...p R (see pure)

pronounce...pra is



propose... pr ps subdivide...sbd vd ward...wo r d (173)

LIST OF CONTRACTIONS. prosecutor...prs k tr successful...skssf L warrant...wornt (173) Protestant...prts tnt successor...skss r weakness...wk ns


object provide...prv d suffrage... sfr į wealth...wl $ provincialista...prvnfis m suggestion...sjst n wear...Wr

anything*, nothing

objection provoke...prv k suggestive...sjst weariness...wrns pure...pr (see poor) suit...st

danger purport...pr p rt swear...SWT

wedding...wd y putrefy...p tif sweet...swt



publication pyramid...pr md swell...SWL

Wednesday... Ens d Quarrel...k wri swift...sw ft



Phonographer quarry...k wr swim...sw m

Wells...Ls (see Wales) swindle...sw nd L

immediate quart...k wrt Welsh...wls

6 Phonographic quarter...kr tr Swiss...sws

west...wst (loop) question...ks tn Switzerland...st SR Ind whatsoever to the


w Phonetic Society Railway...rl (we) symbol...sm bl

gram. what join s vr Teetotaler...tt tl r ransom...m sm


impossible *

Temperance Soc., refer...fr telegraph... tl grf whensoever...ns er

[etc. rehearse...r h rs (160) telescope...tls k p wheresoever...w r s vr


rather relish...Ils

temperance...t mp rns whisper...ws pr right-hand...rt nd

influence-d* thanksgiving... Ysg whitewash...wtws

represent-ed rotandity...r ondt turnpike...t rnp k whole...hl Sacred...skrd Ultimate... Lt mt whosoever...to the gram.

w influential *

representation sacrifice...skr fs unavoidable...n vd bl who join s vr

information *

representative saucers...SS RS

unregenerate...n rjnrt wickedness...wk d ns scissors...sZ RS unwarrantable.n went bi widow...wd


window...wn d seat...st upright...p rt

something sepulchre...sp 1 kr | Venture...unt r winter...wntr

Y Y interest sharp...fr p

witness... wt ns vertical...tr t kl

Spelling Reform shawl.../1

voluntary...v Int r woman... wmn shelter..1 tr volunteer... Int E wonder...wndr

y knowledge

subject shilling. In Wade...wd

wood...wd shortener...fr t nr wafer...w.fr



subscription situation...st sn wages... wjs

worm...OR M

manuscript somehow...sm (join s) wagon...ugu

surprise worse...w rs fpacious... sp ss wait... wt wound (p. tense)...wnd


messenger spectator...sp kt tr wakeful...rok A wound (a hurt)... und spontaneous.. spnt ns Wales...wls (sce Wells) writing...rt 9


thankful * standard...stnd Rd wallow...w 1

written...rt n station...stín (hook on waltz... volts

Yard...y rd the left)

more than *

wander... wndr yellow...y 1
stereotype...st rt p want...wnt

my natural


1 transgression (152) 178. When P occurs between m and t, I between s and another consonant, or K between ng and sh, or ng and t, the p, t, or k may be e nevertheless

y y understand omitted in Phonetic Shorthand, but not in Longhand and Printiug; as


e whatever P. 'stamped (from stamp), cramped, (thumped.

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y notwithstanding

whenever I mostly, 6.° restless, es postpone ; also in postage

182. Transaction should be written at length because the contracted #temps, ti testament, J New Testament, 1 testimony, etc.

form would clash with transgression. K. anxious, o sanction, Hj distinct, 1 distinction.

PHRASEOGRAPHY. 179. Tick THE.-The, the most frequent word in the English 183, In longhand, swift writers join all the letters of a word tolanguage, may be expressed by a short slanting stroke joined to gether, and sometimes write several words without lifting the pen. the preceding word, and generally written downward ; thus, În Phonography also several words may often be united. This pracin the, for the, of the, - with the, > to the ; tice, which is called Phraseography, gives great assistance to the

writer in following a rapid speaker. The following examples will but when more convenient, it is written upward ; thus, I at the, show how other useful phrascograms may be formed. on the. The first stroke of on the is made sloping to keep the sign

List of PHRASEOGRAMS. distinct from VI. (The scarce diphthong

ay should be accompanied with the nominal consonant, thus ay, to prevent its being

1 and have

b it is

- to be read as on the.) The tick the never begins a phrase.

and the *

b it is not 180. Of The.—The connective phrase " of the,” is intimated by writing the words between which it occurs NEAR TO EACH OTHER, 6° as well as

it is said tons showing that the one is of the other ; thus,

v could not

it should be

we have not Iga love of the beautiful , 32 subject of the work.

had not *

it would be The prefix con or com (see par. 120) cannot be mistaken, in practice,

Me we have seen for this mode of expressing of the.

J do not

6 which cannot 181. A or An.--A or an is joined to the preceding word by 1 or -; in a,with a, L at a, on a. The forms e has not *

of course

you can >

to a, are not recommended; the words should be written

n I am *

^ you cannot separately. 182. The pupil is recommended to be sparing in his use of con- 1 I do

you may tractions in the commencement of his practice. In the Reporting I have Style, every legible contraction may be brought into use

. The ad

they will

mo you must vanced writer may use the following contractions. Some consist I will * 6 that is * merely in joining the prefix or affix to the rest of the word. Words

ma you must not marked (*) are written above the line.

e is not
6 this is

you will do

we are

we have

may be

thus, if a,

of a,

A should be
-4- should do



I had,

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a tile

184. I may be abbreviated by writing only the first stroke, when it | Cultellus a konife


cutlass. will join easily to the consonant. (See I an, I will.) Most of these Diabolus Satan



to think worthy daigner phrases may be vocalised ; thus, 1, I do, 6. as well as, etc. The Elar

deign, ivory

ivoire first word in a phrase must occupy its own position; thus,

Extraneous outucard



Feretrum be, h of your, - you can, y could not be ; but a logogram Ferest

a bier


Merce. may be SLIGHTLY raised, or lowered, to suit the position of a fol. Fidelitas fidelity

feodalité, feaulté fealty.

lowing one; thus,
I had not, y I do not.

a giant

giant. Gubernari to govern


to govern, Gula the throat gonlet

gullet Incantare to enchant enchanter

enchant. Inimicitia enmity


enmity. Lectarium a bed



to lift

to lift.
a laro

loyal. The words which the English owes to the Romance languages Macer


meagrc are very numerous. Of this number, by far the largest portion Magister master


master, comes from the French. This portion is too large to be here Magnus great


main. enumerated, though a few specimens may be given. Before,

Medietas the middle moitie

moicty. however, we proceed to set down instances, let it be observed

Mirabile tronderful merveille

marrel Nomen a name vom

noun. that we shall prefer those which retain some marked resem

Numerus a number nombre

nu sember, blance to their originals, or still appear in their native form.

a nurse




oil. Paganus a villager paysan

peasant. From CHEVAL, a horse (Lat. caballus), come

Panarium a basket


ponnier. Passus

a step Chevalier, a knight.

pace. Cavalier, a knight or horseman.


Chivalry, knighthood.
Cavalry, house-troops.
Peregrinus a stranger pelerin

pilgrim. From CHARTRE or CHARTE, ( churter (Lat. charta), come

the people

people. Prepositus placed over prévost

propost. Chart, a sea-map. | Cartoon, a drzu'ng oa large paper, Presbyter an elder


priest. Charter, a criting bestorring pris a painting.

to make good prouver

prove. viloges. | Cartouch, a case for brils or cart Pullus

a chicken

poultry Chartist, a person desirous of a new, ridges.

· Puppis
the stem

poop. charter. Cartrage or Cartrid.e, a crse for Ratio


raison Cartel, a teriting containing stipula gunpourler

Recipere to receive recevoir

recride. tions, etc. Cartulary, a register, a monastic re Regpare

to rule

Rotundus round


round. From BARRE, a bar (the same word), come to bar, to hinder. Sapor


savour. Barricade, a fence or temporary for- Barrier, a boundary or obstacle.

Supernus supreme


sovereign. Tegula

tuile Barring-out, a boyish game.

tile. tification.

Traditor o traitor


traitor. The following are a few separate instances :--Bottle, brilliant, Visus


riec. escape, engagement, flask, forage, flank, guarantee, guard, gar A careful survey of a French dictionary on the part of one nish, grimace, hash, harangue, hardy, lodge, marquis, mason, who is skilled in derivation, would bring to light an extent of packet, robe, wardrobe, saloon, supper, dinner (breakfast is obligation owing by the English to the French language, of Saxon), tirade, troubadonr. The words which denote the vari- which ordinary students have no idea. A few words are subous officers in civil government are mostly Norman-French, as joined by way of specimen, taken under several letters of the might be expected from the conquest of England by William the alphabet. Norman ; e.g., king and earl are Saxon, but prince, duke,

FRENCH WORDS IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. marquis, baron, count, mayor, etc., are of French origin, at least

French. so far as the English is concerned.


Latin. The ignorance of older philologists may be exemplified in the

| Adage


adagium. Aigle


aquila. derivation which they gave of parliament. Parliament is a



ala. word of French extraction, from the word parler, to speak; the 'Amour


amor. ment, as the student now knows, is merely the terminational Angle


angulus. suffix. But the wisdom of our forefathers made ment into mind, Antre

antre (Shakespeare) antrum (a care). and stated that the parliament was so called because men there Arc

arcus. freely spoke their mind! The history of this derivation is no Baton



baculus. better than the philology, for in the French parliament liberty Baume


balsămum. Bile


bilis. of speech was not predominant.



purgos (Greek). French words have been a medium by which Latin words



apothēkė (Greek). have come into the English: the extent of our obligation to both Bulle


bulla. those languages can be known only when we have seen speci- , Cage

cage mens of this transference.




champagne campania (open country). Cap


caput. ENGLISH.


French. English. Cendre


cinis. Ala a ving aile (of old, aisle) aisle.



cerisus, Auctor originator anteur author. Chaise

chair Bonitas goodness bonté bounty. Chaloupe

an ox






caminus. Calefacere to varm

chafe. Clé or clef


clavis. Caunlis a pipe chenal channel. Coin


cuneus. Canna a reed canne



comitatus. Caput the head chef chief. Corps


corpus. Carmen a song charme charm. Couple


copula. Catena a chain chaine chain. Duel


duellum. Computare to reckon compter



imperium. Cooperire to cover convrir










roughly acquainted with those authors which are in every man's Fable


mouth. For instance, it is very common to quote Shakespeare; but Face


it makes a sort of stare to quote Massinger. I have very little credit Faim


for being well acquainted with Virgil ; but if I quote Silius Italicus, I Fardel

phortos (Greek).

may stand some chance of being reckoned a great scholar. In short, Fibre


whoever wishes to strike out of the great road, and to make a short Figue


cut to fame, let him neglect Homer, and Virgil, and Horace, and Flute flute

Ariosto, and Milton, and, instead of these, read and talk of Fracastofaith fides.

rius, Sannazarius, Lorenzini, Pastorini, and the thirty-six primary Front


sonnetteers of Bettinelli; let him neglect everything which the Fruit


suffrage of ages has made venerable and grand, and dig out of their Gai


graves a set of decayed 'scribblers, whom the silent verdict of the Geai jay

public has fairly condemned to everlasting oblivion. If he complains Gingembre


of the injustice with which they have been treated, and call for a new Golie

kolpos (Greek).

trial with loud and importunate clamour, though I am afraid he will Goût


not make much progress in the estimation of men of sense, he will be Many French terms are employed in English either in their sure to make some noise in the crowd, and to be dubbed a man of very

curious and extraordinary erudition.-Sydney Smith. native form or slightly altered, and of these some even in France are of modern origin. We have dragoon from the name

THE BIBLE. of the soldiers with whom Louis XIV. carried on the war, which The Bible is the only book which God has ever sent, the only one he received the name of his dragonades, against his French Protes- will ever send, into this world. All other books are frail and transient tant subjects in order to compel them to become Catholics. as time, since they are only the registers of time; but the Bible is From the noun dragoon we have the verb to dragoon into. A durable as eternity, for its pages contain the records of eternity. roné, in slang language, a black-leg, is literally a wretch who other books are weak and imperfect, like their author, man; but the deserves to be broken on the wheel-metaphorically one who has volume is limited in its usefulness and influence, but the Bible came

Bible is a transcript of infinite power and perfection. Every other the same manners as the courtiers of the profligate Duke of forth conquering and to conquer, rejoicing as a giant to run his Orleans, Regent of France, who is said to have given the name course, and like the sun, “ there is nothing hid from the heat thereof." to his abandoned associates. Guillotine, a term which we derive The Bible only, of all the myriads of books the world has seen, is from France, is the name of an instrument for decapitating equally important and interesting to mankind. Its tidings, whether political offenders ; it received its name from the inventor, and of peace or of war, are the same to the poor, the ignorant and the was first used amidst the early horrors of the first revolution in weak, as to the rich, the wise, and the powerful. The Bible indeed is that country. Translations from the French have led to the in- the only universal classic, the classic of all mankind, of every age and coming amongst us of many French terms and phrases, greatly

country, of time and eternity.--Grimké. to the corruption of our mother English. Formerly, translations were said to be “done into English.” The phrase is not GEOMETRICAL PERSPECTIVE.-XIV. inappropriate, for many translations from the French are miser. In Problem XXXIX., page 24, it was stated that the door at the ably done, a large portion of every page consisting of French side was at an angle of 40° with the wall upon which it hung, Fords and idioms in an English dress--resembling a Frenchman and that the wall was perpendicular with the PP. The

rule for aiming to speak English by putting on an English costume. finding the vp in this particular case was explained. We wish Commonplace novels, too, have brought into vogue many Gallicisms. Most blameworthy is this defacement and corruption of now to say more upon this part of the subject. It very freour language, when they are perpetrated by historians, of whom stated as being at an angle with another plane, or with another

quently happens that the angle of the given line or object is better things might be expected. This practice has been well object either parallel or at a right angle with the pp. For taken off by the Spectator, in No. 185 of that work, which is example, the wall of a building may retire at an angle of 300 strongly recommended to the perusal of those who possess it or with the PP, and some other projection may extend from it at can readily borrow it.

a given angle with this wall, which it can do either from a hori. Having read the remarks in the Spectator, and read also zontal or a perpendicular connection. We must then know how what has been written in this lesson, let the student proceed to to determine its angle with the Pp. It is true it is not always write an essay on

necessary to know the angle of the PP for the sake of executing THE FRENCH ELEMENT IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE.

the drawing, as the given angle can be in some cases conWords with their proper Prepositions.

structed upon the vanishing line of the plane with which the Words. F. R.

projection is connected instead of the PP; but we cannot pass Disqualify for, qualis, of what kind.

over this way of stating the question, as many have imagined Dissatisfied with, satis, enough.

a difficulty without any substantial reason for doing so. It may Dissent from, sentio, I feel.

be necessary to know the angle the projection makes with our Distinct from, tinctus, dyed, coloured,

position for reasons altogether independent of the drawing; it Distinguish from, between, tinguo, I dye, colour,

may be to answer the inquiry of an employer; or the draughts. Distrustful of, trauen, to trust.

man, knowing how the parts of a building are placed with each Divested of, vestis, a garment.

other, may wish to satisfy himself as to the appearance the whole Divide between(two), among} divido, I divide.

will have when viewed from some particular point. But what

is of more immediate importance to us now is, that it opens dubito, I doubt.

out a new way to explain the difficulties that arise sometimes

from a confusion in the mind respecting the treatment of vanish. Eager in, begierig, desirous of.

ing lines, vanishing planes, and vanishing points, all these being Embark in, on board of, for, embarquer, to go into a barque. so closely combined in the principles and practice of construction. Embellished with, bellus, beautiful.

Thus, by considering them under every possible connection, we Emerge from, mergo, I dip.

become more familiar with them, and they are more readily Employ in, on, about, employer, to put to use.

comprehended in their details, however numerous they may be, emulus, a rival. Enamoured of,

and also when united together as a whole. amor, love,

1st. Suppose a retiring wall A forms an angle of 30° with the COMPOSITION.

PP, and there is a projection from this wall at a right angle Report the following extracts in the same manner as before :- with A, the projection will then be at an angle of 60° with the ON THE CHOICE OF AUTHORS.

PP, or with our position. If we are to read, it is a very important role in the conduct of the of 1200 with a projecting wall, the projecting wall will also be

2nd. Suppose a retiring wall at an angle of 30° forms an angle company, by introducing it only to the best books. But there is at an angle of 30° with our position in the opposite direction.

3rd. Suppose the retiring wall at an angle of 30° with the PP forgotten authors

, because it passes as a matter of course that he who forms an angle of 30° with the projecting wall, the latter will be quotes authors which are so little read, must be completely and tho at an angle of 600 with the pp (see Fig. 66). We do not say

Dote on,
Doubt of,
Dwell in, at, on,

Emulous of,

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