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αγαθοι τενονται. 5. Νομοις τοις εγχωριοις έπεσθαι καλον εστιν. | of εν with the dative, being used, because motion is implied. 6. Μη αποδεχου των φιλων τους προς τα φαυλα χαριζομενους. 7. We, however, in English say in such a case, in the citadel. Εκαστος ήσυχος μεσην την οδον ερχεσθω. 8. Οι πολιται τοις
9. Τω αδελφω μοι έπεσθον. νομους πειθεσθων.
10. Ει βουλει
EXERCISE 89.-ENGLISH-GREEK. καλως πραττειν, εργαζου. 11. Εαν βουλη καλως πραττειν, εργαζου. 1. He has been murdered. 2. The boys have been murdered. 12. Ψευδομενος ουδεις λανθανει πολυν χρονον. 13. Οι Λακεδαι- 3. The soldiers had been slaughtered. 4. He has been shut up. μονιοι μετ' αυλων εστρατευοντο. 14. Ειθε παντες ανευ οργης | 5. Yo have been shut up. 6. Ye had been shut up. 7. They βουλευοιντο. 15. Δυο καλω ιππω εις την πολιν ηλαυνεσθην. 16. have been shut up. 8. The two men had been shut up. 9. The Εαν πενη, ολιγοι φιλοι (sc. εισι σοι).
oxen are said to have been shut up. 10. I have been well edu
cated. 11. Thou hadst been well educated. 12. They have been REMARKS ON THIS EXERCISE.
well educated. 13. I had been ill educated. 14. Thou hadst M7 anodexou, etc. If this sentence be arranged a little diffe- been ill educated. 15. The trees have been well planted. 16. rently, the student will be better able to see its meaning—un The trees had been ill planted. αποδεχoυ τoυς των φιλων (or των φιλων τους) χαριζομενους σοι προς τα φαυλα: in English, do not welcome those of your friends who gratify you in bad things. Ipos (Latin, ad), in regard to, in.
KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN GREEK.-XXIX. Πραττειν is of a wider signification than ποιειν. The former
EXERCISE 80.-GREEK-ENGLISH. signifies to do, the latter to make ; the former, therefore, may
1. Two ronds lead to the city. 2. A pair of oxen are drawing the be used with adverbs in a general sense, as κακως πραττειν, to do
plough. 3. Let us rejoice, O boys. 4. How sweet is beauty when it ill; that is, to be in bad circumstances,
has good sense (sc. allied to it). 5. Let the citizens keep the laws. The conjunction et requires an indicative or optative mood ; 6. Let companions take care for each other (lit., let companion take care the conjunction eav takes a subjunctive.
for companion). 7. Let father and mother take care for the education Mer' avawy, with flutes; that is, to the sound of flutes.
of their children. 8. He who is unskilful in letters does not really Hλαυνεσθην, the third person, dual number, imperfect indica- see (lit., sees not, while he sees). 9. Bear bravely the chances that befall tive, from chavvw, I drive. The n is the temporal augment, € you. 10. The boy brings a rose to his father, that he may rejoice. being lengthened into n.
11. The boy was bringing a rose to his father, that he might rejoice.
13. When the Greeks apΕργαζομαι, and several other verbs, such as έλκω, επομαι, begin- 12. Socrates used to speals as he know.
proached, the barbarians fled. 14. Themistocles and Aristides once ning with e, form their temporal augment by changing e into el.
had a quarrel. 15. The Lacedæmonians are ignorant of music. 16. Turn EXERCISE 87.-ENGLISH-GREEK.
away peril from us, O ye gods. 17. Do not keep one thing concealed
in your heart when you are saying other things (i.e., do not say one 1. That man is poor, and has few friends. 2. I am poor. 3. thing and mean another). He was consulting. 4. They two were consulting. 5. I consult. 6. He consults. 7. Thou wishest to do well, work. 8. If (eav)
EXERCISE 81.- ENGLISH-GREEK. you wish to do well, work. 9. They work. 10. He works well.
1. Αυτη η οδος προς την πολιν αγει. 2. Δυο όδω προς την πολιν αγετων. 3. 11. He was working. 12. Ye were working. 13. Ye two were
Δυο ίππω (or ίππω alone) το αροτρον αγετον. 4. Αύται αι οδοι προς την πολιν working. 14. We work. 15. I fight. 16. I was fighting. 17.
5. Αί γυναικες καλαι εισιν όταν νουν σωφρονα εχωσιν. 6. ΟΙ They were fighting. 18. They fight bravely. 19. You fght. πολιται φυλαττουσι τους νομους. 7. Οι πολιται εφυλαττον τους νομους. 8. 20. You were fighting. 21. O soldiers, fight bravely for your | Ο πολιτης φυλαττει τους νομους. 9. Υμεις, ωπολιται, φυλαττετε τους νομούς. country. 22. It is honourable to fight for one's country. 23. 10. Ο πατηρ εμος προνοιαν έχει της εμου παιδειας. 11. Η μητηρ εμη και αι I follow thee. 24. He follows me. 25. They follow me. 26. | αδελφαι εμαι προνοιαν ειχον της εμου παιδειας. 12. Οι πολιται τας προσπιπWe follow the general. 27 We were following the army.
τουσας τυχας γενναιως φερονσιν. 13. “Η μητηρ τω πατρι ροδον φερει, ένα χαιρη. Obey the laws, O boys
14 Η αδελφη των αδελφώ ροδον εφερεν ίνα χαιροι. 15. Η θυγατηρ και η μητηρ
και ο πατηρ εστασιαζον. 16. Μη στασιαζοιτε, ω γονεις. 17. Οι παιδες εχαιρον. THE PERFECT AND PLUPERFECT PASSIVE.
19. Χαιρετε. 20. Χαιρομεν. 21. Χαιρεις. 22. Χαιρoυσιν. 23. The perfect paggive may be formed directly from the perfect | Εχαιρετε. 24. Εχαιρον. 25. Η εμη αδελφη εχαιρεν. 26. Ο νεανιας μουσικης active by changing κα into μαι, as-perfect active λελυκα, porfect | απειρως εχει. 27. Αύται αι παιδες μουσικης απειρως εχουσι.
28. Μουσικης passive λελυμαι.
απειρως έχω. 29. Hμεις, ω παιδες, μουσικης απειρως εχομεν. 30. Οι γραμ. The pluperfect passive may be formed from the perfect by | ματων απειροι ου βλεπουσι βλεποντες. 31. Εκειναι αι γυναικες γραμματων changing mai into unv, and prefixing the augment e, as-perfect aterpas etdi. 32. Ουκ απειρος ειμι γραμματων. 33. Ουκ απειροι γραμματων λελυμαι, pluperfect ε-λελυ-μην.
εσμεν. 34. Δυο ανθρωπω αποφευγετον. 35, Κενθει τον νουν εν τη καρδια.
36. οτε οι βαρβαροι επλησιαζον απεφευγεν. 37. Το δεινον αφ' ημων αποτρεπομεν VoCABULARY. .
EXERCISE 82.-GREEK-ENGLISH. Ακρα, ας, ή, 8 sam- Εμφυτευω, I plant in κλεις, 8 key), mit, a fort or cita- (εν, and φυτευω, I
1. The soldiers will free the city from the enemy. 2. The good del. .
Aeyouai (Latin, di- man will plant for his offspring also. 3. The messenger reported to Αυτονομια, -ας, ή (αυ- | Ιδρυω, ίδρυσω, ίδρυ- cor), I am said. the citizens that the enemy would plot against the army. 4. Achilles τος, self, and νομος,
5. The Greeks prevailed much by their μαι, I sit down, Ληστης, -ου, ο, και
was angry with Agamemnon.
valour. 6. Socrates did not implore the judges with many tears, but law), self-governplace, build. thief, a robber, a
trusting in his own innocence, incurred the furthest extreme of danger. ment, freedom, Κατακλειω, κλεισω, pirate.
7. Judge not before you have heard the tale of both. 8. The Lacedæ. independence. κεκλεισμαι (from
monians destroyed Platen. 9. Who can believe a liar ?
10. Hear me, EXERCISE 88.-GREEK-ENGLISH.
. my friend. 11. The messunger reported that the enemy had plotted
against the army. 12. Hear me, my friend. 13. Let one friend believe 1. Οι λησται πεφονευνται. 2. Δυο αδελφω υπο του αυτου another. 14. They say that the city incurred great darger. διδασκαλου πεπαιδευσθον. 3. Η βασιλεια υπο του δημου λελυται. 4. Τοις θεοις υπο των Αθηναιων πολλοι νεφ ίδρυνται. 5. Η θυρα
EXERCISE 83.-ENGLISH-GREEK. κεκλεισθω. 6. Προ του έργου ευ βεβουλευσο. 7. Πασιν ανθρω
1. ο στρατηγος την πολιν απο των πολεμιων απολυσει. πος εμπεφυτευμενη εστιν επιθυμία της αυτονομιας. 8. Οι λησται | ανθρωποι και τοις εκγονοις φυτευουσιν. 3. Οι χρηστοι ανθρωποι τοις παισι πεφονευσθων. 9. Οι πολεμιοι εις την ακραν κατακεκλεισθαι λε- φντενσουσιν. 4. Οι αγγελοι πολλα επαγγελλουσιν. 5. Οι πολεμιοι επι: γονται. 10. Ξενοφωντος υιω, Γρυλλος και Διοδωρος, επεπαιδευσθην βουλευουσι το βασιλει. 6. Οι πολεμιοι εμοι επιβουλευουσιν. 7. Πολλα εν Σπαρτη.
τους πολιταις επαγγελλω. 8. Αχιλλεύς Αγαμεμνον. μηνιει. 9. Αχιλλεύς REMARKS ON THIS EXERCISE.
11. Εμηνισα τοις πολε
12. Τους δικαστας ικετευσω, 13. Σωκράτης ουκ ικετευσει τους δικαστας. Κεκλεισθω, let the door have been shut. This, which is some
14. Οι χρηστοι πολιται ουκ ικετενσουσι τους δικαστας. 15. Οι πολεμιοι thing like the literal rendering of the imperative perfect pas.
Πλαταιας καταλυουσιν. 16. Οι στρατιωται Πλαταιας καταλυσουσιν. 17. Oi είve, Bcarcely makes sense in English. The force of the perfect | στρατιωται την πολιν κατελνσαν. 18. Ακουσατε μου, ω εκγονοι. 19 Εταιρος lies in representing the active as already done, and so in.de
εταιρω πιστευει. 20. Εταιρος εταιρω πιστευσει. 21. Εταιρος εταιρω επισ. noting despatch, as in our vulgarism have done, that is, cease 22. Επιστευσαν. 23. Επιστευον. 24. Πιστεύουσι. 25. Πιστεύσουσι.
26. Πιστεύσεις. 27. Επιστευσατην. 28. Πιστεύσομεν. 29. Πιστευομεν. 30. Εις την ακραν, ιnto the citadel : εις with the accusative, instead ] ο στρατιωτης τη ανόρεια πολλα ισχνει. 31. Εγω της ανδρεια πολλα ισχύσα.
2. Οι χρηστών
GEOMETRICAL PERSPECTIVE.—XVI. rays emanating from an artificial light, as a candle in a room,
are not parallel ; in this case they spread in all directions from THE PERSPECTIVE OF SHADOWS.
one common centre, upwards, downwards, and horizontally, so We now enter upon another division of our sabject, Sciography, that under some conditions we shall have to introduce rules for a term which signifies the science of shadows. The rules for the construction of shadows subject to an artificial light, which their projection are founded, generally speaking, upon the same the pupil will find very different from anything that has been principles as those for the projection of solids and planes ; yot, previously placed before him. In working the problems relating
on account of many peculiarities arising from the causes which to shadows, it will be necessary first to draw the perspectivo originate them, in reference to the sources of light, together representation of the objects we shall have to introduce : an with the various
inclinations of surfaces upon which shadows explanation of this part of the work will not be repeated in fall, there must necessarily be additional and distinctive rules every case, as we trust our pupils are sufficiently competent to for their construction. We might point out a few of these do most of the work that is required previous to determining changes in cause and effect, but we think it better to leave them the shadows. Should there be an exception to this regulation, until we come to special cases in which they are found, when we it will be when a question is proposed in which there may be can enter fully into all the particulars belonging to them. The something unusual in the perspective of the object which has great source of light is the sun, whose rays may be said to be not been considered before. parallel, on account of its great distance from the earth. The The position of the sun, the source of light, may be first
when its rays are parallel with the picture ; secondly, when the the line of contact r s in m and t, and are continued on the sun is before, or in front of the picture ; thirdly, when it is face of the wall to Ps; from r to c is 2 feet, to cut off from c behind the picture.
the nearest angle of the wall within the picture; from c to k is 1st. When its rays are parallel with the picture. The sun is 2.5 feet, the portion of wall on this side the opening. Lines then either on the right hand or on the left; its rays, although drawn from k u' o' (equal to k v o) to the DPS will cut the base at an inclination with the ground, are parallel with the picture of the wall for the perpendiculars of the opening ; between theso plane.
perpendiculars the parallelogram l k t o and the diagonals must 2nd. When the sun is before or in front of the picture; that be repeated; the corresponding points will be easily recognised, is, when it is behind the spectator, or when the spectator is and through them the perspective of the arch must be drawn between the sun and the object.
by hand. For the shadow draw any line a b, as in the last 3rd. When the sun is behind the picture. By this is meant problem, at an angle of 45° with the PP, and draw lines parallel when the object upon which the light falls is between the sun to it through e, b, c, to meet lines on the ground drawn from the and the spectator. Our first examples will be to illustrate the bases of the perpendicular lines e b and c, and parallel to the first of these positions.
PP in the points d, e, f ; draw the aro d e f by hand. The PROBLEM XLV. (Fig. 75).- A block of stone 3 feet high, 4 feet shadows of the angles of the wall n, o are found as d and c in wide, and 5 feet long, has its end parallel with the picture plane, the last problem. 2 feet to the right of the eye and 1 foot within the picture. PROBLEM XLVII. (Fig. 77).—The block of Problem 45 has Height of the eye, 5 feet, and 10 feet from the picture plane. The a pole 10 feet long laid across it horizontally at an angle of 40° angle of the inclination of the rays, or the sun's elevation, is 50° with the picture plane. The nearest portion of the pole which is
with the horizon, and to the right of the eye. Project the shadow | in contact with the block is 1 foot from the right-hand corner of of the block.
the block, and 2 feet of the pole as it approaches the picture plane Anywhere upon the PP draw an indefinite line a b, at an hang over the side. Project the shadows of the block and the pole. angle of 500 with the PP. Through the angles of the block c Sun's inclination 50°. and d draw lines parallel to a b, until they meet other lines Project the shadow of the block as in Problem XLV. To drawn from f and e parallel with the PP in m and n. The side determine the perspective position of the pole, mark the point a of the block cd fe will be the broad shadow, that is, the 2 feet from b; this will include the distance of the block from shadow on the object ; efnm will be the cast shadow on the the pp, and rule it towards DE', cutting 6 Ps in c. Draw the ground, that is, the shadow caused by the object. It will be seen perpendicular c d (d marks the edge of the block over which that the edge of the shadow on the ground from the upper edge the pole projects). Through c and d draw indefinite lines of the block retires to the Ps, the same vanishing point to which towards vp (the vanishing point for the pole); the lower line the block retires, because it is parallel with the block.
through c will be the plan of the pole. Draw a line from c to e PROBLEM XLVI. (Fig. 76). — The face of a wall pierced by directed by the DVP, and make e f equal to 2 feet; draw a line an opening having a semicircular arch; retires at right angles from s towards DVP to meet the plan of the pole in o; draw the with the PP, nearest end 1 foot within the picture. Height of wall, perpendicular o m; d m will then be that part of the pole which 9 feet. Horizontal length, 10 feet, and 5 feet to the left of the eye. projects 2 feet over the side of the block; make f g equal to 10 Breadth of opening, 5 feet, and height 7 feet. Height of eye, 5 feet; feet, and draw from g to DVP, cutting the plan of the pole in distance i0 feet. Sun's elevation, 45°, and its rays parallel with h; draw the perpendicular h i; then the portion of the line the picture plane. The thickness of the wall is purposely omitted. between m and i will be the perspective representation of the
To draw the perspective elevation of the arch, its elevation pole in the position given. To project the shadow, draw lines must be constructed parallel with the pp. At the given from the end of the pole parallel to the sun's inclination, and height of the spring of the arch from the ground at o, draw ko from h draw a line h k parallel to the pp to cut the inclined equal to the width of the arch; draw the diagonals v i and v t; line; from this intersection will be traced the shadow of tho also the horizontal lines p m and i t; p m must intersect pole in the direction of vp, appearing only beyond the shadow the diagonals where they intersect the arch; these lines meet ! of the block.
purpose of_maintaining warmth, and assisting in aerial pro- of the simple reptilian form. _ It varies from twice to eight gression. Each feather is, as Paley truly observes, a mechanical times the length of the body. The first portion of the intestine, wonder. When fully formed, a feather is composed of a central immediately succeeding the stomach, is called the duodenum, cylinder or quill, by which it is attached to the skin ; a shaft, and is arranged in a characteristic loop-like fold, the interval which is the tapering continuation of the quill; and the vane being occupied by a gland called the pancreas, which is similar or beard which projects from each side of the shaft. The latter in structure to the salivary glands. The remaining portion is is composed of barbs and barbules. The feathers present some also more or less folded, but in an irregular manner, and finally variations in size and form in different parts of the body. They terminates in a short tabe of greater calibre, called the larga are variously coloured, and form the chief feature of ornamental intestine. In the mammalia, the large and small intestines are beauty of birds. The feathers are formed by the conversion of separated by a valvular fold of the mucous lining; in birds, the cells of the outer layer of the epidermis (skin) into horn-like however, there is no such arrangement. The point of terminamaterial.
tion of the ono and commencement of the other is marked by The Mandible or Bill consists of two portions, formed by the one or two pouches called cæca (Fig. III., 6), one on each side of elongated upper and lower maxillary bones, covered over with a the intestine. They vary in length from a simple offset, as in horny sheath, which serves the place of teeth. Besides being the Soland goose, to processes three feet in length, as in the a prehensile organ, the bill aids in the masticatory process to a grouse. The interior of the cæca of the ostrich is arranged in certain extent, and in some birds, e.g., the parrot, assists in a spiral manner. The cæca are wanting in many birds, as the climbing, thus acting as a third foot. It presents many inte. cormorant, wryneck, toucan, some vultures, etc. The large inresting modifications of size and shape, from the filamentous testine is short, straight, and destitute of folds, and terminates cone of the humming-bird to the huge bill of the toucan. The in the cloaca (Fig. III., 10). There is an appendage (Fig. III., food, and manner of obtaining it, peculiar to each species, 11) connected with the small intestine, the remains of the duct of determines the size, shape, and degree of hardness of the bill. communication between the yolk-bag and intestine in the chick. Thus it is strong and hook-like in those which tear their prey; Birds have no diaphragm or partition-muscle separating the short and conical in the grain-eaters; probe-shaped in those thorax from the abdomen; consequently, the liver, which is large which live principally on insects. In the ibis, the bill is curved and two-lobed, occupies a part of both cavities. It has appended down. In the jabiru (Fig. I., c.) it is bent up. It is dilated at to it a gall-bladder and a bile-duct. The latter opens into the the extremity in the spoonbill. Ducks, geese, etc., have their first part of the small intestine, and the fluid which it conducts bills flattened. In some birds it is dentated. Besides these, plays an important part in the digestive process. The spleen there are a variety of shapes, extremely interesting.
is small. The kidneys are large, and lodged along the upper The Tongue presents almost as many peculiarities as the part of the pelvis. From each kidney a tabe—the ureter (Fig. mandible, and like it serves for the most part as an organ of III., 8)—passes downwards, terminating in the cloaca. Birds prehension. It is composed of muscles, covered with a horny have no urinary bladder, the urine being voided along with the sheath, and supported by one or two bony pieces (hyoid appara- excrements. tus), prolonged backwards behind the head (Fig. VIII.). This The Respiratory Apparatus.—This consists of an air-tube (the hyoid apparatus is very remarkable, especially in those birds trachea), with an upper and lower larynx, two lungs, and which dart the tongue rapidly at insects, as the woodpecker number of air-sacs variously disposed throughout the body. (Fig. VIII.). In the latter, the tongue is armed at its tip with The trachea, or wind-pipe, is a cylindrical tube, composed of sharp-pointed processes for transfixing insects. In the fieldfare a number of cartilaginous rings connected together by fibrous (Fig. II., b.) the horny sheath of the tongue terminates in fine membranes. Its length accords with that of the neck of the filaments. In the snipe (a) it is long and slender. It is very bird. It is surmounted above, and also below, by a larynı short in the kingfisher (d). The tongue of the goose (c) hus The upper larynx is homologous in position, and in some respects projecting from its sides a number of recurvated spines. The in structure, with the mammalian larynx. But not in function. honey-eaters have the extremity of their tongue furnished with The lower one is the true larynx, from whence emanate the a tuft of horny, hair-like filaments. These peculiar shapes of sweet songs by which the feathered tribe relieve the monotonous the tongue are, liko the mandibles, determined by the kind of stillness of country life. food, and the method of obtaining it. Beneath the tongue The rings which enter into the formation of the air-tube are there are a number of small cellular masses, called salivary not invariably of a uniform diameter, but sometimes present glands. These furnish a gummy-like fluid (saliva), which eccentric arrangements, as in the turkey, heron, eagle, etc, moistens the food. In the woodpeckers, and other insectivora, increasing in size from above downwards. Sometimes the the saliva is viscid, to enable them to entrap insects.
windpipe is found of a fusiform shape, thicker in the centre Alimentary Canal.—The first portion of the digestive tract, than at the extremities; or it may be convoluted at the root of extending from the month to the stomach, is called the gullet. the neck. Sometimes one or more chamber-like dilatations ara Its length is proportionate with the bird's neck. It is usually found developed upon it. wide, and in some birds capable of great distension. At the The lower and true larynx is situated upon the inferior lower part of the neck it communicates with a receiving cavity extremity of the trachea, just before its bifurcation into the or crop (Fig. III.), where the food, after swallowing, remains bronchi. This complex apparatus will be best understood bř 2 lodged for a time. A littlo below the crop there is another reference to Fig. VII., a, 6 (after Milne-Edwards). It may bo dilatation, the proventriculus, or second stomach (Fig. III., 3), compared to a kind of osseous drum, the interior of which is and below this a third, the gizzard. The crop is temporary divided inferiorly by a traversing beam of the same nature, reception-bag, the food lodging there until the gizzard is ready surmounted by a thin semi-lunar membrane (Fig. VII., 6, 2). to receive it. It is single, but of large size in the common This drum communicates inferiorly with two apertures of the fowl (Fig. III., 4). The pigeon has a double crop. In many glottis (rimæ glottidis), formed by the termination of the bronchi
, birds it is wanting, the food pissing along the gullet to the true and each provided with two lips, or vocal cords. Finally, muscles, stomach at once, or, as in some birds that swallow whole fish, the whose numbers vary with the species, extend between the difgullet is distended into a pouch-like cavity, serving the pur- ferent rings of which these parts are composed, and more theu pose of a crop. The proventriculus (Fig. III., 3) may be smaller 80 as to stretch more or less strongly the membranes they supor larger than the gizzard. Its walls are thickly studded with port. In birds which do not modulate the sounds, the mamsmall follicles called gastric glands, which pour out a fluid to branons septum is wanting. In those which do not sing there macerate the food, and to reduce it to a condition more readily are no muscles proper to the inferior larynx (Milne-Edwards). acted on by the gizzard. The gastric glands are variously The lungs are small and undivided. A subdivision of the arranged, and present some differences in size and shape. Some trachea (bronchus) enters the inner and lateral aspect of each of these are shown in Fig. IV., a, b, c, d, e.
lung, and after traversing the lang by smaller subdivisione The gizzard, composed of a dense aggregation of muscular (Fig. V., aa, bb), communicates on their inferior surface, by four fibres, is covered on its internal aspect by a dense skin-like mem- or more pairs of orifices, with the air-sacs of the body. The brane, thus forming a powerful
agent for the mechanical redno- latter communicate with the interior of the bones. Respiration tion of the food. Many birds further increase the power of reduc. is thus seen to be a very active and complicated process in birds, tion 1
pieces of flint, or other hard substances. and not confined to the lungs, but shared in by every part of the rtion of the alimentary canal retains much body where air penetrates.
comprehensive, and includes a thorough knowledge of the
II. NATURAL PHILOSOPHY. elements of the chief subjects of a good general education. It
The University Calendar states that the knowledge required is conducted by printed papers containing questions to be of natural philosophy is such as may be attained by attending answered in writing; and although the examiners have power a course of experimental lectures on the elements of mechanics, to put viva-voce questions, this is very seldom done. The hydrostatics, hydraulics, pneumatics, acoustics, and optics. preparation for passing the examination will demand some But this information is deceptive. Attendance at such a conscientious work, and since the statistics of the university course of lectures is highly desirable for the sake of the show that nearly half the candidates who present themselves illustrative experiments, but the subject will also demand confail to satisfy the examiners, we recommend our students to siderable reading and study. The fact that the examinational study diligently and to test their own knowledge carefully statistics of the university show this paper to be a very fatal before presenting themselves for examination, and incurring the one to candidates confirms the opinion we have expressed, and risk of rejection. It must also be remembered that although induces us to recommend great attention to the principles of a the classification of those who pass is dependent on the total subject which is not susceptible of being crammed. Whichever number of the marks gained for their papers, candidates must work upon the subject may be selected should be read thoughtsatisfy the examiners by obtaining at least the minimum of fully and with attention, and the principles of the several scimarks in each of the several branches, and that numerous cases ences should be so thoroughly mastered that they may be readily occur at each examination in which failure is to be attributed applied to the solution of the questions submitted in the to deficiency in only one of the many subjects. Of these examination-room.* natural philosophy and chemistry appear to be the most fatal, In mechanics the student must be able to explain and and we recommend that attention be paid to them.
illustrate the theory of the composition and resolution of The chief branches of the 'examination are mathematics, statical forces, t to describe the simple machines, i.e., the pulley, natural philosophy, chemistry, classics, the English language the lever, the inclined plano, and to answer questions depending and history, and either French or German; and of these we
on the ratio of the power to the weight in each. I The principle shall speak in order.
of the centre of gravity, § the general laws of motion, and the
law of the motion of falling bodies, || must also be thoroughly This branch includes—1. Arithmetic. 2. Algebra. 3. Geo- understood, and the chief experiments illustrative of them must metry.
be made so familiar to the student's mind that he may be able The questions in arithmetic and algebra form the subject of to describe them readily on paper. one paper, for which three hours are allowed.
In hydrostatics, hydraulics, and pneumatics the Calendar 1. Arithmetic.—The arithmetical questions usually set involve directs attention to the pressure of liquids and gases, T its equal a knowledge of numeration and the theory of numbers,* in diffusion and variation with the depth, and to specific gravity ** addition to which the Calendar specifies the ordinary rules,” and the modes of determining it. The principles of the action which must be held to include those which are known as the of the barometer, ft the siphon, If the common pump and forcing first four rules, simple and compound, direct and inverse pro- sible, the action of these instruments should be observed with a
pump,$$ and the air pump|||| must also be studied, and, if posportion, simple and compound interest, discount, the purchase of stocks, etc. The preponderance of questions in interest, view to a written description of their working. rule of three, and discount renders it desirable that special of sound, and of optics to the laws of reflection and refraction,
Tho knowledge of acoustics required is limited to the nature attention should be paid to these rules. The addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and reduction of vulgar and and the theory of the formation of images by simple lenses. 9 decimal fractions,t and the extraction of the square root, must The student is, however, advised to familiarise himself with the also be carefully studied. Most of the ordinary school arith general principles of these sciences, since the omission to do so metics will contain the information requisite in this branch, and may prove embarrassing at the examination, and tke knowledge of these Hudson's is perhaps the best.
acquired will certainly not only prove useful, but, from the 2. Algebra.-In algebra knowledge is required of the pro- position which science is assuming as a prominent branch of cesses of simplification, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and general education, will at no distant date be considered essential division of algebraical quantities, and some facility in perform in a well-educated member of society. ing these operations and in the solution of simple equations and easy problems involving them must be acquired. I Arithmetical
COMPARATIVE ANATOMY.-XX. and geometrical progression, the formulæ of which should be remembered, and algebraical proportion must also be read, and their rationale mastered. S
This class of the vertebrates, though possessing an external 3. Geometry.—The first four books of Euclid are the subjeot configuration which apparently differs much from all other of a three hours' paper on geometry, which usually comprises animals, is closely allied to, and may bo considered as an one or more propositions from each book, with simple deductions extremely modified reptilian type--the two constituting a great from them. It is not, however, essentially necessary, though order, which Huxley calls Sauropsida. highly desirable, that the latter should be done. The proposi- The rule, that animals are constructed according to their tions should be rendered perfectly familiar, in order that they habits and the medium in which they live and move, is beauti. may be readily written and that time may be devoted to the fully exemplified in birds. Their bones are extremely light, exercises upon them, which may require some thought. It is and rendered still more so by being, in the majority of instances, scarcely necessary to caution the student against merely com- permeated by air. The outer covering, or epidermis, which in mitting the words and figures to memory without mastering the the preceding divisions we have seen variously modified, also various steps in the reasoning process.
undergoes a wonderful change, thus contributing to the same The examiners merely require that the latter shall be made end, and exhibiting a characteristic difference from the scale. manifest. A symbolical Euclid will be useful to the student, clad, cold-blooded animals we have described. The cuticle but, as few abbreviations are permitted at the examinations, it is appears no longer as scales, but as closely aggregated appendnot desirable that it should be read alone.
ages, or feathers, which closely envelop the body, for the double The less conventionally Euclid is studied the better, and we recommend the student to construct carefully his own state
* The “ Elements of Natural Philosophy," by the Rev. Professor ments and diagrams of the various propositions. This is a Haughtou, M.D., will be found a useful work in preparing for the
examination. The Lessons in Natural Philosophy in the POPULAI work involving some time and thought, but its value is un
EDUCATOR will also prove extremely useful. questionable.ll
+ POPULAR EDUCATOR, “ Lessons in Mechanics"-III,
“Lessons in Mechanics"-VIII.--XVIII, • See POPULAR EDUCATOR, “Lessons in Arithmetic," 1.--XVIII, $ “Lessons in Mechanics"--V.-VII. + POPULAR EDUCATOR, “ Lessons in Arithmetic,” XIX.-XXV.
I "Lessons in Mechanics "-XXII.---XXIV, I POPULAR EDUCATOR, “Lessons in Algebra," I.-XII.
"Hydrostatics"-I., II. $ Galbraith and Haughton's "Manual of Algebra” is a good work "Hydrostatics"-III., IV. H “Poeumatics"-III. for the purpose of preparation.
$$ " Hydrostatics"-VII. I See the “ Lessons in Geometry," in the POPULAR EDUCATOR,
1111 “ Pneumatics"-I.