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purpose of maintaining warmth, and assisting in aerial pro- l of the simple reptilian form. It varies from twice to eight gression. Each feather is, as Paley truly observes, a mechanical times the length of the body. The first portion of the intestine, wonder. When fully formed, a feather is composed of a central immediately succeeding the stomach, is called the duodenum, cylinder or quill, by which it is attached to the skin ; a shaft, and is arranged in a characteristic loop-like fold, the interval which is the tapering continuation of the quill ; and the vane being occupied by a gland called the pancreas, which is similar or beard which projects from each side of the shaft. The latter in structure to the salivary glands. The remaining portion is is composed of barbs and barbules. The feathers present some also more or less folded, but in an irregular manner, and finally variations in size and form in different parts of the body. They terminates in a short tube of greater calibre, called the large are variously coloured, and form the chief feature of ornamental intestine. In the mammalia, the large and small intestines are beauty of birds. The feathers are formed by the conversion of separated by a valvular fold of the mucous lining; in birds, the cells of the outer layer of the epidermis (skin) into horn-like however, there is no such arrangement. The point of terminamaterial.

tion of the one and commencement of the other is marked by The Mandible or Bill consists of two portions, formed by the one or two pouches called cæca (Fig. III., 6), one on each side of elongated upper and lower maxillary bones, covered over with a the intestine. They vary in length from a simple offset, as in horny sheath, which serves the place of teeth. Besides being the Soland goose, to processes three feet in length, as in the a prehensile organ, the bill aids in the masticatory process to a grouse. The interior of the cæca of the ostrich is arranged in certain extent, and in some birds, e.g., the partot, assists in a spiral manner. The cæca are wanting in many birds, as the climbing, thus acting as a third foot. It presents many intecormorant, wryneck, toucan, some vultures, etc. The large inresting modifications of size and shape, from the filamentous testine is short, straight, and destitute of folds, and terminates cone of the humming-bird to the huge bill of the toucan. The in the cloaca (Fig. III., 10). There is an appendage (Fig. III., food, and manner of obtaining it, peculiar to each species, 11) connected with the small intestine, the remains of the duct of determines the size, shape, and degree of hardness of the bill. communication between the yolk-bag and intestine in the chick. Thus it is strong and hook-like in those which tear their prey; Birds have no diaphragm or partition-muscle separating the short and conical in the grain-eaters ; probe-shaped in those thorax from the abdomen ; consequently, the liver, which is large which live principally on insects. In the ibis, the bill is curved and two-lobed, occupies a part of both cavities. It has appended down. In the jabiru (Fig. I., c.) it is bent up. It is dilated at to it a gall-bladder and a bile-duct. The latter opens into the the extremity in the spoonbill. Ducks, geese, etc., have their first part of the small intestine, and the fluid which it conducts bills flattened. In some birds it is dentated. Besides these, plays an important part in the digestive process. The spleen there are a variety of shapes, extremely interesting.

is small. The kidneys are large, and lodged along the upper The Tongue presents almost as many peculiarities as the part of the pelvis. From each kidney & tube—the ureter (Fig. mandible, and like it serves for the most part as an organ of III., 8)-passes downwards, terminating in the cloaca. Birds prehension. It is composed of muscles, covered with a horny have no urinary bladder, the urine being voided along with the sheath, and supported by one or two bony pieces (hyoid appara- excrements. tus), prolonged backwards behind the head (Fig. VIII.). This The Respiratory Apparatus.—This consists of an air-tube (the hyoid apparatus is very remarkable, especially in those birds trachea), with an upper and lower larynx, two lungs, and a which dart the tongue rapidly at insects, as the woodpecker number of air-sacs variously disposed throughout the body. (Fig. VIII.). In the latter, the tongue is armed at its tip with The trachea, or wind-pipe, is & cylindrical tube, composed of sharp-pointed processes for transfixing insects. In the fieldfare a number of cartilaginous rings connected together by fibronz (Fig. II., b.) the horny sheath of the tongue terminates in fine membranes. Its length accords with that of the neck of the filaments. In the snipe (a) it is long and slender. It is very bird. It is surmounted above, and also below, by a larynı. short in the kingfisher (a). The tongue of the goose (c) has The upper larynx is homologous in position, and in some respects projecting from its sides a number of recurvated spines. The in structure, with the mammalian larynx. But not in function. honey-eaters have the extremity of their tongue furnished with The lower one is the truo larynx, from whenco emanate the a tuft of horny, hair-like filaments. These peculiar shapes of sweet songs by which the feathered tribe relieve the monotonous the tongue are, liko the mandibles, determined by the kind of stillness of country life. food, and the method of obtaining it. Beneath the tonguo The rings which enter into the formation of the air-tube are there are a number of small cellular masses, called salivary not invariably of a uniform diameter, but sometimes present glands. These furnish a gummy-like Auid (saliva), which eccentric arrangements, as in the turkey, heron, eagle, etc., moistens the food. In the woodpeckers, and other insectivora, inoreasing in size from above downwards. Sometimes the the saliva is viscid, to enable them to entrap insects.

windpipe is found of a fusiform shape, thicker in the centre Alimentary Canal.—The first portion of the digestive tract, than at the extremities; or it may be convoluted at the root of extending from the mouth to the stomach, is called the gullet. the neck. Sometimes one or more chamber-like dilatations are Its length is proportionate with the bird's neck. It is usually found developed upon it. wide, and in some birds capable of great distension. At the The lower and true larynx is situated upon the inferior lower part of the neck it communicates with a receiving cavity extremity of the trachea, just before its bifurcation into the or crop (Fig. III.), where the food, after swallowing, remains bronchi. This complex apparatus will be best understood by a lodged for a time. A little below the crop there is another reference to Fig. VII., a, b (after Milne-Edwards). It may be dilatation, the proventriculus, or second stomach (Fig. III., 3), compared to a kind of osseous drum, the interior of which is and below this a third, the gizzard. The crop is a temporary divided inferiorly by a traversing beam of the same nature, reception-bag, the food lodging there until the gizzard is ready surmounted by a thin semi-lunar membrane (Fig. VII., b, 2). to receive it. It is single, but of large size in the common This drum communicates inferiorly with two apertures of the fowl (Fig. III., 4). The pigeon has a double crop. In many glottis (rimce glottidis), formed by the termination of the bronchi, birds it is wanting, the food passing along the gullet to the true and each provided with two lips, or vocal cords. Finally, muscles, stomach at once, or, as in some birds that swallow whole fish, the whose numbers vary with the species, extend between the difgullet is distended into a pouch-like cavity, serving the pur- ferent rings of which these parts are composed, and move them pose of a crop. The proventriculus (Fig. III., 3) may be smaller so as to stretch more or less strongly the membranes they supof larger than the gizzard. Its walls are thickly studded with port. In birds which do not modulate the sounds, the memsmall follicles called gastric glands, which pour out a fluid to branons septum is wanting. In those which do not sing there macerate the food, and to reduce it to a condition more readily are no muscles proper to the inferior larynx (Milne-Edwards). acted on by the gizzard. The gastric glands are variously the lungs are small and undivided. A subdivision of the arranged, and present some differences in size and shape. Some trachea (bronchus) enters the inner and lateral aspect of each of these are shown in Fig. IV., a, b, c, d, e.

lung, and after traversing the lang by smaller subdivisions. The gizzard, composed of a dense aggregation of muscular (Fig. V., aa, 66), communicates on their inferior surface, by four fibres, is covered on its internal aspect by a dense skin-like mem. or more pairs of orifices, with the air-saos of the body. Tho brane, thus forming a powerful agent for the

mechanical redac-latter communicate with the interior of the bones. Respiration tion of the food. Many birds further increase the power of reduc. is thus seen to be a very active and complicated process is birds, tion by swallowing pieces of flint, or other hard substances. and not confined to the lungs, but shared in by every part of the

The intestinal portion of the alimentary canal retains much body where air penetrates.

Circulation. The temperature of the blood exceeds that of enlargements where the nerves emanate to be distributed to the any other vertebrates, ranging on an average from 100° to 109° extremities. or 110°. In sea-birds, as the gull, the temperature is lower The Skeleton.—The skull of birds is made up of a number of than that of other birds, varying from 100° to 105°. In the bones, separate in the young bird, but which, speedily growing, common fowl it ranges from 107° to 110°. In the swallow it become inseparably blended together in the adult. The jaws, is said to be as high as 1114 The blood-corpuscles are for as already mentioned, are elongated, and both are movable. The the most part red, and nucleated.

lower one is connected to the cranial bones by the intervenThe heart is double, each one presiding over a separate tion of a second one called the tympanic or quadrate bone. system; the right one over the pulmonary, the left ono over | The skull is connected to the vertebral column by means of a

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L. BEARS OF (a) SHRIKE, (6) CROW, AND (c) JABIRU. II. TONGUES OP (a) SNIPE, (6) FIELDFARE, (c) GOOSE, AND (a) KINGFISHER. III. DIGES

TIVE CANAL OF COMMON FOWL. IV. GASTRIC GLANDS IN (a) EAGLE, (6) PIGEON, (c) Swan, (d) RHEA, AND (e) OSTRICH. V. DIAGRAX OF LOBULE OF BIRD'S LUNG. VI. FEMALE ORGANS OF FOWL AT BREEDING SEASON (Owen). VII.a. INFERIOR LARYNX OF ROOK. VILb.

VERTICAL SECTION OF INFERIOR LARYNI OF ROOK. VIII. HEAD OF WOODPECKER (MILNE-EDWARDS). Refs. to Nor. in Figs.—III. 1, gullet ; 2, crop ; 3, proventriculus ; 4, gizzard ; 5, small intestine ; 6, cæca ; 7, large intestine; 8, 8, ureters ;

9,9, oriducts; 10, cloaca ; 11, process for attachment of yolk-bag. V. a a, subdivisions of bronchus; 66, smaller subdivisions. VI. 1, ova, or yolks ; 2, vascular membrane of calyx ; 3, zone, or stigma; empty calyx; 5, infundibulum; 6, 6, ovidact; 7, oblique ridges of lining membrane of ovidact; 8, shell-forming dilatation ; 9, egg exposed; 10, villi, containing follicles concerned in the secretion of shell ; 11, con. Folutions of oviduct; 12, cloaca. VII.a, 1, trachea ; 2, drum formed by the lower end of trachea ; 3, middle ossicle ; 4, first ring of the bronchi; 5, bronchi ; 6, proper muscles of the larynx; 7, depressor muscles of the trachea. VII.6. 1, inferior portion of the trachea. divided as regards the half ; 2, semi-lunar membrane ; 3, osseous cross-bearer ; 4, little rim formed by internal lip of the right glottis ; 5, inner surface of right bronchus, formed by a tympaniform membrane; 6, portion of the cavity of the right bronchus exposed by a section

of part of this membrane. VIII. 1, hyoid apparatus ; 2, tongue. the general or systemic. The main object of the right system single condyle. The vertebræ vary in number, the cervical is to remove from the blood carbonic acid, which results from ranging from ten to twenty. The dorsal, lumbar, and sacral the waste-tissue products, and replace it with oxygen.

vertebræ are generally found fused together and immovable. Nervous system.—The brain of birds makes some little The coccygeal, which support the tail, are movable. The advance towards the mammalian character. The cerebral sternum, or breast-bone, is large and expanded, and has proemispheres are increased in size, and possess traces of conjecting in the median line a keel-like ridge, to increase the survolutions. The ganglia which preside over the sense of taste face of attachment of the large elevator and depressor muscles are small. The optic lobes are large, as might be anticipated of the wing. It has connected with it two bones ; one small, rote the keen sense of sight and the complete power of adapta- the furculum or clavicle ; the other large and strong, the ion of it, at all distances,' which birds possess. The cerebellum coracoid bone. The latter acts as a powerful fularum to the nd spinal cord are both of large size. The latter presents | wing, as well as a point of attachment to muscles. The purpose of maintaining warmth, and assisting in aerial pro. of the simple reptilian form. It varies from twice to eight gression. Each feather is, as Paley truly observes, a mechanical times the length of the body. The first portion of the intestine, wonder. When fully formed, a feather is composed of a central immediately succeeding the stomach, is called the duodenum, cylinder or quill, by which it is attached to the skin ; a shaft, and is arranged in a characteristic loop-like fold, the interval which is the tapering continuation of the quill ; and the vane being occupied by a gland called the pancreas, which is similar or beard which projects from each side of the shaft. The latter in structure to the salivary glands. The remaining portion is is composed of barbs and barbules. The feathers present some also more or less folded, but in an irregular manner, and finally variations in size and form in different parts of the body. They terminates in a short tabe of greater calibre, called the largo are variously coloured, and form the chief feature of ornamental | intestine. In the mammalia, the large and small intestines are beauty of birds. The feathers are formed by the conversion of separated by a valvular fold of the mucous lining; in birds, the cells of the outer layer of the epidermis (skin) into horn-like however, there is no such arrangement. The point of terminamaterial.

tion of the ono and commencement of the other is marked by The Mandible or Bill consists of two portions, formed by the one or two pouches called cæca (Fig. III., 6), one on each side of elongated upper and lower maxillary bones, covered over with a the intestine. They vary in length from & simple offset, as in horny sheath, which serves the place of teeth. Besides being the Soland goose, to processes three feet in length, as in the a prehensile organ, the bill aids in the masticatory process to a grouse. The interior of the cæca of the ostrich is arranged in certain extent, and in some birds, e.g., the parrot, assists in a spiral manner. The cæca are wanting in many birds, as the climbing, thus acting as a third foot. It presents many inte-cormorant, wryneck, toucan, some vultures, etc. The large inresting modifications of size and shape, from the filamentous | testine is short, straight, and destitute of folds, and terminates cone of the humming-bird to the huge bill of the toucan. The in the cloaca (Fig. III., 10). There is an appendage (Fig. III., food, and manner of obtaining it, peculiar to each species, 11) connected with the small intestine, the remains of the duct of determines the size, shape, and degree of hardness of the bill. communication between the yolk-bag and intestine in the chick. Thus it is strong and hook-like in those which tear their prey; Birds have no diaphragm or partition-muscle separating the short and conical in the grain-eaters ; probe-shaped in those thorax from the abdomen ; consequently, the liver, which is large which live principally on insects. In the ibis, the bill is curved and two-lobed, occupies a part of both cavities. It has appended down. In the jabiru (Fig. I., c.) it is bent up. It is dilated at to it a gall-bladder and a bile-duct. The latter opens into the the extremity in the spoonbill. Ducks, geese, etc., have their first part of the small intestine, and the fluid which it conducts bills flattened. In some birds it is dentated. Besides these, plays an important part in the digestive process. The spleen there are a variety of shapes, extremely interesting.

is small. The kidneys are large, and lodged along the upper The Tongue presents almost as many peculiarities as the part of the pelvis. From each kidney a tube--the ureter (Fig. mandible, and like it serves for the most part as an organ of III., 8)-passes downwards, terminating in the cloaca. Birds prehension. It is composed of muscles, covered with a horny have no urinary bladder, the urine being voided along with the sheath, and supported by one or two bony pieces (hyoid appara- excrements. tus), prolonged backwards behind the head (Fig. VIII.). This The Respiratory Apparatus.—This consists of an air-tube (the hyoid apparatus is very remarkable, especially in those birds trachea), with an upper and lower larynx, two lungs, and which dart the tongue rapidly at insects, as the woodpecker number of air-sacs variously disposed throughout the body. (Fig. VIII.). In the latter, the tongue is armed at its tip with The trachea, or wind-pipe, is a cylindrical tube, composed of sharp-pointed processes for transfixing insects. In the fieldfare a number of cartilaginous rings connected together by fibrouz (Fig. II., b.) the horny sheath of the tongue terminates in fine membranes. Its length accords with that of the neck of the filaments. In the snipe (a) it is long and slender. It is very bird. It is surmounted above, and also below, by a laryns. short in the kingfisher (d). The tongue of the goose (c) has The upper larynx is homologous in position, and in some respects projecting from its sides a number of recurvated spines. The in structure, with the mammalian larynx. But not in function. honey-eaters have the extremity of their tongue furnished with The lower one is the true larynx, from whence emanate the a tuft of horny, hair-like filaments. These peculiar shapes of sweet songs by which the feathered tribe relieve the monotonous the tongue are, liko the mandibles, determined by the kind of stillness of country life. food, and the method of obtaining it. Beneath the tonguo The rings which enter into the formation of the air-tube are there are a number of small cellular masses, called salivary not invariably of a uniform diameter, but sometimes present glands. These furnish a gummy-like fluid (saliva), which eccentric arrangements, as in the turkey, heron, eagle, etc. moistens the food. In the woodpeckers, and other insectivora, inoreasing in size from above downwards. Sometimes the the saliva is viscid, to enable them to entrap insects.

windpipe is found of a fusiform shape, thicker in the centre Alimentary Canal.— The first portion of the digestive tract, than at the extremities; or it may be convoluted at the root of extending from the mouth to the stomach, is called the gullet. the neck. Sometimes one or more chamber-like dilatations ara Its length is proportionate with the bird's neck. It is usually found developed upon it. wide, and in some birds capable of great distension. At the The lower and true larynx is situated upon the inferior lower part of the neck it communicates with a receiving cavity extremity of the trachea, just before its bifurcation into the or crop (Fig. III.), where the food, after swallowing, remains bronchi. This complex apparatus will be best understood by a lodged for a time. A little below the crop there is another reference to Fig. VII., a, b (after Milne-Edwards). It may be dilatation, the proventriculus, or second stomach (Fig. III., 3), compared to a kind of osseous drum, the interior of which is and below this a third, the gizzard. The crop is a temporary divided inferiorly by a traversing beam of the same nature, reception-bag, the food lodging there until the gizzard is ready surmounted by a thin semi-lunar membrane (Fig. VII., 6, 2). to receive it. It is single, but of large size in the common This drum communicates inferiorly with two apertures of the fowl (Fig. III., 4). The pigeon has a double crop. In many glottis (rimæ glottidis), formed by the termination of the bronchi, birds it is wanting, the food passing along the gullet to the true and each provided with two lips, or vocal cords. Finally, muscles, stomach at once, or, as in some birds that swallow whole fish, the whose numbers vary with the species, extend between the difgullet is distended into a pouch-like cavity, serving the pur. ferent rings of which these parts are composed, and move them pose of a crop. The proventriculus (Fig. III., 3) may be smaller so as to stretch more or less strongly the membranes they supor larger than the gizzard. Its walls are thickly studded with port. In birds which do not modulate the sounds, the memsmall follicles called gastric glands, which pour out a fluid to branous septum is wanting. In those which do not sing there macerate the food, and to reduce it to a condition more readily are no muscles proper to the inferior larynx (Milne-Edwards). acted on by the gizzard. The gastric glands are variously The lungs are small and undivided. Å subdivision of the arranged, and present some differences in size and shape. Some trachea (bronchus) enters the inner and lateral aspect of each of these are shown in Fig. IV., a, b, c, d, e.

lung, and after traversing the lang by smaller subdivisions The gizzard, composed of a dense aggregation of muscular (Fig. V., aa, bb), communicates on their inferior surfaco, by four fibres, is covered on its internal aspect by a dense skin-like mem- or more pairs of orifices, with the air-sacs of the body. brane, thus forming a powerful agent for the mechanical reduc- latter communicate with the interior of the bones. Respiration tion of the food. Many birds further increase the power of reduc. is thus seen to be a very active and complicated process in binds, tion by swallowing pieces of flint, or other hard substances. and not confined to the lungs, but shared in by every part of the

The intestinal portion of the alimentary canal retains much body where air penetrates.

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Circulation.—The temperature of the blood exceeds that of enlargements where the nerves emanate to be distributed to the any other vertebrates, ranging on an average from 100° to 1099 extremities. or 110°. In sea-birds, as the gull, the temperature is lower The Skeleton.—The skull of birds is made up of a number of than that of other birds, varying from 100° to 105°. In the bones, separate in the young bird, but which, speedily growing, common fowl it ranges from 107° to 110°. In the swallow it become inseparably blended together in the adult. The jaws, is said to be as high as 1111. The blood-corpuscles are for as already mentioned, are elongated, and both are movable. The the most part red, and nucleated.

lower one is connected to the cranial bones by the intervenThe heart is double, each one presiding over a separate tion of a second one called the tympanic or quadrate bone. system; the right one over the pulmonary, the left one over | The skull is connected to the vertebral column by means of a

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I. BEAKS OF (a) SHRIKE, (6) CROW, AND (c) JABIRU. II. TONGUES OF (a) SNIPE, (6) FIELDFARE, (c) GOOSE, AND (d) KINGFISHER. III. DIGES

TIVE CANAL OF COMMON FOWL. IV. GASTRIC GLANDS IN (2) EAGLE, (6) PIGEON, (c) Swan, (d) RHEA, AND (6) OSTRICH. V. DIAGRAX OF LOBULE OF BIRD'S LUNG. VI. FEMALE ORGANS OF FOWL AT BREEDING SEASON (OWEN). VII.a. INFERIOR LARYNX OF ROOK. VII.b.

VERTICAL SECTION OF INFERIOR LARYNY OF ROOK. VIII. HEAD OF WOODPECKER (MILNE-EDWARDS). Refs. to Nos. in Figs.—III. 1, gullet ; 2, crop ; 3, proventriculus ; 4, gizzard ; 5, small intestine ; 6, cæca; 7, large intestine ; 8, 8, ureters;

9,9, oviducts; 10, cloaca ; 11, process for attachment of yolk-bag. V. a a, subdivisions of bronchus; bb, smaller subdivisions. VI. 1, ova, or yolks ; 2, vascular membrane of calyx; 3, zone, or stigma; 4, empty calyx ; 5, infundibulum; 6, 6, oviduct; 7, oblique ridges of lining membrane of oviduct; 8, shell-forming dilatation; 9, egg exposed ; 10, villi, containing follicles concerned in the secretion of shell; 11, convolutions of oviduct; 12, cloaca. VII.a, 1, trachea ; 2, drum formed by the lower end of trachea ; 3, middle ossicle ; 4, first ring of the bronchi; 5, bronchi; 6, proper muscles of the larynx; 7, depressor muscles of the trachea. VII.6. 1, inferior portion of the trachea divided as regards the half ; 2, semi-lunar membrane ; 3, osseous cross-bearer ; 4, little rim formed by internal lip of the right glottis ; 5, inner surface of right bronchus, formed by a tympaniform membrane ; 6, portion of the cavity of the right bronchus exposed by a section

of part of this membrane. VIII. 1, hyoid apparatus ; 2, tongue. the general or systemic. The main object of the right system | single condyle. The vertebræ vary in number, the cervical is to remove from the blood carbonic acid, which results from ranging from ten to twenty. The dorsal, lumbar, and sacral the waste-tissue products, and replace it with oxygen.

vertebræ are generally found fused together and immovable. Nervous System.—The brain of birds makes some little The coccygeal, which support the tail

, are movable. The advance towards the mammalian character. The cerebral sternum, or breast-bone, is large and expanded, and has prohemispheres are increased in size, and possess traces of conjecting in the median line a keel-like ridge, to increase the survolutions. The ganglia which preside over the sense of taste face of attachment of the large elevator and depressor muscles are small

. The optic lobes are large, as might be articipated of the wing. It has connected with it two bones; one small, from the keen sense of sight and the complete power of adapta- the forculum or clavicle ; the other large and strong, the tion of it, at all distances, which birds possess. The cerebellum coracoid bone. The latter acts as a powerful fulorum to the and spinal cord are both of large size. The latter presents wing, as well as a point of attachment to muscles. The

extremity of the bird's wing (hand) merely serves the purpose hundred and thousand; it must not be rendered in French We of a support for feathers. The legs vary considerably in say: length, according to habits. Each foot has three or four toes,

Mille hommes, one thousand men, terminated by claws; in aquatic birds connected together by an

Cent francs, one hundred francs. intervening web—this is principally confined to the three (4.) When the words cent and mille are used substantively anterior toes. The feet and legs are generally covered with before the name of objects generally reckoned or sold by the horny, scale-like plates, and destitute of feathers. The power hundred or thousand, in number or in weight, the word un may of flight which many birds possess is indeed wonderful. The be placed before them; the name of the object being preceded muscles in connection with the upper extremity may be said to by the preposition de :consist of two classes : one by which great power is obtained ; Un cent, un millo (millier) de briques, one hundred, one thousand (of) bricks. and the other, speed at the expense of power.

Un cent (un quintal) de sucre, one hundred (weight) of sugar. Generative System.-In their reproduction birds are strictly (5.) The words septante, seventy, octante, eighty, and nonante, oviparous. The generative organs exhibit for the most part a ninety, are now nearly obsolete. They are, as may be seen in close analogy to those of the higher reptilia. The ovary is the preceding table, replaced by awkward expressions : soixanteracemose and single, the right with its oviduct being perma- dix, sixty-ten ; quatre-vingts, four-twenties (four score); quatre. nently atrophied, a singular violation of symmetry which is con- | vingt-dix, four-score-ten, etc. fined to birds. In this class of Vertebrata, incubation attains (6.) Before the words onze, eleven, and onzième, eleventh, the its highest perfection. It appears to arise from the concurrence article is not elided. We say le onze, le onzième, la onzième. In of these three exigencios—the necessary life and early maturity pronunciation, the s of the plural article les is silent when this of the young, the necessity of warmth to their development, article precedes onze or onzième. and the incompatibility of utero-gestation with flight.* Classification.-Birds are divided by Professor Huxley into

§ 25.--OBSERVATIONS ON THE ORDINAL NUMBERS. three orders.

(1.) It will be seen that the ordinal numbers, with the ex1. Saurure.—Distinguished by having a long tail like a ception of premier and second, are formed from the cardinal:lizard. This order contains only the extinct bird, archæopteryx. 1. By the change of f into vième in neuf;

2. Ratita.-From their raft-like keelless sterna. This order 2. By the change of e into ième in those ending with that comprises ostriches, rheas, emeus, cassowaries, and the apteryx. vowel ;

3. Carinatæ.—Having the sternum raised into a median 3. By the addition of ième in those ending with a consonant. ridge or keel. All ordinary birds belong to this order.

4. Cinq requires uième to make cinquième, fifth.
(2.) All ordinal adjectives may take the form of the plural.

(3.) Premier and second alone vary for the feminine, and LESSONS IN FRENCH.-LV.

make première, seconde, etc. $ 23.-VARIATIONS OF THE CARDINAL NUMBERS.

.(4.) Unième (first) is only used in composition with ringt,

trente, etc. (1.) The following cardinal numbers vary :

(5.) Second, deuxième (second).- Deuxième supposes a series, 2 (2.) Un, one, a or an, takes the gender of the noun to which continuation ; second merely indicates the order: it is prefixed :

1st. We may say of a work which has four or more volumes : Un livre, a book ; une feuille, a leaf. When used substantively, un takes, at times, the form of the volume de cet ouvrage.

J'ai le deuxième (or le second) I have the second volume of that

work. plural:

2nd. In speaking of a work which has only two volumes, wo Masc. Les uns et les autres, these and those.

should say: Fem. Les unes et les autres (the ones and the others). (3.) Vingt and cent, when multiplied by a number, take an s

J'ai le second (not le deuxième) I have the second volume of Bese

volume du dictionnaire de Bes- cherelle's dictionary. in the plural :

cherelle. Quatre-vingts, eighty; six cents, six hundred.

3rd. Under the ordinal numbers may be placed the following (4.) Vingt and cent, although multiplied by a number, do not words, which are often used substantively :take an s if they are followed by another number, or if they are used to indicate a particular epoch:

Trentenaire, thirty,

of thirty years' duration. Quarautenaire, forty,

of forty
Quatre-vingt cinq hommes, eighty-five men.

Cinquantenaire, fifty years old, of fifty
Cinq cent deux hommes, five hundred and two men.

Sexagénaire, sexagenarian, of sixty
Charlemagne fut proclamé em- Charleynagne was proclaimed em.

Septuagénaire, septuagenarian,

of scventy , pereur d'Occident, le jour de Noël, peror of the West on Christmas Day, Octogénaire, octogenarian, of eighty en huit cent. in the year eight hundred.

Nonagénaire, nonagenarian, of ninety (5.) Mille-(thousand). For the data of the year, reckoned

Centenaire, contenarian,

of one hundred from the commencement of the Christian era to the year 2,000 4th. Trentenaire and quarantenaire are law terms: of the same, we use the abbreviated form, mil :

Possession trentenaire, quar- Thirty, forty years' possession. L'an mil huit cent cinquante, the year 1850.

antenaire. (6.) With regard to the years which have preceded our era,

5th. Of the others, sexagénaire, septuagénaire, and octogénaire and those which will follow our present thousand, we write the only, are in frequent use : full form, mille.

Un octogénaire plantait.

A man eighty years old was plante La première irruption des Gaul. The first irruption of the Gauls

ing trees. ois, eut lieu sous le règne de Tar- took place under the reign of Tarquin,

§ 26.-RULES. quin, environ l'an du monde trois about the year of the world 3416. millo quatre cent seize.

(1.) In speaking of the days of the month, the French use the

cardinal, not the ordinal number :(7.) Million, billion, take the plural form.

Le deux mars, the second of March. § 24.-MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS ON THE

Lo dix-sept arril, the seventeonth of April,
CARDINAL NUMBERS.

(2.) We must, however, say: 1.) In French, in computing from twenty to thirty, thirty to

Le premier (not l'un) juin, the first of June. forty, etc., the larger number must always precede the smaller. (3.) The cardinal numbers are also employed in speaking of We may not say, as often in English, one and twenty, but always sovereigns and princes :vingt-et-un, vingt-deux, etc.

Charles dix, Charles the Tenth. (2.) The conjunction et, after vingt, trente, etc., is only used

Louis dix-huit, Louis the Eighteenth. before un: thus, we say vingt-et-un, twenty (and) one, and simply vingt-deux, twenty-two, etc.

(4.) We must say, however :

Henri premier, Henry the First, (3.) The word one frequently precedes in English the words

(5.) Deux and second are, in this case, used indifferently * Todd and Bowman.

Charles deux, Charles second, Charles the Second.

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