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delicate creature like the moth of Bombyx mori could unassisted the sea-worms (Annelida), examples of which are to be found on have forced its way through a texture so immensely strong as the almost every oyster and crab shell brought to market. tough and almost leather-like capsule in which it was so long The serpula is one of these. Both the dentalium and serpala sealed up. Unassisted, it must as surely have perished in its are red-blooded creatures, but nevertheless do not belong to self-spun cell, as though locked up in some cavity of the solid the same family. The dentalium stands, so to speak, on tho rock, for no moth possesses the power of eating through such a border-land dividing the two great and curious families, Mol wall as that which the larvæ can build. But here steps in to lusca and Annelida. Dentalium shells of from an inch to an the aid of the imprisoned insect that beautiful, wise, and inch and a half in length are not by any means uncommen inscrutable Power which rules the universe and leaves nothing on our own coasts ; but the true dentalium of commerce, undone. The moth throws out a Auid, or secretion, which the tusk-shell, or Hya-qua, is an inhabitant of warmer sens possesses the power of so softening the strong cement which than onrs, and grows to a much larger size than those bound the thousands of tongh silk fibres together, that by a found in British waters. Amongst the Indians of North-West trifling effort they are thrust aside, and the little

America, this shell is nsed as a circulating moth, soft as swan-down, with closely-folded

medium, just as the Cowry is used by the inwings, struggles into light and life. Could some

habitants of India and the Eastern world. The chemist discover the nature of this marvellously

commercial value of the dentalium is estimated active and potent solvent-for even the horn-like

according to its length when threaded on a cocoons of the Tusseh worm in India (Anthorea

string. Thus a cord of a given length which paphia) yield immediately to it-an inestimable

will hold ten of these shells is of less value than boon would be con

one which will only ferred on the wind.

3

hold six; and 80 ers of silk, whose

The manner great difficulty con.

in which the densists in so soften

talium is captured ing by artificial

by the Indians is means the silk

both ingenious and under treatment as

curious. The habit to admit of its

of the shell when being reeled suc

containing the lit cessfully.

ing mollusk is to Who shall say of

rest month upwhat fell ingredi.

wards in the fine ents the powers of

deposit at the another description

bottom of the sea. of coooon are made

Bearing this in up? Here we al.

mind, the crafty lude to the Ngrea,

Indian

provides or poison-grub of

himself with 8 the bushmen. This

long-handled imcocoon, instead of 1

plement, armed at being formed from

the end with a silk, is built up of

number of sharp fine earth or clay,

ened

fsh-bones. and is buried in the

Then, entering his earth. When re

5 1. THE SHARP-SPIRED MUREX. quired for poison

4. DENTALIUM MOTH SHELL Canoe, he is pading arrows, it is COWRY (CYPRÆA

OR TUSK SHELL (HYA-QUA). dled quietly along MONETA). 3. FINGER PHOLAS dug up and broken

5. THE RAZOR-FISH OR Over the spota

SOLEN. (PHOLAS DACTYLUS).

which experience open, when the

has shown to be juices exude. Should any of these enter a

rich in the sought-for shells. Here, by cotcut, soratch, or wound, agony of the most

stantly thrusting his bone-pointed spear down. indescribable intensity is the result, and in

wards, he from time to time contrives to imthe absence of the proper antidote, which, in

pale one or more dentalia. The pointed fishthe form of a plant (the Cala he tel me), is

bone, entering their open, tube-like mouths, wisely placed by the Creator in the region

penetrates their soft tissues, and holds them of this baneful pupa-case, insanity, suicide,

with sufficient firmness to admit of their being or both evils combined, would probably be

drawn into the canoe and shaken off. the fate of the sufferer. In this case it is

The solen, or razor-fish as it is commonly well that even Lucretia Borgia herself would have utterly failed called, is a bivalve shell commonly met with on nearly all to imitate the natural chemistry which has so fearfully endowed sandy coasts at home and abroad. (Fig. 5.) The babits of this the African poison-grub. Reasoning thus, we say, place the mollusk are not unlike those of the dentalium, but instead of juices of the sharp-spired murex (Fig. 1), and those of the confining itself to comparatively deep water, the razor-fish is smooth and painted porcelain shell (Fig. 2), in the hands of the found abundantly on the sand Hats after the receding of the most experienced chemist in the world, and we doubt his being tide. A small heap of newly-raised sand serves to disclose its able to point out the spine-forming qualities of the one, or their lurking-place, and a sharp-pointed and well-notched stick thrust absence in the other. Therefore, we think, from the evidence adroitly from above downwards, just as an Esquimanx spears before us, it is, to say the least of it, probable that these land seal in the ice, seldom fails to bring the solen to light. The and sea rock and timber borers possess the power of secreting would be captor who heedlessly employs his finger in lieu of the a peculiar fluid which, like that of the silkworm moth, acts in stick will, in all probability, have cause to remember the razor a manner not to be imitated by artificial means.

fish and its trenchant shells. These mollusks are in many Fig. 3 in the annexed illustration (reduced view) represents localities used extensively as bait, and are, when crisply fried the common finger pholas (Pholas dactylus), as it is seen on with bread-crumbs, a most appetising dish. There are nume breaking away the rock in which its tube is bored. The dentalium-task shell, or Hya-qua, the subject of our selves in the sand. Of these we can have little to say in the

rous bivalve shells, not true tube-dwellers, which bury them. illustration (Fig. 4), is an example of a tube-dweller bearing present paper. There are other creatures dwelling in the a single shell, unprotected by a rock gallery. This shell is sands of the sea-shore, without the protection afforded by shells

, remarkable as forming, so to speak, the connecting link between but a consideration of these must be reserved for s futura the true mollusks, as represented by ordinary shell-dwellers and I lesson.

[graphic]

one

ELECTRICITY.-IV.

the spangles have often to be placed on one side of the glass

and the rest on the other, a strip of tinfoil passing over the ILLUMINATING EFFECTS_INTERRUPTED CONDUCTORS

edge to connect them. It is a good plan in making these LEYDEN JAR.

devices to put them in a frame made of well-baked wood, and HAVING now seen the way in which electricity can be obtained varnished with sealing-wax or shellac varnish. This is not, in large quantities, we have to observe what effects can be pro- however, absolutely necessary, as a split bullet may be placed daced by it. If we place a brass ball in one end of the con. on one side to take the spark by, and the glass held carefully ductor, and hold the knuckle or another ball near to it, sparks by the edge, a finger being placed against the other strip of foil. will pass, which, if the machine be working well, will be seen If it be desired to make a device containing a word, it is to be forked and twisted about somewhat after the manner of a better to dispense with the spangles, and paste parallel strips of flash of lightning. The reason of this is supposed to be that tinfoil from end to end of the glass, at a distance of about the particles of dust floating in the air serve as conductors, and three-quarters of an inch apart, and then paste a vertical strip thus regulate the direction of the spark.

at each end so as to connect the others. These strips should If we provide a series of conducting bodies placed a little be about one-eighth of an inch wide, and should be very caredistance apart, and allow the spark to pass along them, it will fully rubbed down, as otherwise they are liable to come off always choose the shortest path, and will be broken up into a afterwards. Now cut away the strips between tho alternate number of short sparks between each conductor. A great bars, first at one end and then at the other, so that the elecnumber of brilliant and instructive experiments may be tried tricity may pass from end to end by the top strip, back again to illustrate this principle. Let a number of rather large shot by the next, and so on, thus traversing the whole length. Traco be cut nearly through with

your word or devico on paper, a sharp knife, or procure a

and, laying the glass over number of split shot, such

it wherever & line crosses as are prepared for use with

one of the strips, make with fishing tackle, and fix them

a sharp knife two cross-cuts, on a piece of sewing silk at

Fig. 10.

like an X, and carefully pick distances of about

out the small triangular eighth of an inch apart.

pieces. You will thus have Now hold a piece of this

a narrow interval left, at shot chain to the prime con.

which the spark will appear, ductor, and the spark will

and when the whole is combe broken up into a number

pleted, and the spark taken of short ones between each Fig. 12.

with a split bullet fixed on shot. If, however, we mea

the upper edge, the device sure the sum of these inter

Fig. 9.

becomes clearly lit up. The vals, we shall see that it

illustration (Fig. 9) shows is just about the distance

the way in which the sheet over which the spark would

of glass may be mounted for pass if uninterrupted. When

the lecture-table if so de. the machine is working

sired. well, seven or eight inches

If a number of the spanof this chain should be illu.

gles be arranged spirally minated. Fig. 11.

round a glass tubo (Fig. 10), This experiment may be

and a piece of wood, rounded varied by threading on silk

carefully and covered with alternate beads of glass and

tinfoil, be placed at one end, metal, and a string of this

sparks may be taken with kind becomes very prettily

it, and it will have a very illuminated; or metal span.

pretty effect.

Frequently gles or buttons may be sown

the tube thus prepared is on to a piece of silk ribbon

put inside another made of and treated in a similar

coloured glass, and in many way. In all these experi.

ways the effect may, with a ments silk must be used on

little ingenuity, be diversiaccount of its being a non

fied. The principle of these conductor. The spark only appears in the interval between the experiments is an important one, as it explains the effects proconductors, and hence, if cotton were employed, the electricity duced when lightning strikes a house or large building. If we would pass quietly along without producing any luminous examine any place thus struck, it will be seen that the electric effect.

fuid has leaped from one metal fastening or bar to another, Another very pretty experiment may be tried in a similar displacing the stones or brickwork which lay in its path, and way. Punch a number of small spangles of tinfoil. This may that its course was determined mainly by the position of these be done with a punch about one-eighth of an inch in diameter. conductors. As, however, the different layers of tinfoil are very apt to stick If we take a number of balls of different substances mounted firmly together under the pressure caused by the blow, it is on wires, and, placing them successively in the conductor, draw better to lay a sheet of paper between each thickness of the sparks from them, we shall find that the colour varies with foil while cutting it. Now paste these spangles on a sheet of the substance used. From a brass ball it is almost white; common window.glass, so as nearly to touch one another, and if, however, we employ a ball of ivory, it will have a crimson 80 arrange them as to form a device—as, for instance, a star or tint; and when it is taken from å gilt surface, it has a a cross. Bring strips of the tinfoil from each end to opposite greenish hue. The colour is also affected by the medium sides of the glass. When it is dry, and the superfluous paste through which it passes : if the air be much rarefied it assumes wiped off carefully, one of these strips may be held between a redder tint, while different gases impart different colours to it. the finger and thumb, and the other presented to the conductor; Now insert a pointed wiro into the conductor, having darevery interval will then be lighted up by the spark, and in a kened the room, and notice the effect produced. darkened room a very pretty effect will be produced. In mak. A brush of light will be soen proceeding from the point, ing these devices, care will have to be taken in arranging the and no sparks can be taken from the conductor, for all the shape so that the nearest way for the spark shall be along the electricity is dissipated. In the same way, if a pointed wire spangles, for if by darting across it has to traverse a shorter be held near the conductor, the electricity will be silently distance than the

intervals between the spangles added together, drawn off. Instead, however, of a brush appearing at the end it will be certain to do so. To guard against this, a part of of the wire, a luminous star will be seen, the point being

96

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strongly negative. A similar star appears at the end of a wire or place it upon a common glass tumbler or other insulating inserted in the negative conductor, and thus the appearance support, we shall be able to take sparks from its exterior. of a star or a brush enables us to discriminate between posi- If no means be provided for this electricity to escape, we shall tive and negative electricity. So powerful is the influence be unable to charge the jar. exerted by a point, that one, even at a distance of several feet, In their normal state the coatings contain a definite amount will seriously diminish the power of the machine.

of electricity, and if there be an excess added to one side, the Soon after the invention of the electrical machine, the idea other must lose a corresponding amount. The spark and the of storing up the electricity suggested itself; and one of the shock are merely the effects by which the restoration of early electricians, finding that water was a conductor, filled a equilibrium between the two sides is manifested. bottle with it, and passed a wire through the cork, that by A striking illustration of this principle is seen if we place a means of it he might cause the electricity to enter. Having number of jars so that the knob of one is connected with the held the end of this wire to his machine till he thought the outside of the next. This may be done by supporting them bottle was full, he attempted to remove the rod lest the elec. on their sides on insulating stands, or by laying them on pieces tricity should escape by it; but on doing so, to his intenso alarm, of glass. If now we connect the knob of the first with the he received a shock so violent that he kept his bed for a conductor, and the outside of the last with the ground, each short time, and declared that nothing should ever induce him to of the series will be charged, the electricity given off from repeat the experiment. The news of it, however, spread, and one charging the next. The charge in the last will, however, many others repeated it with various modifications; and thus be rather weaker than that in the first, owing to the thickness the Leyden jar, so called from the place where the experiment of the glass slightly interfering with the induction. This was first tried, was constructed.

mode is called “charging by cascade;" and if the jars are To make a Leyden jar (Fig. 11), take a wide-mouthed glass jar afterwards placed together on an insulating substance, so that (one of those used by confectioners for sweets will answer well), their outsides may touch, and a wire be so arranged as to and carefully coat it inside and outside with tinfoil to within about connect all their knobs, a very powerful shock will be produced. two or two and a half inches of the top. Cut a large bung, or, Great care must, however, be taken in doing this to guard better still, turn a cover of baked mahogany, to fit its mouth, against the shock being accidentally taken, as it would certainly and through this fix a piece of brass wire carrying a ball on its be too strong to be pleasant. upper end. From the inner end of this wire let a short piece of chain reach to the bottom of the jar. In some jars the wire at the top may be bent over like a hook, so that they can be

LESSONS IN LATIN.-XLII. suspended from the conductor.

DEVIATIONS IN THE FOURTH CONJUGATION. If the jar be now held with its knob close to the conductor, sparks will pass in for a little time till the jar becomes filled.

1. Perfect in •IVI and•UI; Supine in -TUM. Now set it down, and, taking a piece of wire bent into a curve, i. Sepelio, sepelire, sepelevi, sepultum, bury, inter (E. R. touch the outside of a jar with one end, and bring the other so sepulture). as to touch the knob. A bright spark, accompanied by a loud ii. Salio, salire, salui (no supine), to leap (E. R. salient). crack, will at once be seen, showing that the jar has discharged Compounds : silio, silire, silui, sultum; as, assilio, assilire, itself.

assilui, assultum, to spring at. For a small jar, one of the bottles that are used by chemists

2. Perfect in -I; Supine in -TUM. for holding quinine may be used, as they are usually made of thin glass. The shock from one of these will be as powerful find by experience.

i. Comperio, comperire, compēri, compertum, to experience, to as most people will care to take. With an ordinary narrowmouthed bottle there is a difficulty, arising from the impossibility

ür. Reperio, reperire, repěri, repertum, to find. Apěrio has of coating it inside with tinfoil. To obviate this, it has been aperui, aperire, apertum, to open (E. R. aperture). Opěrio and suggested to pour some thick paste into the bottle, turning it coopério, to cover, have -rui, -rtum. about so as to wet the interior, and then put in a number of

ii. Věnio, venire, véni, ventum, to come. brass or iron filings. These will adhere and form a conducting

3. Perfect in -SI; Supine in -TUM. coating ; but though a considerable shock may be obtained from i. Amicio, amicire (amixi and amicui, both rare); amictum, to a jar thus prepared, there is an objection to the plan, arising clothe. from the fact that the particles are not in absolute contact, ü. Farcio, farcire, farsi, fartum, to stuff.

Compounds in and therefore, after the jar has been discharged, a second and forcio, fersi, fertum, as refercire, to stuff quite fully. even a third shock may be obtained from it, each, of course, iii. Fulcio, fulcire, fulsi, fultum, to prop, to support. much feebler than the first.

iv. Haurio, haurire, hausi, haustum, to draw up, drink. To take the shock, one hand should be placed against the v. Sancio, sancire, sanxi, sancitum (more seldom sanctum; outer coating, and the other, or a wire held in it, brought near sanctus, -a, -um, as an adjective, holy), to consecrate, confirm. the knob. Any number of persons can join hands, those at the vi. Sarcio, sarcire, sarsi, sartum, to repair, make good, replace, ends of the chain touching the outside and the knob respectively, vii. Sepio, sepire, sepsi, septum, to hedge in. and the shock will be equally felt by all. Sometimes, when it is viii. Vincio, vincire, vinxi, vinctum, to bind, put into chains. desired to discharge a large jar, or to send a shock through any substance, the jointed discharger represented in Fig. 12 will be

4. Perfect in -SI; Supine in -SUM. found very useful. The handles are of glass, and thus prevent

i. Sentio, sentire, sensi, sensum, to feel, to be of opinion. any portion of the shock being felt by the operator. The

VOCABULARY. reason why, in discharging a jar with this, one knob should Amuenter, richly. Dispellěre, to drive out, | Munificentin, -æ, f., be brought into contact with the outer surface before the other Catena, -æ, f., a chain. dispel.

liberality. touches the ball, is that if the spark passes against the side of Cætus, ús, m., an Documentum, -i, a Parricidium, ., D., the jar it may break it. As electricity always chooses the best assevibly.

proof.

killing of a father, conductors to pass along, it is not necessary for discharging a

Consentire, to agree Dumetum, i, n., parricide jar to have glass handles; a piece of wire may be used and

with, consent.

place full of bushes. Probe, wel.

Rector, oris, m., & held in the hand without any shock being felt. For many pur. Curatio, .onis, f., keal- Exhaurire, to exhaust.

Explorator, -oris, m., poses, however, the insulating handles are a great advantage, Desidero, 1, to require. an erplorer, spy.

Transilire, to jump and they can be made of gutta-percha instead of glass, if more

Desilire, to leap apart, Indagare, to investigate. convenient.

Ludibrium, -i, n., scoff. Undique, on all sides. The Leyden jar is merely an illustration of the principle of Dissentire, to disagree. ing, sport.

Vepres, -is, m., a briar. induction already referred to. The glass is di-electric, and the

EXERCISE 161.-LATIN-ENGLISH metallic coatings serve to distribute the electricity over its sur

“Probe vixit, improbos face. As soon as the interior becomes positively charged, it vinxit, hostes vicit.” 2. Hostes victi et catenis vincti in servitutem acts by induction on the exterior, driving off from it an abducti sunt. 3. Imperium justis legibus fultum esse debet. 4. Res, amount of positive electricity nearly equal to that which it has pace composita, rempublicam labefactam suâ virtute fulsit. 5. Virtus received. Hence, if we suspend the jar from the conductor, difficilis inventu est, rectorem ducemque desiderat. 6. Artes iuod

1. Regis sepulchro hæc verba inscripta sunt,

a

ruler, director,

over.

to openl.

merabiles repertæ sunt, docente naturi. 7. Vita, si undique referta 20. To play (with fabulam); that is, personate a character. bonis est, beata dicitur, 8. Homines urbes manibus sepserunt. Hence a distinction between facere and agere :9. Occultæ inimicitiæ magis timendæ sunt quam aperta. 10. Quis Potest aliquid facere et non agere; ut poeta facit fabulam et non est tam miser ut non Dei munificentiam sepsérit? 11. Dei, induti agit: contra, actor agit et non facit; et sic a poetâ fabula fit non specie humana, fabulas poetis suppeditaverunt, hominum autem agitur; ab actore agitur, non fit.-Varro. vitam superstitione omni referserunt. 12. Continuis bellis reipublicæ 21. To do, to be active, to be engaged generally :spes exhaustæ sunt. 13. Quo quis affluentius voluptates undique Scipio Africanus soltus est dicere nunquam se plus agere quam hauserit, eo gravius ardenti usque sitiet. 14. Spero te mecum con

quum nihil ageret.-Cicero. sepsurum esse.

This is explained by another version of the anecdote :EXERCISE 162.- ENGLISH-LATIN.

Nunquam se minus otiosum esse quam quum esset otiosus.- Cicero. 1. The king, dying, said, "I have lived well; I have bound bad men; 22. To effect :I have conquered enemies." 2. The soldier, being conquered, was put Nihil agis, dolor, quamvis sis molestus, nunquam te esse malum into chains. 3. They will be led away into slavery. 4. He props the confitebor.-Cicero. falling republic. 5. He will prop the falling house. 6. The art of 23. To carry on, perform :writing has been discovered. 7. They have opened the book. 8. My Delibera utrum colloqui malis, an per litteras agere, quas cogitas.life has been with the good. 9. I fear hidden enemies. 10. Peace Corn. Nepos. being arranged, I shall return home. 11. Happiness is difficult to be

24. To have in mind, consider :found. 12. The husbaudmen have surrounded the meadow with

Nescio quid mens mea majus agit.--Ovid. hedges. 13. The plain is full of brambles and briars. 14. The spies are

25. To acknowledge a favour (with gratias) :approaching. 15. Cæsar has learnt from the spies that the enemy are

Renunciate gratias regi me agere.--Livy. approaching. 16. The rising sun opens the day. 17. They have felt

26. To spend time, pass one's life, etc. :the goodness of God. 18. Didst thou make thy cloak with thine own hand? 19. I made with my own hand the cloak with which I am

Pater cum esset infirmâ valetudine, hic fere ætatem egit in literis. clothed.

Cicero.
CONSTRUCTION AND USAGES OF

So, agere custodias, to watch ; agere triumphum, to triumph ;
AGO.

res agere, to attend to business ; agere pænitentiam, to repent, Ago is a verb used in a great variety of applications. So

etc. various are these applications that they may serve to throw

Quartum annum ago et octogesimum.-Cicero. light on the nature of language. Ago must be well understood 27. To make war (with bellum):by those who wish to be familiar with Latin.

Qui longe aliâ ratione ac reliqui Galli bellum agere instituerunt. Ago, agěre, egi, actum, of the third conjugation, has for its -Cæsar. radical or root-meaning the idea of setting in motion. Hence it So, agere pacem, to be at peace. is commonly given as denoting to lead, drive, act. But this is 28. To treat of (with de) :a very rough way of treating the subject. I will give the signi. Recordare velim quæ ego de te in senatu egerim.-Cicero. fications of the verb in the order in which they seem to have 29. To plead before, treat with, deal with (with cum): arisen.

Cum populo agere est rogare quid populus suffragiis suis aut jubeat

aut vetet.-Gellius. 1. To lead, as a shepherd :Agit, ut pastor, per devia rura capellas.-Ovid.

30. To accuse of anything (with accusative of the pereon, and 2. To lead, as a poem leads the mind :

genitive of the thing) :Poemata dulcia sunto et quocunque volent animum auditoris

Furti egit eos. - Cicero. agunto.-Horace.

In the passive, it is used of the thing which is the matter at

issue—" the question is,” “the point at issue is.” 3. To drive, as men are driven out of a country :Multis millibus armatorum actis ex ea regione in quam missus

Agitur populi Romani gloria, agitur salus sociorum.-Cicero. erat. -Lidy.

31. To deliver, used of orators :

Quæ sic ab illo acta esse constabat, oculis, rore, gestu, inimici ut 4. With the reflective pronoun to betake yourself, in poetic lachrymæ tenere non possent.-Cicero. diction

32. To conduct yourself, to act (with se, as, se agere) Quo agis te ?-Plautus.

Quanto ferocius ante se egerint, tanto cupidius insolitas volup5. To march (in the passive voice) :

tates hausisse.-Tacitus. Si citius agi vellet agmen.-Livy

Agere gratias differs from referre gratias ; the former signifies 6. To plunder, lay waste (with prædas) :

to feel gratitude, and the latter to manifest it. Observe that Quả pergebat urbes, agros vestare, prædas agere.-Sallust.

the plural gratias, not the singular gratiam, is used. 7. To hunt :

One or two conversational and idiomatic usages may be Ut cervum ardentes agerent canes.-Virgil.

added :-
8. To move lifeless objects to and fro:
Celeriter vineis ad oppidum actis.--Cæsar.

Quid agis, dulcissime rerum ?- Hoc agite !--Plautus.
Horace.

Attend ! 9. To steer (with navis) :

How are you, my street fellow ? Age, da veniam filiæ.--Terence. Navim agere ignarus navis timet.- Horace.

Quid agitur ?--Plautus,

Come, pardon thy daughter ! 10. To drive a chariot (with currum) :

Hove is it with you?

Age, sit ita factum !--Cicero. Non agat hos currus ?-Ovid.

Well, be it so! 11. To levy a tax or tribute (with vectigal) :

The instances given show that ágo, like our own do, has the Publicum vectigal in Asiâ egit.-Suetonius. 12. To send forth :

widest signification, and may be applied to almost any state or Et spumas aget ore cruentas.-Virgil.

action, whether internal or external, whether of the mind or of 13. To die (with animam) :

the body. Herein it differs from facere, as our make differs Nam et agere animam et efflare dicimus.-Cicero.

from do; for facere is used in the particular sense of giving 14. To strike root (with radices) :

existence, form, or shape to some outward object. After the Robori suas radices in profundum agunt.--Pliny.

same manner it differs from gerere, which is applied to the con15. To spring a leak, split, open (with rimas) :

ducting of anything, as the administration of a government. Tabernæ rimas agunt. The meanings already given imply a literal moving of the

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN LATIN.-XLI, objects spoken of. Another series of meanings arises from the

EXERCISE 155.-LATIN-ENGLISH. tropical or metaphorical use of the term; that is, where not the

1. It is known that the colonies of tho Tyrians were spread through. movement of sensible objects is denoted, but actions, etc.,

out almost the entire circle of the lands. 2. Let us think that in resembling those either in reality or in appearance.

death a haven and refuge have been prepared for us. 3. Whither I 16. To move, drive, or induce any one :

wish it were allowed me to be borne in full sail. 4. Hannibal was reAgricola in gloriam præceps agebatur.-Tacitus.

called from Italy to defend his native country. 5. Precepts profit 17. To pursue, persecute :

nothing, as long as error is diffused over the mind. 6. We are all Acerba fata Romanos agunt.-Horace.

inflamed with a desire of living happily. 7. A great number of coins 18. To plead (with causam):

have been coined this year. 8, Grief lacerated, wasted, and entirely Hanc egit causam apud judices.--Cicero.

wore down my mind, 9. The letters of the epigram inscribed on the 19. To take an augury (with augurium):

monument had been worn away by age. 10. The soldiers vigorously Augares agere augurium dicuntur. - Varro.

defended the city attacked by the enemies. 11, Formerly a vast

a

quantity of gold and silver was dug up in Spain. 12. The soldiers, the assistance of a well-filled purse, how frequently the effect of seized with fury, stabbed their general. 13. The horse suddenly fell, & room is destroyed by gaudily-framed engravings and oil. and threw the consul off upon his head.

paintings that do not harmonise with the paper-hangings. There EXERCISE 156,-ENGLISH-LATIN.

are very few, if any, optical contrivances which could be used for 1. Convertesne facultatem tuam dicendi ad patriæ perniciem ?

2. wall-decorations, and therefore the convex mirror becomes a Facultatem meam dicendi convertam ad omnium bonum. 3. Facul- special favourite, and is found hanging in many tastefully-decotatem suam dicendi ad patriæ salutem conservationemque convertit. rated apartments. A room with a bow-window looking into a 4. Proditor deprehensus in conspectu civium necabitur. 5. Cave ne fower-garden, used perhaps as a library, and having only a equus corruat, teque lapsum super caput effundat. 6. Militesne ducem plain paper on the walls, becomes enchanting when seen reflected confodient? 7. Hic liber vetustate exesus est. 8. Regina ingentem in miniature within the frame of a circular conver mirror, nummorum numerum procudet. 9. Nuntius animum meum laceravit. which should have a plain oak frame with a few gilt stars upon 10. Animus meus conspectu mortis mariti laceratus est. 11. Senes juvenesque vivendi cupiditate incendentur. 12. Non potes verum

it. Convex mirrors are spoilt by being mounted in shining gilt videre, quamdiu error tuæ menti offusus est. 13. In Italiam provectus frames; the reflection of the light from the glass is quite brilest. 14. Ad illas provehentur oras. 15. Dux urbem fortiter defendit. liant enough, and will make a room look light and cheerful that 16. Urbs a civibus bene defendetur. 17. Britanniæ coloniæ toto orbe might otherwise be condemned as a dull one. People often terrarnm diffunduntur.

wonder why objects should be reduced when seen in a convex EXERCISE 157.-LATIN-ENGLISH.

mirror; something has been done to explain this by Fig. 7 (page 1. It is necessary that you should both learn and confirm that 249), and the next will demonstrate the manner in which the which you have learnt by action. 2. Things ill-acquired depart ill. face of a person looking into a convex mirror is diminished. 3. As the swallows are present in the summer time, but retire driven One ray may be taken from the forehead (Fig. 8), and another off by the cold, so false friends are present in the prosperous period of from the chin-of course the rays reflected from the forehead life; but as soon as they see the winter of fortune, they all quickly and chin cover the whole of the mirror-but only a few can be depart. 4. It is uncertain what is about to happen. 5. What has reflected to the eye; thus the ray that falls at c enters the eye fallen to the lot of each, that let each retain. 6. Alexander grieved at o, which, transferring every image along that line in which that his old and guiltless friend Clitus had been killed by him. 7. To it is reflected, sees the forehead in the line ocn; the have faithfully learnt the liberal arts softens the manners (of men), and does not allow them to be barbarous. 8. Benefit attained through a

same with the ray a r reflected to o, the line of vision will be friend does not gratify so niuch as the love itself of a friend. 9.

ors, and as the angle of vision is diminished, the face is Hannibal was not deceived (in thinking) that the enemy would carry reduced in size. The student may copy this diagram, and, by on the affair more fiercely than advisedly. 10. From the time when drawing other lines, try if any other rays can enter the eye money began to be in honour, the true honour of actions declined. 11. The ancient wood fell which no one cut down with iron. 12. Epaminondas is said to have played excellently on the lyre. 13. Cato narrates that the ancient Romans, at their feasts, sang the praises and virtues of illustrious men to the sound of the late. 14. The signal is given to the companies, and the horns and trumpets have sounded.

EXERCISE 158.-ENGLISH-LATIN. 1. Gallina ovum pepěrit. 2. Galline ova parient. 3. Quot ova gallinæ tuæ in dies pariunt? 4. Mater tua filium peperit. 5. Dux publicis ædificiis non parcet. 6. Miles, furore captus, ducem suum occidit. 7. Putasne hostes ætate confectis parsuros esse ? 8. Ignoro hostesne mulieribus infantibusque parsuri sint. 9. Induciæ viginti dierum pacta cum hoste sunt. 10. Voces concinuerunt. 11. Signo dato, frater tuus cecinit ad fides clarorum virorum laudes. 12. Viginti

Fig. 11. millia militum nostrorum cæsa sunt.

EXERCISE 159.—LATIN-ENGLISH. 1. Take for granted that every day has shone upon you as the last. 2. The judges were so inflamed by the reply of Socrates that they con- except those reflected from the part of the convek mirror demned to death a most innocent man. 3. Reason, when it is grown included within cr. up and perfected, is rightly named wisdom. 4. The question is, if a

The optical properties of a concave mirror are exactly the wise man has unknowingly received base for good coin, whether, when he has discovered it , he will pass it for good. 5. It is incredible to of objects. A small portion

only of the surface of a convex mirror

reverse of a convex one. The concave enlarges the appearance relate how easily the Romans and the aborigines have incorporated. 6. When money is coveted, and reason is not immediately applied to reflects at any one time to the eye the image presented before correct that desire, that evil enters the veins and clings to the vitals. it, whilst a much larger surface of a concave mirror comes into 7. Endymion fell asleep, I know not when, on Latmus, a mountain in This is well shown by the accompanying illustration (Fig. Caria, and has not yet awaked. 8. An orator should abstain from 9), reproduced from Walker's diagrams, published upwards of words which, on account of their age, have become obsolete. 9. Have sixty years ago. you at length recovered from the disease under which you laboured so Rays issue from every part of the face upon all parts of the long ? 10. My wound, which seemed to have already healed up, has mirror, but it is only a c that can paint the forehead; that ray now broken out afresh.

is reflected to the eye from c, and as everything is seen along EXERCISE 160.-ENGLISH-LATIN.

that line in which the ray comes last to the eye, the mind pats 1. Dies tibi illuxit supremus. 2. Dies fratri meo illuxitne supremus ? the lines a c and oc together, and they make the line ocd the 3. Stultis meis verbis pater exarsit. 4. Judices exardescere non real distance which has been travelled by the ray from the debent. 5. Inter Romanos Carthaginesque terribile bellum exarsit. forehead, and where the forehead will be seen ; certainly rays 6. Nostris hostibus omnia exoleverunt. 7. Illos adulterinos nummos issue from the forehead and all parts of the mirror, but then rays pro bonis accepisti? 8. Imprudens accepi

. 9. Nunc id rescivi, nec that fall on the mirror at æ would be reflected to the chin eos pro bonis solvam. 10. Romani et aborigines

brevi coaluerunt

. uselessly, since, as the same author shrewdly observes, we cannot 11. Endymion in monte obdormiscet. 12. In pulvino obdormivi. 13. Multa verba obsoleverunt, obsolescent multa verba. 14. Ardor meus

see with the chin. In short, it is only that particular place, non defervescet. 15. Vulnus recruduit. 16. Vulnera mea non con

which (by the law of the angle of incidence and reflection) con sanuerunt. 17. Nescio an mei vulnera patris consanuerint.

be reflected to the eye.
The ray from the chin that falls upon the mirror at n, will

, by the same law, be reflected to the eye, and along the line RECREATIVE SCIENCE.-V.

o'ng the chin is visible. The whole visage being seen under THE REFLECTION OF LIGHT, AND DECEPTIONS WITH

the angle do 9, must be greatly magnified.

The opposite properties of convex and concave mirrors are PLANE AND CONCAVE MIRRORS.-II.

shown at once in Fig. 10, where the face of a man, A, looking into The decoration of the walls of dwelling-rooms is a matter of the convex surface of a ) is reduced to that of a boy, and the face the greatest importance to those who have tasteful and elegant B, gazing into the concave surface, is enlarged to that of a giant ideas, and like to see themselves surrounded with objects of Parallel rays converge to a focus when projected on to a beauty; and it is well known that with the best intentions,

and concave mirror. If the

hand is held before 1 concave mirror,

use.

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