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flask half full of water, will exhibit a display of miniature bombs
and rockets in the space above the water when the latter is THE SOURCES OF LIGHT.
boiled. A lambent flame makes its appearance at the mouth of APROPOS of shining lights, intellectual as well as material, and the flask, consisting of finely divided and sublimed phosphorus, by way of inaugurating the series of papers on “Recreative mixed with steam, which slowly unites with the oxygen of the Science,” useless to the reader unless accompanied with ample air, as the vapour is condensed into water. descriptions of the mode of conducting scientific experiments, Phosphorus quickly dissolves in bisulphide of carbon ; and if speak we first of the late prince of manipulators, the much- the solution is dropped upon a sheet of blotting paper, the beloved and regretted Faraday, to whom a "memorial” is now solvent-viz., the bisulphide of carbon-evaporates, and the finely in course of promotion in the shape of a monument in St. Paul's divided phosphorus left in the pores of the paper unites rapidly Cathedral. It may be said, without exaggeration, that if with the oxygen of the air, and, being in large quantity, first London had not contained a single philosophical instrument shines with a green light, and then burns most brilliantly, and maker, this ingenious, original, and skilful philosopher would contrasts in a very marked degree with the feeble light obtained have made himself understood by experiments and manipular when phosphorus is boiled in water and allowed to escape with tions, all conducted with what might be called the barest neces- the steam from the mouth of a flask. saries. Tyndall states, in his lecture "On Faraday as a Disco Of course the proper apparatus, a ring-stand for holding a verer," that years ago, when Faraday assisted Mr. Brande in flask with its contents, and a convenient heat-giving flame, such his lectures, he did this so quietly, skilfully, and modestly, that as that from a spirit-lamp, or a mixed air and coal-gas burner, his master's vocation was pronounced to be “leoturing on velvet." are most desirable; but as these experiments are often ventured Had Faraday been a clumsy, slovenly, and careless manipulator, on at a moment's notice in some far away country house, it is his position in life might have been quite different from that quite as well to be able to imitate Faraday, and make apparatus which he justly held; but Faraday was industrious and pains- out of nothing, as it is termed—the nothing being such glass, taking to the last degree, and has left a bright example for all or other vessels, pots and pans, which the house may afford. would-be philosophers to imitate.
For the time-honoured ring-stand, a common red garden Beginning with the artificial means of procuring light, there flower-pot, with a triangular wire resting on the top to carry is no substance that can surpass phosphorus in this respect; as the flask, and containing a spirit-lamp improvised from part of an its name implies, it is a " light-bearer” ($ws, light, and depely, to ink bottle filled with methylated spirit, and fitted with a per. bear), and, at a cost of a few pence, may afford hours of amuse- forated cork through which some shreds of cotton are passed, ment and instruction to those who will experiment carefully will answer the purpose required ; and to prevent the cork with it. Phosphorus is always kept under water, and thus burning, a bit of thin sheet-lead may be perforated and laid viewed in its containing phial, gives no sign of light when exa upon it. The flower-pot proteots the flame, and prevents
its mined in a darkened room.
being blown about, and thereby economises heat, i.e., spirit. Tho A stick of phosphorus may be cut up into small pieces under changes thus described denote that chemical action is one of water in a saucer, and still no light is apparent. With the the most important means of obtaining artificial light; at the sharp point of a knife or a pointed wire a little bit is taken out same time it will be understood that the light-giving power is of the water and gently squeezed in the folds of a cotton duster, not confined to experiments with phosphorus. A block of to remove the moisture which adheres to it. The phosphorus Wenham Lake ice becomes a beautiful source of light if a globule now gradually combines with the oxygen of the air. A sponta- of potassium is placed upon it; and at an American popular neous though slow combustion is set up, and it emits a faint, lecture we hear of pounds of the metal potassium thrown upon pale-green coloured light; a white smoke, called phosphorous hundred-weights of ice, producing a blaze of light worthy acid, is at the same time produced, and this, by exposure to of the palmy days of Vauxhall
. Ice, as everybody is supposed air containing moisture, changes to phosphoric acid. To show to know, is only a solidified compound of oxygen and hydrogen ; that acid is produced whilst the phosphorus is shining, place the former unites with the metal, and generating an enormous a small portion in a short length of glass tube, narrowed at one amount of heat, becomes red hot, and sets fire to the hydrogen, end to prevent the bit of phosphorus tumbling out, after it is which escapes around the potassium. A piece of wetted blotreduced in size by oxidation. Put the tube in a little glass ting-paper laid in a common dinner-plate will always set fire to funnel, supported in a wine-glass to receive the dense acid sodium, and this metal burns with its peculiar monochromatic liquor which will gradually form and drop into it. The first or yellow light: the experiment fails if the sodium is thrown acid generated is termed phosphorous acid, and as this attracts on water. Young people should take care of their eyes in all moistare from the air, and is what is called deliquescent, it experiments with potassium and sodium, by standing at a gradually takes up more oxygen, and is converted into phos- respectful distance from the burning metals, which usnally burst phoric acid.
at the last moment when the red-hot globule of fused alkali The fluid obtained by the above process diluted with a little (potash or soda) comes in contact with the cold ice or water. water is found to be strongly acid to the taste; it will redden a The red-hot globale of alkali is repelled and supported on a piece of paper coloured blue with tincture of litmus; and if cushion of vapour, and when the temperature falls it touches a few grains of carbonate of soda are dropped carefully into the the water, steam is generated with explosive violence, the glass, they effervesce, in consequence of the escape of carbonic globule bursts, and is blown about in all directions. acid produced by the combination of the acid with the alkaline The combustion of tallow, oil, wax, and gas affords a practical base. These experiments, conducted on the smallest scale, illustration of the production of light by chemical action. It indicate to the operator the cause of the production of the light does not, however, always follow that the body giving out light from the phosphorus; and the principle being once understood, burns; it has, therefore, been necessary to give a different term it is easy to modify the manner of oxidation.
to this effect, viz., ignition; and the ignition of solids becomes To show the oxidation of phosphorus under water, and the a source of light that will next be considered. The difference evolution of light under these apparently contradictory and between combustion and ignition is easily demonstrated, by exceptional circumstances, a few grains of chlorate of potash placing a pill-box containing a little gun-cotton in a deep glass and some little bits of phosphorus are placed with water in a filled with carbonic acid. On attempting to explode the gundeeper vessel, snch
as an ale or, better still, a champagne glass. cotton with a lighted taper, the latter is of course extinguished, When oil of vitriol is poured slowly down one side of the glass, because it will not burn in carbonic acid; but if a wiro is mado or conveyed to the materials by a glass or pewter tube with a red-hot, and passed through the gas until it touches the gun. funnel-like opening at the top, beautiful flashes of green light cotton, a flash of light is seen as the cotton is exploded, the are observed, and the energy of the change is shown by a peculiar ignition of the solid iron being wholly unaffected by circum. crackling sound produced by the explosion under water of the stances that prevent combustion. Carbonic acid gas is easily little bubbles of peroxide of chlorine, which are resolved into procured by placing a few lumps of chalk,
whitening, or marble oxygen and chlorine, and cause the submerged phosphorus to in a small jug, and pouring vinegar, or dilute sulphuric, hydroburn when it comes in contact with them. Tiny particles of chloric, or nitric acid slowly upon it. Whilst the operation is phosphorus are sometimes enclosed in the bubbles
of the mixed proceeding a piece of paper should be laid upon the top of the gases, and they burn as they ascend.
jag to prevent any motion in the carbonic acid thus generated; A few pieces of skosphorus thrown into a clean Florence oil- and by applying
a lighted taper occasionally it may soon be dis.
fused to look through the instrument which made such un- this attraction he called gravitation. The question then aroso, heard-of revelations. The followers of Copernicus, on the whether this action was confined to the surface of the earth, or other hand, welcomed the discovery as presenting a miniature whether distant bodies were attracted in a similar way. The model of the solar system, and thus upholding their theory. intensity of this force was also believed to diminish with the
The telescope soon made other discoveries. By its aid square of the distance; but the difficulty arose, how was this to Galileo found that Venus presented the same phases as the be tested. Even if a body could have been raised several miles moon, appearing at times as a narrow crescent, and then from the earth's surface, this amount would have been so eligu. gradually becoming more and more illuminated, till at last it when compared with the radius of the earth, that no appreciatia shone with an almost circular disc. It could not, however, be difference would have been manifested. seen with a complete disc, as at such a time the earth must be No way, therefore, appeared practicable of putting this the in the part of its orbit exactly opposite to Venus, which would to the test, till at last the thought occurred to him, why not "... therefore appear in conjunction with the sun and be lost in its the moon as the falling body, and ascertain the distance thr" brightness.
which it falls in any given space of time-say, for instance This discovery was a very important one, as it afforded a one minute. This idea at first sight appears absurd, but ! strong confirmation of the truth of the Copernican system. In annexed figure will enable us fact, an objection had been raised to this system on the ground to understand it. that these phases were not seen, as they ought to be if the We know that the moon retheory were true. The telescope, however, soon settled this volves around the earth in an difficulty and silenced these objections.
orbit almost circular, as MBN. Another discovery was made when the planet Saturn was Now, suppose the moon to be examined. Instead of appearing with a circular disc, like the atm, its tendency at that moother heavenly bodies, it was found to be elongated, as if ears ment is to move along in the were affixed to each side of it. Owing to imperfections in the direction of the tangent ac, construction of his telescope, Galileo failed to discover that and in this direction it would this appearance was caused by a large ring which completely certainly move did not some
Fig. 3. encircled it, and imagined that the planet was in reality composed other force bend it out of its of three smaller ones. Both these discoveries were, according course. This force Newton supposed to be the attre to the practice of scientific men in those days, made known in earth, and determined to calculate whether or not th: anagrams only intelligible to those who possessed the key. deviated from a straight line was that which wonl] ::
We see even thus early what an important instrument the tele- earth's attraction. We can easily see that when * scope proved, and we shall shortly find that almost all discoveries moved into the position B, the distance which it b. since this time have been made by its use, and that now nearly its true path is equal to A B. He accordingly caloul. all our astronomical instruments consist, wholly or in part, of a this distance would become after the lapse of Os telescope. We see thus to what important results the accident is, how far the moon would fall towards the earl of a child playing with two spectacle-glasses has led.
he next computed the space through whici. The whole career of Galileo was a splendid one; it was, how to the distance of the moon ought to fall 1:. ever, somewhat marred near its close. The prominent position under the action of the earth's gravitation, ... he had taken as an upholder and defender of the new doctrines results together. had attracted the attention of the papal authorities, who re- Though this calonlation seems to be sir.. garded his views as heretical, and demanded of him a public reality the work of many years; and recantation of his belief in the motion of the earth. This he completed, he found a considerable Pr.. reluctantly gave, though he is related to have said immediately amounts, but not a sufficiently close afterwards, “It moves for all that.” It seems probable, how- his work was therefore, for a time, si ever, that he considered this act as one which he was called however, he heard that a more a. upon to perform by the Church, and that therefore it was his earth's diameter had been effecten. duty to obey ; still, it was, in several ways, a sad scene. Not his caleulations, substituting th very long after this, in 1642, he died. In the same year there length the bewildering task was born Newton, a man even more celebrated than Galileo or found to agree most accurately. Kepler.
In order to fully satisfy his: From this time onward we come across the names of so many the same calculations were go great astronomers that we can but refer to a few of the more planets, and with the same distinguished. Huyghens discovered that the appendage to this general law :Saturn was in reality a ring surrounding it, and further, he Every particle of matti found one of the satellites of that planet. Napier had some particle with a force propa forty years before this invented logarithms, and thus reduced and decreasing inverse'; the work of weeks to days or even hours; and a little later, re- The motion of the flecting telescopes were introduced by Gregory.
of two-the one, th" The name of Newton, however, stands foremost amidst all by the Creator, an.! these names as the discoverer of the ope at lay on which all force; the other, those of Kepler depend. Kepler se
3d that rotate. some such general law did exist,
it; he Having atte::. seems likewise to have been awal
tides task, and that: were in some way influenced by
other curve in whic: heavenly bodies were in some wa
lence This was a one another ; but he could not
bond matical sh. of union was, and therefore wit?
the work Newton, however, applied hi
ulty, ellipse. It is said that his attention wa
st by which observing an apple fall one day
amer that house in his garden. There wa:
reun. The stance in itself, for it was an
7 day; p. it set him thinking, however
ay the apple should fall downward upwards or to one side. T have appeared utterly vain appeared an important step such in reality it became. all bodies were attracted 1
4. Επήρεια, trantom spite; έχει, it is full of.
15. Ενοι σαβοϊ-ύης άττης, Mystic cries in the ceremonial of initiation, 5. "E», for éveomt. It is not in the power of the state to exact a sufficient 16. Επoρχούμενος, beginning a dance to the cry of “Attes Hyes!" penalty, nor anything like one. Siknu Aaßeīv, to exact a penalty, to punish. 17. Γραδιων, a dirminative of γραύς, implying contenapt, είie miteralla Jien douvas, to be punished.
old crones, 6. Tup. Supply it is simply spiteful,-for.
18. 'Eq' ols, etc., for which things who would not congratulate himself and 7. Το προσελθεϊν-λογου τυχεϊν are treated as substantives in the ac- | his good fortune ! cusative case after aparpeiolat. In other words, they are the objects to
The following eloquent appeal is one of many that occur Αφαιρείσθαι, λόγου τυχείν, to obtain a hearing. 8. Oud'évéanpeias táter, still less is it right to do so on the ground of spite.
in the speech :"Ex rater is a military term. So év éxOpoũ ráker, in a hostile manner.
DEMOSTHENES.—" DE CORONA," 180. 9. 'Etparadet kai drepjes, which he (Æschines) detailed in such a bombastic style. The first of the many allusions in this speech to schines former | και πάσας, όσοι την χώραν έχουσι την Αττικής, και τον Απόλλω
Καλώ δ' εναντίον υμών, ώ άνδρες Αθηναίαι, τους θεούς άπαντας profession as an actor. The phrase is equivalent to τραγωδών διεξήει, 10. Παρ' αυτά ταδικήματα. At the actual time clien the offences were com
τον Πύθιον, ός πατριός έστι τη πόλει, και επεύχομαι πάσι είtted. The present trial did not come of until seven years after the τούτοις, ει μεν αληθή προς υμάς είπoιμι, κι είπον τότευθύς εν decree had been passed by Ktesiphon.
τω δήμω, ότε πρώτον είδον τουτον και τον μικρόν τούτου του πράγ11. Χρήσθαι. Supply έδει from δεί in the previous sentence, he ought to ματος απτόμενον (έγνων γάρ, ευθέως έγνων), ευτυχίαν μοι δούναι have used.
και σωτηρίαν· ει δε προς έχθραν και η φιλονεικίας ιδίας ένεκ' αιτιάν 12. Εισαγγελίας. Two forms of procedure are mentioned in this sen- | επάγω τούτω ψευδή, πάντων των αγαθών ανόνητον με ποιήσαι. tence, of which Æschines might have availed himself to punish Demos
NOTES. . thenes: (1) εισαγγελία, a proceeding against offences not specifically provided for in the statutes, an impeachment; (2) γράφη παρανόμων, αη
1. Ocous is used as of two genders--all the gods and goddesses. indictment for proposing illegal or unconstitutional measures. T'paperv Tiva
2. Πυθιον, of Pytho, the old name of Delphi, where Apollo's most Tapavóuw is to institute such a proceeding. For a full account of the famous temple stood. forms of procedure in both cases the reader is referred to Smith's
3. Πατρωος. Αpollo was regarded as one of the tutelary deities of " Dictionary of Antiquities.” If he sau me proposing any illegal measures, Athens. A more especial relationship was found in the legend that he should have indicted me accordingly.
he was the father of Ion, the reputed founder of the Ionic race.
4. Kai citov, and I did speak out at once in the public assembly on that The next extract is a brilliant piece of invective, in which
occasion. Demosthenes draws a comparison between his rival's ante
5. Tovtovi. The « emphasises the word, and was probably accomcedents and his own :-
panied with a significant gesture towards Æschines. DEMOSTHENES.--"DE CORONA," 258_261.
6. Προς έχθραν, with a view to, by τεα, ο, hatred. Συ δ' δ σεμνυνόμενος ανήρ και διαπτύων τους άλλους σκόπει προς
7. 'Avóvntov, deriving no benefit from, unblest by. Generally the word ταύτην ποία τινι κέχρησαι τύχη, δι' ήν παίς μεν ών μετά πολλής is used in an active sense; as in Sophocles, ανόνητα σωματα (“ Ajax," ενδείας
ράφης, άμα τω πατρί προς τη διδασκαλείων, προσεδρεύων, 758) means useless bodies. το μέλαν τρίβων, και τα βάθρα σπογγίζων και το παιδαγωγείον For a specimen of Demosthenes' powers in a somewhat. κορών, οίκέτου τάξιν, ουκ ελευθέρου παιδός έχων, ανήρ δε γενό- | different style, we will take a short extract from the Olynthiae μενος τη μητρι τελούσης τάς βίβλους ανεγίγνωσκες και τάλλα orations, the object of which was to stir up the Athenians to συνεσκευωρού, την μεν νύκτα νεβρίζων και κρατηρίζων και take decided measures against Philip, who had began to enκαθαίρων τους τελουμένους και απομάττων10 το πηλό και τους πιτύ- | croach upon a small group of Athenian cities in the immediate ρους και ανιστάς από του καθαρμού κελεύων λέγειν, “έφυγον κάκον, neighbourhood of Macedonia, of which the town of Olynthus εύρον άμεινον,” επι τω μηδένα πώποτε τηλικούτ' ολολύξαι σεμνυνό- I was the chief. In the following passage Demosthenes insists μενος!! (και έγωγε2 νομίζω: μη γαρ οίεσθ' αυτόν φθέγγεσθαι μεν | on the necessity of sending aid to the Olynthians :ούτω μέγα, όλολύζειν δ' ουχ υπέρλαμπρον), εν δε ταϊς ημέραις τους καλούς θιάσους άγων διά των οδών τους έστεφανωμένους το μαράθω13
DEMOSTHENES.—" OLYNTHIACS," III. 4. και τη λευκή, τους όφεις!4 τους παρείας θλίβων, και υπέρ της Τί ούν υπόλοιπον ώ άνδρες Αθηναίοι, πλήν βοηθείν ερρωμένως κεφαλής αιωρών, και βοών ενοι σαβού'5 και επαρχούμενος16 ύης άττης και προθύμως και εγώ μεν ουχ ορώ. Χωρίς γάρ της περιστάσης άνο άττης ύης, έξαρχος και προηγεμών και κιττοφόρος και λικνοφόρος ημάς αισχύνης, εί καθυφείμεθά τι των πραγμάτων ουδέ τον φόβον και τοιαύτα υπό των γραδίων17 προσαγορευόμενος, μισθον λαμβανων & άνδρες Αθηναίοι μικρών δρώ τον των μετά ταύτα, εχόντων μεν τούτων ένθρυπτα και στρεπτούς και νεήλατα, εφ' οίς18 τις ουκ άν ως | ως έχουσι Θηβαίων ημίν, άπειρηκότων δε χρήμασι Φωκέων, μηδενός αληθώς αυτόν ευδαιμονίσεις και την αυτού τύχην;
δ' εμποδών όντος Φιλίππω τα παρόντα καταστρεψάμενω, προς ταύτα NOTES.
επικλίναι τα πράγματα. Αλλά μην εί τις υμών εις τούτο ανα1. “Αμα τω πατρι. Atromitus, the father of Eschines, was a teacher | βάλλεται ποιήσειν τα δέοντα, ιδείν εγγύθεν βούλεται τα δεινά, in a small school; his mother, Glaukothea, made a living by presiding | εξόν ακούειν άλλοθι γιγνόμενα, και βοηθούς εαυτώ ζητεϊν, έξον νυν over certain religious rites chiefy attended by the poor; and Eschines | ετέροις αυτόν βοηθείν. served under both in a menial capacity.
. 2. Tpofwv, pounding and so preparing the ink.
1. Ουχ ορώ, sc. το υπόλοιπον, υλat remains for us ? 3. Balpa, the benches on which the scholars sat.
2. Tūs nepiotrons av, etc., the disgrace that would accrue to us. 4. Tán éxwv, holding the position of a menial, not that of a freedman's son.
3. Tøv poßov, and the danger which I foresee will ensue is no slight one. 5. Telovoy, as she performed the initiatory ceremonies. The allusions
4. 'Exóvtwv és éxovai, while the Thebans occupy their present attitude, a in this whole passage are to the Phrygian rites as praetised at Athens.
euphemism to express their hostility. *Exer is in this phrase really 6. Βίβλους, the sacred books containing the mystic formule.
equivalent to eivas. 7. Συνεσκευωρου, bore a part in all the rest of her κηαυίει mpostures (
5. Πρός ταύτα-τα πράγματα, Sc, to the affairs of Athens. from συσκευωρέομαι).
6. 'Egov, while it is in his power, nom. absolute. This construction is & Την μεν νύκτα. Αccusative of duration of time; opposed to έν δε
very frequently found in the case of several neut. sing. participles, ταις ημέραις below. 9. Ne Bpiów, clothing those undergoing initiation in fawn skins (véßpes). especially of compounded forms of cime. So also deov. Κρατηριζων, pouring them out drink from the goblet (κράτηρ). Both parts of the ceremony.
TRANSLATION OF EXTRACT 3 IN READINGS IN 10. 'AtouctTwv, etc., cleansing them with loam and bran.
GREEK.-II. 11. Σεμνυνόμενος-επί τω, priding yourself on the fact that no one ever
EURIPIDES.-« MEDEA,” 820-841. shouted out so loudly. 'OoAvědi, generally used of a ery of grief, is here
The sons of Eroctheus of old time have been prosperous, and the to be taken in its more original meaning of a jubilant religious ery. children of the blessed gods, feeding on the glorious wisdom of a land
12. Kai žywye. Here Demosthenes turns from Æschines to the audi- sacred, untrodden by the spoiler's foot; moving ever with dainty tread ence. "He must have had a splendid voice, judging from the exhibi- through the bright pure air, where erst, so goes the tale, golden-haired tion we have had to-day."
Harmonia gave birth to the nine Pierian Muses. And 'tis said that 13. Μαράθω, fennel; λευκη, ohite poplar.
the Cyprian goddess, when she had drunk a draught from the bright, 14. Tous õpets, etc., now pressing the coppered serpents is the translation sparkling Cephissus, sent the sweet gentle breezes breathing over the of one annotator, and rapeiar is said to be the same word as rapías, land; and, ever wreathing her hair with the fragrant garland of the from vápwos, copper-coloured. Aristophanes mentions snakes of this roses bloom, she
sends the loves that attend
the helpers colour as being sacred to Æsculapius.
in every kind of virtue.
LESSONS IN MUSIC.—XXIV.
The bass is on the lowest staff. The other parts are named at
the beginning of each staff. Learners should put a square In the following tune, reprinted from the “Pianoforte and note, to represent the place of Doh, on the middle line of the Full Score Edition" of Mr. Curwen's “ People's Service of staff, except in the bass : there the dou (or key-note) stands Song," our pupils will find an exquisite example of the sub- on the second line from the bottom, for the key is B flat. dominant transition. Notice the beautiful effect of TA in the Observe the dots, which indicate the repetition of music and third line. [Our friends who are studying the old notation the corresponding repetition of words.] It may as well be will notice that the air of the tune is written on the third staff stated, for the guidance of the pupil, that the arrangement is downward in large notes. The small notes are for the piano. I for two voices, and not for four.
In the noxt exercise our readers will find in the new or sol-fa | the old notation. From this may be gathered the advantages notation the exercise which has just been placed before them in the former possesses over the latter.
EXERCISE 41.-OBERLIN. (IN THE NEW NOTATION.) Key B FLAT. M. 58. 81 :d i ti
r : d.ti Id :d m : m Through the day thy love has
: mi SL
EXERCISE 42.-DELABORE. (TO ILLUSTRATE CHROMATIC NOTES.) KEY E. M. 66.
The tane “Meloombe," which was brought under the reader's cellent practice for such of our pupils who desire to read and notice in our last lesson, and “ ' Edgeware" in this, will illus- write the old notation, as well as the new notation, with trate to our pupils the effect of transition into the key of the facility, to do this with every exercise that has been and may dominant. We have given them in the new notation only, be brought under their notice-namely, to write out in the in order that our pupils may have an exercise in copying these old notation exercises. given in the new notation only, and tunes as well as others into the old notation. It would be ex. I vice versa.
8.m : r.
loved, | 81.ti
hours, | 81
2. Song from baser thoughts should win us;
Song should charm us out of woe;
LIKE A PATRIOT'S FRIENDLY BLOW.
3. Song should spur the mind to duty,
Nerve the weak, and stir the strong : EVERY DEED OF TRUTH AND BEAUTY
SHOULD BE CROWNED WITH STARRY Soxg!