Intentata nites! Me tabula sacer

Digna geri, promes in scenam; multaque tolles
Votiva paries indicat uvida

Ex oculis, quæ mox narret facundia præsens.
Suspendisse potenti
15 Nec pueros coram populo Medea trucidet,

185 Vestimenta maris Deo.

Aut humana palam coquat exta nefarius Atreus,

Aut in avem Progne vertatur, Cadmus in anguem.

Quodcunque ostendis mihi sic, incredulus odi. 1. In rosa, on a couch streuen with roses. 5. Simplex munditiis, plain in thy neatness. Fidem, the confidence

NOTES. which he reposed in you deceived. Suppiy fælsam.

179. Aut acta refertur, or its occurrence is related. The drama con6. Mutatos Deos, changed fortune.

sists partly of action, partly of narrative; and the action which the 7. Æquora. The poet compares Pyrrha's changing humours to the spectators see with their own eyes naturally impresses them more fickleness of the weather. Like many others, he has been ship- strongly than that of which they merely hear secondhand. Still, wrecked on her smiles, but he has got safely through it. Nigris, black there are subjects which, either from their being repulsive or unnatural, and scowling, probably as bringing up the black storm-clouds.

should be described rather than enacted, as the Greek poets have 8. Emirabitur, a strengthened form of miror, occurring only in done in the case of Medea's murder of her children, or Atreus this passage.

horrible feast, or the unnatural transformations of Progne and Cad. 13. Me tabula, etc. The construction is-Paries sacer indicat votivà mus. tabulâ me suspendisse vestimenta uvida Deo potenti maris, and the 180. Segnius irritant, impress less vividly. allusion is to a custom of the Italian sailors, on escaping from ship- 181. Fidelibus, on the evidence of which he can depend, wreck, to put up a votive tablet in the temple of Neptune, or some 182. Quæ ipsi sibi tradit, and for which he is his own authority. Intus other sea deity, together with the clothes in which they were preserved. digna geri, things which ought to be kept behind the scenes.

16. Maris probably is governed by potens, according to a Greek 184. Mox, in due time. construction, by which verbs of ruling govern a genitive case-for 185. Pueros. In Euripides' play of "Medea,” the cries of the children example, "Sic te Diva potens Cypri" (Odes, I. iii. 1).

are heard on the stage, but the actual murder is not shown. If you The next extract is from the Satires, and is the beginning of choose such subjects as Medea or Atreus, you must treat the horrors an amusing description of the way the poet was pestered in the of the story in the same way as the old Greek poets did. street, by a person who persisted in fastening on to him. The to my reason and my taste.

188. Quodcunque, etc., anything you shoue me in this way is repugnant whole satire is peculiarly bright and vivid, and the description is so true to life, that it is as applicable at the present day as

Translation of SALLUST—"CATILINA,” V. at the time when it was written.

(See page 124.) HORACE.--SAT. I. ix.

Lucius Catilina, the son of a distinguished house, was a man

endowed with great capacities, both of mind and body, but he had Ibam forte Via Sacra, sicut mens est mos,

a wicked and perverse disposition. From his boyhood he had Nescio quid meditans nugarum, et totus in illis :

revelled in the scenes of intestine strife, murder, rapine, and civil Accurrit quidam notus mihi nomine tantum,

broil, which became his pursuits on arriving at manhood. Gifted with Arreptaque manu, “Quid agis, dulcissime rerum ?”

a constitution capable of enduring to an almost incredible degree, “Suaviter, ut nunc est," inquam; "et cupio omnia quæ vis.” 5 fasting, cold, and want of sleep, with a mind courageons, cunning, Qaum assectaretur, “ Numquid vis ?” occupo. At ille,

and shifty, capable of pretence or concealment to any extent; coretons "Noris nos,” inquit. “Docti sumus." Hic ego, “ Pluris

of his neighbour's money, lavish of his own; outrageous in his Hoc," inquam, "mihi eris.” Misere discedere quærens,

desires; with plenty of eloquence but little wisdom to guide it;

in bis boundless ambition, ever straining after some extravagant Ire modo ocius, interdum consistere, in aurem

object beyond the belief or aim of ordinary men ; this man, erer Dicere nescio quid puero; quum sudor ad imos

10 since Lucius Sulla's

dictatorship, had been fired with an irresistible Manaret talos. “O te, Bolane, cerebri

desire to seize the reins of the state, and, provided he could gain Felicem! aiebam tacitus; quum quidlibet ille

the regal power he aimed at, he cared not one jot by what mean it Garriret, vicos, urbem laudaret. Ut illi

was to be attained. Day by day his views became more and more Nil respondebam, "Misere cupis," inquit, “abire ;

outrageous, spurred on by his want of money and the recollection of Jamdudum video; sed nil agis, usque tenebo;

15 his crimes, to both of which results

his former courses had com

tributed. An additional incitement was found in the corrupt state Persequar. Hinc quo nunc iter est tibi ? " " Nil opus est te

of morality in Rome, which was cursed by two abominable evils differCircumagi; quendam volo visere, non tibi notum;

ing widely in their nature-luxury and avarice. Trans Tiberim longe cubat is, prope Cæsaris hortos." “Nil habeo quod agam, et non sum piger-usque sequar te." NOTES.

LESSONS IN ALGEBRA.—XVIII. 1. Via Sacra, one of the principal streets of Rome, leading up to the Capitol through the Forum, from where the arch of Constan- EXERCISE 30.-MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS IN SIMPLE tine now stands. It was called sacred as being the route followed

EQUATIONS. by triumphal processions and religious pageants. 4. Quid agis. The common form of salutation in Rome. Where if 15 be added to their sum, the amount will be 43 ?

1. What two numbers are those whose difference is 10; and we say, “ How do you do?" the Romans said, " What do you do?" Rerum goes with dulcissime, not quid.

2. There are two numbers whose difference is 14; and * 5. Ut nunc est, as times go.

times the less be subtracted from 6 times the greater, there 6. Occupo, I ask him at once.

mainder will be 33. What are the numbers ? 7. Pluris, etc. On this account, I reply, you will be more esteemed by 3. What number is that to which if 20 be added, and from Pluris is the gen, of price.

of this sum 12 be subtracted, the remainder will be 10 ? 10. Puero, the slave whom Horace had in attendance, according to 4. A and B lay out equal sums of money in trade; A gair the fashion of the day.

£120, and B loses £80; and now A's money is triple tha 11. Bolane cerebri felicem, I neish you were here, Bolanus, with your cool of B.' What sum had each at first ? ness, apostrophising some outspoken friend, who would have got rid of the fellow summarily. Cerebri, genitive, signifying with respect to. So

5. What number is that, j of which exceeds its by 72 ? Pliny has “ Miseros ambitionis," and in Greek we find, eidaipuav tūv the less be subtracted from four times the greater, and th

6. There are two numbers whose sum is 37; and if 3 time λόγων. 15. Jamdudum, etc., I've seen it all along, but it's no use.

remainder be divided by 6, the quotient will be 6. What sur 17. Circumagi, there is no need for me to take you out of your way. the numbers ? 18. Cæsaris hortos, the gardens on the Janiculum, which Cæsar, 7. A man has two children, to of the sum of whose ages when dictator, had assigned to the people as a public pleasure-ground. 13 be added, the amount will be 17; and if from half the diffed

The following are some of the canons for the treatment of ence of their ages 1 be subtracted, the remainder will be dramatic subjects which Horace lays down in the "De Arte What is the age of each ? Poetica." HORACE.--DE ARTE POIT., 179.

8. A messenger being sent on business, goes at the rate of

miles an hour ; 8 hours afterwards, another is dispatched wit Aut agitur res in scenis, aut acta refertur:

countermarding orders, and goes at the rate of 10 miles Segnius irritant animos demissa per anrem,

180 hour. How long will it take the latter to overtake the former Quam quæ sunt oculis subjecta fidelibus, et quæ

9. To find two numbers in the proportion of 2 to 3 whose par Ipse sibi tradit spectator. Non tamen intus

duct shall be 54.


10. A man agreed to give a labourer 12s. a day for every day he been dispatched 5 days, when a second was sent after him, worked, but for every day he was idle he should forfeit 8s. travelling 75 miles a day. In what time will the one overtake After 390 days they settled, and their account was even. How the other ? many days did he work ?

35. A's age is double that of B, and B's age triple that of C, 11. Three persons, A, B, and C, draw prizes in a lottery. A and the sum of all their ages 140. What is the age of each ? draws £200, B draws as much as A, together with a third of 36. Two pieces of cloth, at the same price by the yard, but of what C draws; and C draws as much as A and B both. What is different lengths, were bought, the one for £5, and the other for the amount of the three prizes ?

£6}. If 10 yards be added to the length of each, the sums will 12. What number is that which is to 12 increased by three be as 5 to 6. Required the length of each piece. times the number, as 2 to 9 ?

37. A and B began trade with equal sums of money. The 13. A ship and a boat are descending a river at the same first year A gained £40, and B lost £40. The second year A time. The ship passes a certain fort when the boat is 13 miles lost of what he had at the end of the first, and B gained £40 below. The ship descends 5 miles, while the boat descends 3. less than twice the sum which A had lost. B had then twice At what distance below the fort will they be together ?

as much money as A. What sum did each begin with ? 14. What number is that, a sixth part of which exceeds an 38. What number is that, which being severally added to 36 eighth part of it by 20 ?

and 52, will make the former sum to the latter as 3 to 4? 15. Divide a prize of £2,000 into two such parts that one of 39. A gentleman bought a chaise, horse, and harness for £360. them shall be to the other as 9 to 7.

The horse cost twice as much as the harness, and the chaise 16. What sum of money is that whose third part, fourth cost twice as much as the harness and horse together. What part, and fifth part, added together, amount to £94 ?

was the price of each? 17. Two travellers, A and B, 360 miles apart, travel towards 40. Out of a cask of wine, from which had leaked } part, 21 each other till they meet. A's progress is 10 miles an hour, and gallons were afterwards drawn; when the cask was found to be B's 8. How far does each travel before they meet ?

half full. How much did it hold? 18. A man spent one-third of his life in England, one-fourth 41. A man has 6 sons, each of whom is four years older than of it in Scotland, and the remainder of it, which was 20 years, his next younger brother; and the eldest is three times as old in the United States. To what age did he live ?

as the youngest. What is the age of each ? 19. What number is that, į of which is greater than of 42. Divide the number 49 into two such parts, that the it by 96 ?

greater increased by 6, shall be to the less diminished by 11, as 20. A post is į in the earth, in the water, and 13 feet above 9 to 2. the water. What is the length of the post ?

43. What two numbers are as 2 to 3; to each of which, if 4 21. What number is that, to which 10 being added, of the be added, the sums will be as 5 to 7 ? sum will be 66 ?

44. A person bought two casks of porter, one of which held 22. Of the trees in an orchard, are apple-trees, to pear- just three times as much as the other ; from each of these he trees, and the remainder peach-trees, which are 20 more than drew 4 gallons, and then found that there were 4 times as many

of the whole. What is the whole number of trees in the gallons remaining in the larger as in the other. How many orchard ?

gallons were there in each ? 23. A gentleman bought several gallons of wine for £94 ; and after using 7 gallons himself, sold of the remainder for KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN ALGEBRA, £20. How many gallons had he at first?

EXERCISE 26. 24. A and B have the same income. A contracts an annual debt amounting to of it; B lives upon of it; at the end of 2. * = (a + b) * (?- d).

1. x = 94.

5. x= 9-13, or x = 818.

6. x = 72. ten years B lends to A enough to pay off his debts, and has 3. z= 4.

7. = 7. £160 to spare. What is the income of each ?

abgm + adem-adgh

8. x= 10. 25. A gentleman lived single of his whole life ; and after 4. 2=


9. x= 70. having been married 5 years more than of his life, he had a

EXERCISE 27. son, who died 4 years before him, and who reached only half the age of his father. To what age did the father live?

1. = = } ( - )

6. a+b:h-m::C:y.

3. x =(a+d) h 45 26. What number is that, of which if $, j, and be added

4 (h - 1)

7. *= 2. + 2b.

8. = 3, together, the sum will be 73 ?

9. = 12. 27. A person after spending £100 more than 1 of his income, 2. x =

5. y=
a +6

10. X = 2.
had remaining £35 more than of it. Required his income.
28. In the composition of a quantity of gunpowder, the nitre

EXERCISE 28. was 10lbs. more than of the whole, the sulphur 4llbs. less 1. x= 104.

15. x= = 13. than , of the whole, the charcoal 2lbs. less than of the whole. 2. x= 3275.

16. x = 9. What was the amount of gunpowder ?

17. x = 7. 29. A cask which held 146 gallons, was filled with a mixture

18. = 4. of brandy, wine, and water. There were 15 gallons of wine more (abc-d) (-m-).

20. = 7. than of brandy, and as much water as the brandy and wine to

21. = 1. gether. What quantity was there of each ?

22. = 4. 30. Four persons purchased a farm in company for £4,755;

5. æ= mcd +

0 + c + 2 of which В paid three times as much as A; C paid as much as 6. x= 8.

2. = 4. A and B; and D paid as much as C and B. What did each abc (d - h).

7. &=

25. X = 2. pay?

-ac + bc

26. I= 45. 31. It is required to divide the number 99 into five such parts 8. = 12.

4. = d +1.

c (h - m).

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[ocr errors]

3. æ= (be - a) (m + m)

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23. X = 6.


27. a= 23. that the first may exceed the second by 3, be less than the 9. x = 231. third by 10, greater than the fourth by 9, and less than the fifth 10. x = 253.

29. r = 40. by 16.

11. x= }(1-a).

30. = 19.

31. = 51. 32. A father divided a small sum among four sons; the third

12. x=-376. had 9 shillings more than the fourth, the second had 12 shillings

32. = 420.
13. x=
14. x = 6.

33. x= 11.
more than the third, the first had 18 shillings more than the
second, and the whole sum was 6 shillings more than 7 times

EXERCISE 29. the sum which the youngest received. What was the sum

1. 7 and 4.

8. 2007 miles from 13. A's share, L416 divided ?

2. 5, 8, 2, 24.


138.40.; B's, £266 3. 48. 9. 16, 32, and 12.

135, 4d.; and C's, 33. A farmer had two flocks of sheep, each containing the

4. £4,800.

10. £116 138, 40, and £316 138. 4d. same number. Having sold from one of these 39, and from the

5. 450.

£93 6s." 8d. 14, 50. other 93, he finds twice as many remaining in the former as in 6 240 and 200. 11. £1,000.

15, 5,040. the latter. How many did each flock originally contain ? 7. 210 miles from 12. 45 and 15 years. 16, 25 and 19. 34. An express travelling at the rate of 60 miles a day, had London.

17. 13.

28. * = 12.

RECREATIVE NATURAL HISTORY. plant, and common throughout England, and some districts of

Siberia and Africa. It is found growing abundantly in hedgeNIGHTSHADES.

rows, and about old walls and ruins. It is a woody-stemmed AMONGST botanists the nightshade family (Solani) are placed but trailing perennial plant, flowering in June and July. The in the class Pentandria, order Monogynia, natural order Lurida. flowers, which are of a bluish-purple, with a projecting yellow In a purely scientific point of view this arrangement is no spike in the centre, are followed by clusters of berries, which doubt very complete and intelligible to those who are far ripen in September and October. When ripe they present a too well informed to mistake a nightshade for any other plant; most attractive and tempting appearance, being of a rich full red but it is our object to lay before such of our readers as are not tint. A reference to Fig. 1 in the illustration on the opposite page acquainted with the anatomy and structural differences distin. will serve to show the form of the flower, leaf, stem, and fruit. guishing botanical species, enough information, aided by illustra- All parts of the plant are poisonous, and, as would appear by tions, to guard them from the fate which a short time since the lamentable catastrophe we have before referred to the root unfortunately befel Captain Bawden and his party, whilst en must be most virulently so, to destroy the life of a strong, robust gaged in a search for minerals in the Isle of Man. Many of man in a few minutes. The shoots and young leaves of this our readers will remember that, feeling fatigued and thirsty, plant have been occasionally used in medicine, but we are not he and his companions pulled up from the earth a plant, the aware of their possessing any special quality to recommend them root of which bore some fanciful resemblance to that of a wild in a curative point of view. carrot, and ate a portion of it. In less than fifteen minutes Next in order we proceed to describe the plant known as the Captain Bawden paid the forfeit of his want of discretion with Deadly Nightshade "Dwale" (Atropa belladonna), and from which his life. The others, who partook more sparingly of the root, the so-called "nettle-berries" before mentioned were gathered. fortunately procured milk, which they found alleviated their This is also a native of England, and is found growing wild in sufferings, and in time recovered. Some time since we remem. the hedges and woods of many districts. This plant, or rather ber being witness to extraordinary popular excitement and bush, is also a perennial, and not unfrequently reaches from consternation, caused by a number of people being taken five to six feet in height. The leaves are ovate and entire, and suddenly and dangerously ill, through eating tarts and puddings the flowers somewhat the shape of the common harebell of our made from an unknown fruit, which some stranger to the neigh. woods and hedges, but larger, and of a rich and lurid purple bourhood had been vending at a cheap rate, under the name of colour, each flower springing alone from axis or union nettle-berries. An examination of some of the berries which between the leaf and stalk. As the flower passes away it is remained unconsumed showed them to be the fruit of the succeeded by the fruit, which, when mature, is about the size deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) of which we shall have of an ordinary cherry, black in colour, rich in bloom, and more to say as we proceed. Some members of the Solani of a sweetish and rather agreeable taste; but the growing with which we shall have to deal are indigenous to the soil plant when approached, particularly when the fresh dew of England; others have become acclimatised, and although of morning hangs on it, gives forth an oppressive and originally natives of a warmer climate, now grow freely in this faint odour. This plant, like 8. dulcamara, grows luxuriantly country. We will commence our remarks, then, with the most among fallen walls and the ruins of old buildings. Every important nightshade in the world, a plant which may be said part of the plant is both narcotic and poisonous, but in the hands to rank next to corn in food-yielding importance in most of the pharmaceutical chemist it yields products of great medicivilised countries. Solanum tuberosum, the common potato of cinal value. Possessing, as its extract does, the curious property our fields and gardens, was first introduced by Sir Walter of dilating the pupillary opening of the eye, this property Raleigh, who brought the roots irom Quito, and caused them to is taken advantage of by the oculist as an aid in prosecuting be planted in his own garden at Youghal, in Ireland. On the his examinations as to the condition of the eye, and in the plants arriving at maturity, Sir Walter's old gardener, availing prosecution of such operations on that organ as may be himself of the privileges of his situation, gathered some of the requisite. It is also used extensively in both neuralgic and fruit, or "potato apples," as they are now called, and tasted pulmonary affections; so that deadly nightshade, like many them. Those of our readers who have eaten of this particularly other justly dreaded natural productions, is found to possess unpalatable and unwholesome production will feel no wonder its good qualities as well as its evil ones, when we know that the ire of the old man should have been raised. Breaking how to avail ourselves of them. Fig. 2 in the annexed illusin unceremoniously on his master's studies, he exclaimed, " If tration represents the leaf, stem, flower, and embryo fruit of the this is your fine foreign fruit, I would not give it garden room, deadly nightshade. The term Belladonna applied to this plant not I!” “Well,” said Sir Walter, " if it is as bad as you say, appears to have been derived from the practice which was at dig it up at once ; but if you find any roots worth looking at, one time made of using the juices as & cosmetic ; hence we bring them to me." It is, perhaps, needless to say that the roots have the name “ Beautiful Lady." Atropa we have from the proved very well worth examining. It was not, however, until name of one of the Fates, “Atropos ;” and Dale from the about 1732 that regular potato crops were cultivated in Scot- French deuil (grief), a figurative destination at which you are land. England followed the example set by the Scottish far- pretty sure to arrive if you partake of the atropa fruit. mers, and grew the new root. So deep was the prejudice There is a plant found growing abundantly in almost every existing against this plant in the minds of the ignorant, that hedgerow in England, which has been by popnlar error comwhen the Russian government issued seed potatoes to the native monly confounded with the plant just described, and incorrectly cultivators, with orders to attend to the increase of the crop, called deadly nightshade, or the " poison-berry." This plant is the new tubers were called the "Devil's apples," a name which, the Bryonia or Briony, but it is in no way related to the true in some remote districts of the Oural, they still bear.

nightshades or Solani, being a member of the family of Cucur In its wild state the potato grows its tubers very near and bitacea, to which melons, gourds, vegetable marrows, cucumbers, often even on the surface of the ground. They are small, acrid, etc., belong. Most of our readers will have observed this trailand by no means tempting in appearance. The Spaniards and ing, climbing plant, vine-like in foliage and mode of growth, throw Portuguese appear to have discovered its value before its intro- ing out its long corkscrew-shaped tendrils and greenish-yellow duction to England by Raleigh. The word "potato," pronounced flowers in the months of June and July. These are succeeded in by the Spaniards battata, is no doubt a corruption of the the autumn by clusters of very beautiful scarlet berries or fruit, original 'native name. In addition to its value as a culinary which, from their currant-like and juicy appearance, are not mr. vegetable, the potato tuber is remarkable for producing by frequently eaten of by children and ignorant persons. Every part treatment an abundant supply of farina, from which a very of this variety growing in Great Britain is poisonous, although large quantity of the tapioca sold in our shops is manufactured. the young shoots of a plant of kindred species growing abroad are Potato flour or starch, under the name of arrowroot, has also boiled and eaten, just as we eat asparagus, with impunity. The a considerable sale. The potato plant is probably too root of our hedge-briony at times grows to a very large size

, and familiar to our readers to need description. The blossom, although is not anfrequently mistaken for that of the mandrake, to be of larger size, closely resembles that of Solanum dulcamara, hereafter described. Fig. 3 represents the leaf, stem, and flower represented at Fig. 1. The potato fruit is about the size of the common Brionia. The berries are round, about the size of a large marble, and contains numerous seeds. Solanum of small peas, and contain an acrid, poisonous juice, which dulcamara, woody nightshade,

or bitter-sweet, is an indigenous has been highly extolled as a remedy for ringworm. The

root, too, has been much used in the treatment of the diseases nean Ports, much resemble these in growth and qualities, and of cattle. Next to this we have a true nightshade, Solanum are extensively used in cookery. The Mandrake or May apple rigrum (black or common garden nightshade), which is often (Mandragora) is a Solanum which has from very early periods found growing on the waste lands and in the rural districts of of history been regarded with much superstitious dread, which England. Few persons who notice wild

has probably arisen, partly from its plants will have failed to see it. The

poisonous properties, and partly from leaves are entire, and covered with fine

its large and irregularly-shaped roots, hairs. The flowers are white, the fruit

which at times grow in the upcouth almost black, and the stalk easily

form of a man. Shakespeare writesbroken. We are not aware of any use to which this plant has been applied.

Fig. 1. " And shrieks like mandraks torn out of

the earth, Henbane, or hogbane (Hyoscyamus

That living mortals hearing them run niger), is another true Solanum, and

mad." is found in many parts of England; it

The notion that prevailed in bygrows to about two feet in height, and is

gone days regarding the sounds of covered with fine bristles or hairs, which

complaint uttered by the mandrake give off a fetid odour. The flowers,

when being rooted up appears to have which are arranged in a double row

been widely entertained by the ignoon the stem, are most peculiar, being

rant. Misfortune of the most serious of a rich chocolate-yellow tinged with

kind was believed to be the portion brown, and veined with a perfect

of any one bold or rash enough to


members of the Solanum group to will cause all mice to at once depart.

be found in distant countries. Over The tomato or love-apple (Solanum

400 species have been already enumeLycopersicum), although not indigenous

rated by botanists. It is our object to England, is so well known as a

to deal more particularly with plants culinary vegetable that it could by

and flowers of the nightshade family 90 possibility be mistaken for anything else. The Egg-plant, which may, perchance, come under the immediate observation Jew's apple, or Mad apple (Solanum melongenæ), is also an of our readers at home. The plant-world, even in our little island exotic, but is used by Continental cooks as an ingredient in soups, home, is a tolerably large one, and we hope in a future paper to hashes, etc. “Bringalls,” a common vegetable of the Mediterra- | pay another visit to it, with our readers as pleasant companions.

LESSONS IN ENGLISH.-XXXIX. Keltic race, occupying positions of dignity at the courts of

Anglo-Saxon kings.".

In a list given by the very learned German philologist Adelung THE Celtic element in the English language has received far (Mithridates II. 40) of genuine Celtic words found gathered less attention than it deserves. Till recently, indeed, its exist- from very ancient sources, and found in Teutonic tongues, the ence was scarcely known; and when at length it compelled following have representatives in the English of the present recognition, its appearance was restricted to names of places, day: particularly the great outlines of the country, such as hills, Aber, as in Aberconway and several other Welsh names, denotes the mountains, headlands, rivers, etc.

mouth of a river, the confluence of a river with the sea; and hence a The ordinary teaching of the schools was, that the original bay or harbour. It is found in the French Havre (Havre-de-Grace) British natives of these islands were extirpated by the invading and in the English harbour. and conquering Saxons to such an extent, that the former were

Alpes, the ancient Gallic designation for any high land; hence our able to sustain themselves only in the mountain fastnesses of Albion, so called from its lofty cliffs. the extreme parts of the country, Scotland in the north, Corn

Bard, the Gallic name for post, singer, prophet. wall in the south, and Wales in the west. In those parts, persons of low and unworthy birth.

Bastard, from the Welsh bas, low, and tardd, to come forth; hence, unquestionably, the native British successfully withstood their

Becco, Gallic, our beak. Saxon invaders, and there transmitted their vernacular tongue Beria, a level field, a plain; hence the numerous instances of bery us from generation to generation. Not less is it true that the a termination of English names of places. British element in the population of the lowlands was neither Braca, Gallic, a dam, a limit; Scotch, bray; French, braie, a hedge. uprooted nor absorbed. Extermination is a rare event in the Braccæ, Gallic, breeches. migrations and changes of tribes and nations. Scarcely would

Brace, i.e., corn, whence the Gauls made their beer; hence the words it be too much to affirm that extermination never takes place. brew, brewer, beer. And even absorption is only partial. Besides, if blood is ab- itself signifies in the Celtic a town, as in Boroughbridge.

Bria, briga, perhaps from the Welsh brig, brigyn, a hill-top. Briga sorbed, it does not lose its primitive qualities. Still less easy

Carn, a group of stones or rocks ; hence our Carn or Cairn and Corn. of absorption is a language. A living language--that is, a wall (stony Wales). language vernacular to the aboriginals of a country-stamps Carra, a Gallic four-wheeled carriage, a car, cart, to carry, carta. itself on the entire land and on the whole life of the people. Carruca, among the Gauls a convenient travelling carriage; French, That impression is all but indelible. Only the attrition and caroche ; English, coach. abrasion of centuries can wear the image down, much less Craig, in Welsh a rock, precipice; our crag. wholly efface it. The language of the cottage is one of the few

Druid, the Gallic name for priest, permanent things on earth; and when, by the extruding power

Dur, water ; Welsh, dur; as in Derwent, Derby, Dorchester. of the language of the court, and of books, and of commerce, fool; German, tou.

Fou, foolish ; Welsh, foll; French, fou; Scotch, fou (tipsy); English, it is compelled to withdraw into narrower and narrower limits,

Lancea, Gallic for lance. it ceases to be a language only to become a dialect and a patois Marga, marl; whence Marlborough and Albemarlı, (the language of the peasants of a province), and still maintains Nant, water, river ; whence Nantwich. an existence in what we call provincialisms and vulgarisms, Pen, a summit, head; as in Pencraig in Hereford and Pengover in when at length it is wholly banished from cultivated society. Cornwall, Penistone in Yorkshire, Penrith in Cumberland. Nor only there does it survive ; it lives on in the warp and woof

Rit, a ford; hence the ending rit as in Camboritum, Cambridge. of the spoken and written tongue. These allegations are borne

Soldurii (sol, bond, and ur, Latin, vir, a man), boundmen, or men out by the fact that in our present English, the original Celtic engaged to each other and to their leader in war ; our soldier.

Spatha, a two-edged sword; whence, through the German spate, is of these islands still remains to no inconsiderable extent.

our spade. The Celts (or, as the fashion now is, the Kelts), as far back as Tan, land, as in Britain (Britannia, the land of the Britti, or painted history goes, were the primitive inhabitants of England, Wales, people; so we say the blacks, the whites, the fair.) Scotland, and Ireland. The race at large, in an ante-historic The names father, mother, sister, and brother, are of necessity period, migrated from Central Asia into Europe, and, spreading among the first. They are also the most enduring. Consult, over its surface, penetrated to its western limits.

then, this table :The Celtic language is now acknowledged to have affinities

Breton. Welsh.

English. with the important group of languages denominated the Indo

Tad (dad), tad,

father, dad, daddy. Germanic, of which the Sanscrit, the Greek, and the German may


mother, mamma, mammy. be taken as representatives. At the same time, the Celtic lan


brawd, brother. guage, as being a language spoken by an independent family of Choar,

chwaer, sister. nations, possesses essentially independent features.

Our words father and mother come to us from the Indo-GerThere are still six Celtic tongues or dialects recognised in manic stem ; but the cottage words, the nursery words, the Europe. Of these, four belong to the British Islands. A fifth, words of intimate affection, dad, daddy, mam, mamma, mamany, the Cornish, now nearly or quite extinct, also pertained to the are derived from our British or Celtic forefathers. The oldest same insular home of the Keltai or Celts. The sixth, the Ar- forms of a language are found in the cottage and on the hill

. morican, belongs to Brittany, a country connected with Britain side. In both those spots, and in the provincialisms which still in history as well as in name.

in a measure survive, a considerable number of Celtic words

remain. These words are among the most expressive. Take THE CELTIC TONGUES.

the term mettle. Even Webster, after other great lexicographi1. THE GALLIC OR BRITISH, II, THE GAELIC OR ERSE, cal authorities, originally derived this from the Greek root including

including 1. Cymric or Welsh. 1. Fenic or Irish.

which gives us metal, namely, metallan, to scrutinise, to seek for 2. Cornish. 2. Gaelic or Highland Scotch.

by digging; as if a man of mettle and a man of metal were not 3. Armorican or Breton. 3. Manx.

as much opposed to each other as a high-spirited man and a

money-grub. Turn to the Welsh, and you find in meddwl (mind, The statements that have been made as to the survival of the courage, which by the vulgar is called pluck), the exact idea Celtic element in our national life and literature may be con- which mettle conveys; for examplefirmed by a quotation from an author of merit, whose studies

“The winged courser, like a generous horse, and whose subject would naturally incline him to give predomi Shows most truo mottle when you check his course." - Pope. nance to Saxon claims :-“Nothing is more common or less true than the exaggerated account of total exterminations and mise. word, giving rise to the general idea of making a thing good,

To fettle, is in the genuine Lancashire dialect a very expressivo rable oppressions in the traditional literature of conquered excellent, delicious; and, occurring in such instances as to fettie nations; and we may very safely appeal even to the personal a horse, "means to restore him to soundness; to fettle a wife appearance of the peasantry in many parts of England as evi- means to put her to rights ; fettled ale means ale warmed with dence how much Keltic blood was permitted to subsist and even spice, spirits, eggs, etc. The word,

together with our common to mingle with that of the ruling Germans; while the signatures to very early charters supply us with names assuredly not Teu • "The Saxons in England,” by J, M. Kemble, 2 vols. Sro, 180; tonic or Saxon), and therefore possibly borne by persons of Vol. I., p. 21.

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