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IRISH OR FENIC.
IRISH OR FENIC.
k. In pre
the word ; thus, .bo The Times newspaper, Abel.
term fat, of which fettle is a diminutive verbal form, has its 186. Accent may be shown by writing a small cross close to origin in the Welsh Ffaeth, meaning luxuriant, ripe, rich. the vowel of the accented syllable; thus, arrows, at arose,
We have cast our eye down a page or two of an Irish dic- 7 renew'. It is, however, more convenient to use Phonetic Longtionary, and found these coincidences :
hand when marking the accent of a word. IRISH OR FENIC WORDS IDENTICAL WITH ENGLISH.
187. Emphasis is marked as in longhand, by drawing one, two,
or more, lines underneath ; a single line under a single word must be Abal, an apple. Apfel. Ball, a ball, globe.
made wave-like, thus Acra, an acre. Bann, a band of men.
to distinguish it from Acker.
Bande, Aer, air (Greek, aer).
Baran, a baron.
paring manuscript for the press, a single line thus drawn underneath, Aes, age (Latin, aetas).
Barc, a boat, barque. Barke. (wavy for a single word, and straight for more than one,) signifies Aire, e chest, ark (Latin,
Bard, a poet, bard. Barde. italic; two lines (which need not be waved) SHALL CAPITALS, and arca). Arche. Barra, a bar,
Barre. three lines LARGE CAPITALS. For ITALIC CAPITALS draw Airbhe, a rib. Rippe, ribbo. Be, life, being.
three lines, and write “Italic” in the margin. Aird, a country, carth Be, is, be.
188. AN INITIAL CAPITAL is marked by two short lines under (Scotch, yird). Erde. Beach, a bee.
Bien. Baban, a baby, infant.
Bear, a bear.
189. Figures are written as usual, or the words may be expressed (? Babel).
Plapperer. bring forth.
in Phonography. When the figures one and six are written by
beard (Latin, barba). Barbieren. themselves, they should be formed thus, 1, 6, that they may not Bairghin, a son, bairn. Beathach, abeast (French,
be mistaken for shorthand characters. Bairile, a barrel. éte).
REPORTING. Baitselear, a bachelor.
From the Welsh the following among other instances have 190. In the “Reporter's Companion " the reader will find further been given by the Rev. R. Garnett* :
principles of abbreviation that will enable him to attain the goal of COINCIDENCES BETWEEN THE WELSH AND THE ENGLISH.
verbatim reporting. As it is almost impossible for rapid writers of PhoBasged, a basket. Gwichet, a wicket (Fr, guichet).
nography, when corresponding with others less advanced, to adhere Bottwm, a button.
Hem, a border, hem (Sax, hem). strictly to the Corresponding Style, as developed in this series of Bran, skin of wheat, bran. Llath, a lath (Sax. latta).
Lessons, a list of the PRINCIPAL reporting grammalogues is given, Brat, a clout, a brat or pinafore. Matos, a mattock (Sax. mattuc). to assist in reading the Reporting Style. The figures denote the posiBrodiaw, to embroider (Fr, broder). Mop, a mop.
tions in which the words are written. (See par. 139.) Bwyell, a hatchet, a bill (Germ. biel). Paeol, a pail. Cab, caban, a hut, cabin (Fr, cabane). Pan, a bowl, pan (Sax. ponne).
LIST OF REPORTING GRAMMA LOGUES. Cne, an enclosure, quay (Fr. quai). Parc, an enclosure, park (Fr. parc).
CONSONANTS. K, 1 can, 2 come Ceubal , cobble, a boat (Sax. cuople). Polen, a littlo ball, pellet (Fr. pelote). P, 1 happy, 2 up, hope, 3 put
kt, 1 quite, act, 2 could Crochan, a pot, crockery (Sax.crocca). Piser, a jug, pitcher.
kn, 1 coin, 2 queen Crog, a hook, crook (Celt. crok). Rhail, a fence, rail (Germ. ralle),
ps-shn, 2 possession, 3 position
ks, 1 cause, because, 2 case Dantaeth, a choice morsel, dainty.
ps, 1 pass, 2 hopes, 3 peace, piece knt, 1 cannot, kind, 3 account Rhasg, a slice, rasher, Darn, a patch, darn (Sax, dearnan). a
pn, 1 happen, 2 upon, open
kl, 1 call, 3 equal-ly Filasged, flasket (Fr. Hasque). Tacl, instrument, tackle (German, pnt, I happened, point, opened, kr, 1 Christian-ity, 2 care, 3 accrue Pilaw, a shiver, flauc. takel).
krt, 1 according, 2 court Fiynel, a funnel. Tasel, fringo, tassel.
pr, 2 pray, 3 principle, principal
(in phraseography appear) A knowledge of the laws which affect the permutation of
G, 1 go, ago, 2 give-n
gd, 1 God, 2 good letters in words as they appear in different languages or dialects prt 1 particular, 2 opportunity
prf, 1 approve, 3 proof, prove
1 would disclose to the student many Celtic terms in English, of
gone, 2 again, gain
gl, 2 glory, glorify-ied which otherwise he would have no suspicion. I have given
gld, 1 glad, 2 gold clear examples. Other very clear examples could be added." IB. 1, by, 2 be, 3 to be
bt, 3 about
grd, 2 great shall for exercise subjoin a few Celtic words with their several bs, 2 base, 3 abuse meanings, leaving the student to discover the corresponding bv, 2 above
F, 1 off, half, 2 if, 3 few English terms.
ft, 1 after
bn, 1 combine, 2 been, 3 boon
ftr, 2 father, 3 if there
fr, 1 often, 2 Phonography Cic (kik),
bit, 2 able to, 3 build-ing a foot.
a youth, Cluder, a heap.
Llodes, a girl.
fr, 1 offer, 2 for Cnoc (knok),
ber-ed, 3 number
frtr, 3 for there, for their
brd, 1 broad, 2 bread, bred
Ifr, 2 from, 3 free
frtr, 3 further, from their Cocru, to indulge.
T, 1 at, 2 it, 3 out
V, 2 have, 3 view
un, 2 heaven, 3 even
vr, 1 over, 2 ever-y Filawg, a young mare. Tariaw, to loiter, stay. tr, 1 try, 2 truth, 3 true
vr, 2 very, 3 however Fug, deception. Tosiaw, to throw.
trt, 1 tried, 2 toward Fwrw, down. Tripiaw, to stumble.
(Light TH.) Glyn, a valley.
Troddi, to move for cards. D, i had, die, 2 do, day, TH, 1 thank, 2 think, 3 youth Gweddu, to unite.
Wyna, to bear lambs. dá, 3 did [3 different, difference tht, 1 thought Gwylaw, to weep.
df, 3 difficult-y
thr, 1 author dn, 2 done, 3 down
thr, 2 throw, 3 three, through LESSONS IN SHORTHAND.-XIII.
dnt, 1 had not, 2 do not, 3 did not thrt, 2 third
dr, 1 draw, 2 dear, 3 during PUNCTUATION, ETC.
(Heavy TH.) 185. Stops should be written in the usual way, except the Period, C#, 1 much, 2 which, 3 each
TH, 1 though, thy, 2 them, they, for which a small cross is used; thus, , ; :* The Hyphen is writ-chs, 2 which is, 3 choose
3 thee, thou ten thus, la two-fold; the Dash thus, H; Exclamation; chf, 2 which have, 3 chief
tht, 1 that, 2 without A smile.
chld, 1 child
ths, 1 those, thyself, 2 this, thus, chr, 2 chair, 3 cheer
thss, 2 themselves, this is (3 these
thn, 1 than, thine, 2 then * " Proceedings of the Philological Society," Vol. I., p. 171. In
thr, 1 either, 2 other these and the preceding examples, we have appended the correspond-J, 1 large, joy, 2 age, 3 advantage thr, 2 there, their ing words in German, French, and Saxon, in order to enable our js, 1 joys, 2 ages, 3 advantages, readers to judge for themselves. It is more than possible that many religious
s circle, 1 as, has, 2 is, his of these words in the Welsh are borrowed from the English. It is a in, 1 join, 2 general-ly, 3 religion s stroke, 1 saw, 2 so, us, 3 sce very difficult matter to separate the original words from those that jnt, 1 gentleman, joined, 2 gentle skr, 1 Scripture are borrowed.
jshn, 2 generation [men skrt, 3 secret
8g, 1 signify
NG, 1 English, 2 thing, 3 young “Shorthand is capable of imparting so many advantages to perst loop, 2 first
sons in almost every situation of life, and is of such extensive utility st (half length s), 1 sat, sight, L, 1 law, 2 Lord, 3 allow
to society, that it is justly a matter of surprise that it has not 2 set, 3 sit It, 1 light, 2 let
attracted a greater share of attention, and been more generally st (circle s and t), 2 as it, has it, Itr, 2 latter, letter
3 city, is it (is on the line) ls, 1 laws, 2 less, 3 allows practised. str, 1 strong, 2 strength In, 1 line, 2 loan, 3 lean
"In England, at least, this art may be considered a National sch, 2 such
wl, 1 while, 2 will (verb), well, Blessing, and thousands who look with the utmost indifference upon ss large circle, 1 as is (his, or has),
3 will (noun)
it, are daily reaping the fruits of its cultivation. It is scarcely has his, 2 is as (or his), his is
necessary to mention how indispensable it is in taking minutes of sp, 2 special, 3 speak
R (up), 2 are, 3 our, hour
public proceedings. If all the feelings of a patriot glow in our sprt, 2 spread, 3 spirit 86,2 has (as) to be, 3 is to be rt (down), 1 art
bosoms on a perusal of those eloquent speeches which are delivered in sv, 2 several, 3 conceive rtr, 2 order, or their
the Senate, or in those public assemblies where the people are freent, 1 as not, has not, sent, 2 is not rd, 3 read (present tense) quently convened to exercise the birthright of Britons-we owe it to snd, 2 send, 3 sound
rs (up), 1 rise, 2 rose, 3 ours, hours shorthand. If new fervor be added to our devotion, and an additional smt, 2 somewhat
rs (down), 2 yours, 3 years stimulus be imparted to our exertions as Christians, by the eloqnent sl, 2 soul, 3 seal rk, 2 work
appeals and encouraging statements made at the anniversaries of our rkr (double-length rk), 2 worker various religious Societies—we owe it to shorthand. If we have an Z, 2 was, 3 whose, ease, easy W, 2 we, way, away
opportunity, in interesting judicial cases, of examining the evidence, <d, 3 eased
wn, 1 wine, 2 one, 3 win and learning the proceedings with as much certainty, and nearly as
wns, 1 wines, 2 one's, 3 wins much minuteness, as if we had been present on the occasion—we owe SH, 2 shall, shalt, show, 3 she
wont, 1 went, 2 wo'nt, 3 wind it to shorthand. In short, all those brilliant and spirit-stirring shn, 2 shown
wh, 1 why, 2 whether, 3 whither effusions which the circumstances of the present times combine to shr, 2 share, 3 sure
whns, 2 whence shrt, 1 short
draw forth, and which the press transmits to us with such astonishing Y, 2 yea, 3 ye
celerity, warm from the lips and instinct with the soul of the speaker, ZH, 3 usual yt, 2 yet
would have been entirely lost to posterity, and comparatively little zhr, 2 pleasure
known to ourselves, had it not been for the facilities afforded to their H (down), 1 high M, 1 me, my, 2 him, may, 3 whom h (up), 2 holy
preservation by shorthand. Were the operations of those who are mt, 1 might, 2 met, 3 meet-ing
professionally engaged in exercising this art, to be suspended but for hs (up), 3 house md, 1 mad, 2 made, 3 mood
a single week, a blank would be left in the political and judicial mtr, 1 matter, 2 mother
history of our country, an impulse would be wanting to the public ms, 1 myself, 2 himself, Miss
mind, and the nation would be taught to feel and acknowledge the mp, 1 important-ance, 2 improve, Dots. a, an, . the, ah!. aye, eh? important purposes it answers in the great business of life. improved, improvement
"A practical acquaintance with this art is highly favorable to the mps, 1 impossible, 2 improvements Dashes. of, on,
improvement of the mind, invigorating all its faculties, and drawing mn, 1 man, mine, 2 men, 3 mean mnt, 1 mind, 2 may not, 3 amount
all,'o, oh! owe, awe, ought forth all its resources. The close attention requisite in following the mr, 1 more, 2 Mr, 3 mere
to, i but, should
voice of the speaker, induces habits of patience, perseverance, and
watchfulness, which will gradually extend themselves to other purN, 1 in, any, 2 no, know, 3 own
two, too, 1 he, who
suits and avocations, and at length inure the writer to exercise them on nt, 1 not, night, 2 nature
every occasion in life. When writing in public, it will also be absolutely nd, 1 hand, 2 under, end
necessary to distinguish and adhere to the train of thought which ntr, 1 neither, in there, 2 another, I, ay, how, beyond, - you, runs through the discourse, and to observe the modes of its connec
enter nshn, 1 information, 2 nation
tion. This will naturally have a tendency to endue the mind with
with, < when, what, would quickness of apprehension, and will impart an habitual readiness and ns, 1 influence, in his, 2 knows
in Phraseography.com, enda fyritten, um distinctness of perception, as well as a methodical simplicity of nn, 2 none, known nr, 1 nor, honor, 2 near
or a, medial or final, is ori I may be arrangement, which cannot fail to conduce greatly to mental supecontracted to before k, l, m, kl kr, 61, etc.
riority. The judgment will be strengthened, and the taste refined; 191. The following statement of the advantages which a knowledge and the practitioner will, by degrees, become habituated to seize the of Phonography confers on the writer, will be found written, or original and leading parts of a discourse or harangue, and to reject rather engraved, in shorthand in Mr Pitman's “ Manual of Phono- whatever is common-place, trivial, or uninteresting. graphy." The only way in which we could exhibit it here would be by having the characters engraved on wood, or metal, in relief, like obligation the writer is under to retain in his mind the last sentence
“The memory is also improved by the practice of stenography. The the specimens of Phonography which we exhibited in Lessons VI. and of the speaker, at the same time that he is carefully attending to the VII. As this style of printing does not represent Phonography to following one, must be highly beneficial to that faculty, which, more advantage, nor even fairly,--for Phonography when well written is than any other, owes its improvement to exercise. And so much are eminently beautiful, graceful, and flowing, --we must refer the reader the powers of retention strengthened and expanded by this exertion
, to Mr Pitman's book, or to a page of one of the many phonographic that a practical stenographer will frequently recollect more without periodicals, for a pattern that he may safely imitate in his writing. writing, than a person unacquainted with the art could copy in the ADVANTAGES OF SHORTHAND.
time by the use of common-hand. 192. The advantage of a practical acquaintance with the steno " It has been justly observed, this science draws out all the powers graphic art, to individuals in all situations of life, but more particu- of the mind ;—it excites invention, improves the ingenuity, matures larly to literary men, is strikingly shown in the career of some who the judgment, and endows the retentive faculty with the superior have, for a course of years, used the "winged words” of stenography, advantages of precision, vigilance, and perseverance. either in reporting for the press, or in their ordinary writing, and "The facility it affords to the acquisition of learning onght to who have thereby attained a mental elevation far beyond what would render it an indispensable
branch in the education of youth. To be have been possible in any other circumstances. Edmund Burke, enabled to treasure up for future study the substance of lectures, Judge TalFOURD, CHARLES Dickens, and many other eminent sermons, etc.
, is an accomplishment attended with so many evident writers, may be fairly considered as having been indebted to their advantages that it stands in no need of recommendation. Nor is it engagements with the periodical press as reporters
, in early life, for no a matter
of small importance, that by this art the youthful student inconsiderable portion of their distinction in the literary world. It is furnished with an easy means of making a number of valvable may, perhaps, not be inappropriate to observe that Phonography, extracts in the moments of leisure, and of thus laying up a stock of with all the intellectual and social benefits that follow in its train
, knowledge for his future occasions. The pursuit of this art materially has resulted from the seemingly trifling
circumstance that the
, contributes to improve the student in the principles of grammar and at the age of seventeen, learned Taylor's system of shortband from composition. While tracing the various forms of expression by Harding's edition, and that he was incited to the study chiefly by which the same sentiment can be conveyed; and while endeavoring the perusal of the following eloquent enumeration of some of the to represent, by modes of contraction, the dependence of one word advantages arising from the practice of the art, from the pen of upon another
, he is insensibly initiated in the science of aniversal Mr. Gawtress, the publisher of an improved edition of Byron's language, and particularly in the knowledge of his native tongue. system :
"The rapidity with which it enables a person to commit his own
thoughts to the safety of manuscript, also renders it an object pecu
EXERCISE 12. liarly worthy of regard. By this means many ideas which daily 1. The present times are not the best. 2. He had hidden strike us, and which are lost before we can record them in the usual himself in the back room. 3. Our town has a stone bridge ; way, may be snatched from destruction, and preserved till mature yours has only one of wood. 4. Edward has received from deliberation can ripen and perfect them.
London a gold watch, a silver sword, and a pair of steel shoe"In addition to these great advantages, Science and Religion buckles. 5. Once they wore cloth dresses and velvet waistare indebted to this inestimable art for the preservation of many coats. 6. The use of copper vessels has been prohibited in valuable lectures and sermons, which would otherwise have been Sweden. 7. Beef, veal, and mutton are for sale in the shambles. irrecoverably lost. Among the latter may be instanced those of 8. What means this ringing of bells ? 9. What do you say of Whitefield, whose astonishing powers could move even infidelity itself, the cloth which I have bought? 10. It is good and fine. 11. and extort admiration from a Chesterfield and a Hume, but whose And of the colour? 12. It is beautiful. 13. What do you name would have floated down the stream of time, had not shorthand think of the man whom you see, of the boy whom he carries rescued a portion of his labors from oblivion. With so many vouchers along with him, and of the beggar who follows him? 14. Here for the truth of the remark, we can have no hesitation in stating it are ten yards of the taffetas, some of which you wanted, and as our opinion, that since the invention of printing, no cause has twelve yards of the cambric which you have demanded. 15. contributed more to the diffusion of knowledge, and the progress of Send me a dozen of the lemons, and two pounds of the figs which refinement, we might also add, to the triumphs of liberty and the you have received from Smyrna. 16. Spare me a bottle of the interests of religion, than the revival and improvement of this loug. eau de Cologne which has been sent to you. neglected art.
THE PARTICLE A. “Such are the blessings which Shorthand, like a generous benefactor, bestows indiscriminately on the world at large. But it has
The use of this particle frequently coincides with the use of additional and peculiar favors in store for those who are so far con the preposition to in English grammar. Generally speaking, vinced of its utility as personally to engage in its pursuit. The any kind of direction, expressed by a verb, to or towards a person advantages resulting from the exercise of this art, are not, as is or thing, is denoted by this word. The ideas of similarity or the case with many others, confined to a particnlar class of society; resemblance, of approaching or approximation, of a direction or for though it may seem more immediately calculated for those whose mere reference to any thing, end, aim, or point of time, form, as business it is to record the eloquence of public men, and the pro- it were, only parts or branches of this fundamental signification ceedings of popular assemblies; yet it offers its assistance to persons of the particle a; and whenever the action of the subject of a senof every rank and station in life to the man of business as well as tence (i.e., of the nominative expresses such direction or approach the
man of science-for the purpose of private convenience as well as to or towards persons or things, a must be placed before them. of general information."
For example Dr. Johnson says, “ Shorthand, on account of its great and general Ac-co-sta-ti ál-la tá-vo-la, approach thyself to the table. utility, merits a much higher rank among the arts and sciences than Al cá-ne du-te gli ós-si, give the bones to the dog. is generally allotted to it. Its usefulness is not confined to any par
n fi-glio ras-so-mi-glia al pá-dre, the son is like the father. ticular science or profession, but is universal : it is therefore by no
Ne par-le-rò al cu-gi-no, I shall speak of it to the cousin.
Al cán-to si ri-co-no-sce l' uc-cel-lo, by the song one knows the bird. means unworthy the attention and study of men of genius and erudition."
L' a-vá-ro non pén-sa che al da-na-ro, the avaricious man only thinks
I'-o lo dis-si al a-mi-co vb-stro, I told it your friend.
E-gli lo dié-de a' pó-ve-ri, he gave it to the poor.
I'-o vá-do a Ró-ma, I go to Rome. AFTER the following vocabulary and exercise, the pupil may Non cre-dé-te a ló-ro, do not believe them. study the uses of the particle a.
Dis-si a lui, an-da-te a ca-sa, I told him, go home (i.e., to the house). VOCABULARY.
Pic-chia-re ál-la pôr-ta, to knock at the door. Are for sale, si trồ-ta | Here are, 6c-Co. Waistcoat, gi-lè, m.
Scrí-ve-re a qual-che-dú-no, to write to somebody. da vén-de-re. It is, és-so è. (pl. unaltered) sot
Ag-giá-ghe-re ú-na cổ-sa ad cum al-tra, to add one thing to another. Back, dié-tro (adv, be- Lemon, li-mó-ne, m. tò-ves-te. [uó-lo). Cé-de-re sú-o di-rít-to a qual-che-dú-no, to transmit or cede one's hind). Man, uó-mo, m. Watch, 0-ro-ló-gio(o-ri
right to any one. Beautiful, bêl-lo, m., Meat, cár-ne, f. Wether, ca-stró-ne, m.
Co-strin-ge-re ú-no ad ú-na a-zió-ne, to compel or force any one to ba-la, f. Once, ti-na vol-ta, (meat of ox, of call,
some action. Beggar, men-di-co, m. One, ú-no, m., ú-na, f. of wether).
Ver-rò a méz-so giór-no, a méz-za not-te, dl-le dú-e, al têm-po fis-sd-to, Bell, cam-pá-na, f. Our, no-stro, m., no. What do you say? che al prí-mo del mé-se, I shall come at noon, at midnight, at two Best, mi-glió-re. stra, f. di-te? (with the case
o'clock, at the appointed time, on the first of the month. Bottle, fia-schét-ta, f. Pair, pá-jo, m.
Phrases, not literally or strictly expressing an abode, resi. Boy, Ta-gáz-zo, m.
Pound, lib-bra, f. What do you think? dence, stay, continuance, or being in a place, but merely near
Present, a-des-so (adv. che pen-su-te ? (with ness or presence, require the particle a and not in, which always Call, vi-tel-lo, m. now).
the case-sign di). Cambric, té la ba-ti- Ringing, suố-no, m.
denotes a real and not merely imaginary continuance or being What means ? che siRoom, stán-za (or ca.
in i.e., in the interior of) a place or thing, or some action taking
Which has been sent place in it. For example : -
Send me, man-dd-te-mi. to you, che vi è stá-ta E-gli è al bal-lo, he is at the ball.
Al fe-stí-no, at the dancing and gaming) evening party.
1. (slaughter-house). Which I have bought, A tá-vo-la, at table. Dozen, doz-zi-na (as), t. shoe-buckle, fib-bia, 2. che ho com-prá-to.
Al con-cêr-to, in the concert. Silver, ar-gén-to, s. m. Which you have de A giuo-cá-re, at play or game. Ean, á-cqua, f. (water). Smyrna, Smir-na. manded, che a-vé-te A stu-did-re, (engaged) in study. Edward, E-du-ár.do. Some of which you do-man-dá-ta.
From what has been explained, it is obvious that in those Fig, fi-co, m. (pl. fi
wanted, del quá-lavo. Which you have re phrases which merely denote the moving, approaching, or ten
le-vá-te a-vé-re. ceived, che a-vé-te ri-dency to or towards a place or thing, and not strictly the entering Fine, fi-no, m., fi-na, t. Spare me, co-de-te-mi. ce-vu-ti.
Steel, ac-ciájo, s, m. Who follows him, che or penetrating into it, a and not in must be used; for in means
Stone, pie-tra, 8. f. gli va dié-tro. the actual motion or penetration into the interior of any locality. Good, buô-no, m., buo- Sweden, Své-zia. Whom he leads along For example :Sword, spá-da, f.
with him, ch'é-gli I'-o vá-do al bál-lo, I go to the ball. Taffetas, taf-fe-tà, m. mé-na sé-co.
A tá-vo-la, to table. Has beou prohibited, Ten, dié-ci. [va-no. Whom you see, che ve A cé-na, to supper. They wore, si por-td dé-te.
A im-pa-ra-re, to learn, i.o., to (the pursuit of) learning. Has only, ha so-la- Time, tém-po, m. Wood, lé-gno, m.
A giuo-cá-re, to play, i.e., to (the diversion of) playing. [vu-to. | Twelve, đó-đi-ci. Yard, brác-cio, m. (pl. Has received, ha ri-c.- Two, dú-e.
le brác-cia, f.).
The proper nouns of towns, cities, boroughs, or similar He had hidden him- Use, ú-so, m.
Young ox, mán-zo, m.
localities, are an exception to the last-mentioned rule, for it is sell, é-gli si I-ra na. Velvet, vel-lú-lo, m. Yours, v6-stro, m., vó. quite allowable indiscriminately to place a or in before them Vessel, vá-80, m.
whenever the abode, residence, stay, arrival, continuance, or
Bridge, pón-te, m.
sta, f. Cloth, pán-no, m.
Dress, á-bi-to, m.
na, f. Has, ha.
è stá-to pro-i-bi-to.
being in or within them (ie., in their interior) is to be de Di-pin-ge-re a 6-glio, to paint in oil. signated. For example :
Ve-stí-to a bián-co, dressed in white. E-gli è a or in Ná-po-li, he is at or in Naples,
A' l-la fran-ce-se, all in-glé-se, in the French, English manner or
fashion. Tro-ván-do-si é-gli á-na volta a Pa-ri-gi, being once in Paris.
Di-re all' o-réo-chio, to say or whisper in any one's ear. E’l-la è ar-ri-vá-ta á or in Var-sá-via, she is arrived in Warsaw,
A têm-po, in time, in the nick of time. The verbs par-ti-re, to depart, to set out or off, and con-ti Ve-ni-re a grán-di schiê-re, to come in great crowds or masses. nu-á-re, to continue, proceed on one's journey), are another ex: By the preposition according to (or after). For example :ception, for they require the preposition per before the name of that locality, or even country, towards which a journey or any
A ma-nid-ra, after the manner or fashion.
A 6c-chio, according to a measure taken merely by the eye. motion is directed. For example:
A vo-lon-tà di cia-sche-dú-no, according to the will or liking of every. E-gli è par-ti-to per Co-stan-ti-no-po-li, per Pie-tro-búr-go, per la Svis. body.
ze-ra, he has started for Constantinople, for St. Petersburg, for By the prepositions against or towards. For example :
Switzerland, Con-ti-nu-é-re il sú-o viág-gio per la Po-lô-nia, per Mó-sca, to proceed Ri-bel-lár-si ad al-cú-no, to rebel or mutiny against somebody. on one's journey to Poland, to Moscow.
All o-riển-te, all oc-ci-den-te, towards the east, west. Next to di, the particle a is of the most extensive use, and By the preposition with. For example :though the relations in which this word stands to others are A tre col-pi l' uc-ci-se, he killed him with three blows. not quite so loose and vague as those of di, they are various An-dá-ro a grán-di pás-si, to walk with long strides. enough to admit of modes of application which, even in Italian, Sta-re a bóc-ca 3-pề -ta, 4 ốc-cli a-pêr-i, a brac-cia a-pêr-te, a camight sometimes be more suitably dispensed with by the use of chí-no, a chio-me sciol-te, to stand with an open or gaping mouth, prepositions of a more logical distinctness, and consequently a
with open arms, with the head inclined, with dishevelled hair. greater clearness in special instances. For example :
A brí-glia sciol-la, with slackened reins, at full speed or gallop.
Cor-ri-spón-de-re ad al-cú-no, to agree with somebody. Mon-tá-re a ca-vál-lo (for só-pra un ca-vál-lo), to get or mount
U-ni-to ad al-cú-no, united with somebody. | on horseback.
Pa-ra-go-na-re -a cổ-8a a qual-che altra cô-sa, to compare one I'-vi a pô-chi giór-ni ri-tor-nò (for dó-po pó-chi giór-ni), he returned
thing with another. a few days after. Fá-re a vo-lon-là di cia-scú-no (for se-cón-do la vo-lon-ta), to act ac- By the preposition for. For example :cording to, or to conform to the will of everybody.
Con-dan-ná-to a vi-ta dl-le ga-lé-re, condemned for life to the galleys. Bat-té-an-si a pál-me (for col-le pál-me), they fought with the palms És-se-re sen-si-bi-le a qual-che co-sa, to feel compassion for (or to be of their hands.
susceptible of) something.
By the preposition by. For example :-
gên-te), it will not become us to fight against so few.
By the preposition of. For example :many are honest through the hope of profit, etc.
Chié-de-re ad al-cu-no, to ask or require of somebody. It is obvious that this variety of the significations of a will, By the word as. For example:for the purpose of translating it into English, require the use of Mét-ter-si a sér-vo con al-cu-no, to engage oneself to somebody as a many prepositions or other words, and sometimes even of ad
servant. verbial expressions or phrases, which only practice and a patient
A-vé-re a si-gnó-re, to have as a master. method of reading good writers, by accurately comparing the By at a time. For example :idioms and genius of the two languages, fully can teach. In a A dú-e a dú-e, two at a time, two and two. course of merely elementary lessons, I must naturally restrict myself to some, I think, useful hints in the following illustra. By adverbial expressions or phrases. For example: tions:
A buon mer-cá-to, at a small price, cheap. The particle a may be translated by the objective case (with
A’l-la sca-pe-strá-ta, licentiously, dissolutely.
A'l-la pêg-gio, as bad as possible. out any preposition). For example:
A’l-la rin-fú-sa, confusedly, promiscuously.
A bóc-ca, by word of mouth,
Ve-ni-real-le má-ni, to come to blows, or to engage in close fight. So-prav-vi-ve-re ad al-cu-no, to survive one,
An-dá-re a spás-80, a di-pôr-to, to take a walk. Sup-pli-re a qualche co-sa, to complete or make up something, 4 quát-tro ốc-chi, a tế-sta a tế-sta, in private, alone, together (14, By the preposition to. For example:
between four eyes, tête-à-tête).
A ba-slán-za, enough. Ap-pli-cár-si ad á-na có-sa, to apply oneself to something,
A máno, at hand, vear at hand, in readiness; with or by the hard; V6l-ger-si ad al-cú-no, to turn to somebody.
artificially; by election ; underhand, by fraud or deceit. A si-ni-stra, a mán-ca, to the left. A de-stra, to the right.
I have already stated that to avoid hiatus by a succession of An-dá-re, ve-ni-re a un luo-go, to go, come to a place. vowels, generally ad, in the place of a, is used before s vowel
, Do-len-te a môr-te, grieved to death. Pas-sá-re a fil di spa-da, to put to the sword (i.c., to the edge of remark that, in Italian classics,
not a few passages, where at
and I shall conclude this explanation of the uses of a by the the sword).
first sight the particle a appears to be a somewhat arbitrary By the preposition at. For example :
substitute for other prepositions or words, without any change Al le-vár del só-lo, at sunrise.
of construction, will admit of a perfect elucidation by ellipsis Al pri-mo cén.no, at the first hint or sign.
Other uses, and some omissions, of the particle a will be com. A mi-o sén-no, to my mind, liking, taste, fancy, will.
mented on hereafter. Se-dó-ra a tá-vo-la, to sit at table. És-se-re (stá-ro, tro-vár-si) a un luô-go, to be at a place.
KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN ITALIAN-XIV. By the preposition on or upon. For example:-
1. My father is good; he has also a good brother. 2. My mother Ap-po-giár-si a qual-che co-sa, to lean, rest, or to depend on some good; she has also a good sister. 3. We have seen your uncle; he los ng.
bought a large book.4. Have you seen our garden? it is very large In-si-ste-ra a qual-che co-sa, to insist on something,
5. I have bought a pen; it is very good. 6. Thy book is little; but it A pid-di, a ca-vál-lo, on foot, on horseback,
is good. 7. We have a father who is good. 8. You have a mother con-di-tió-ne, on condition.
who is good. 9. I have a book which is very small. 10. My sister Ad im-pré-sti-to, on trust or credit.
has a pen which is very large. 11. The book that you have bought is By the preposition in. For example:
good. 12. The garden that we have seen is very large. 18. Hast thou
seen the book which my uncle has bought? 14. The book which your A dú-e mé-si, in two months.
uncle has bought is very small
, but it is good. 15. I have also bonght A'z-la sfug-gi-ta, in passing by or in flight.
- book, but it is large.
Frederick II. of Germany from 1212 to 1250.
care of the boy's uncle Manfred, and of the Pope. As soon as
Conrad was dead the Pope began an attempt to deprive the THE SICILIAN VESPERS,
child for whom he was trustee of his birthright. He incited “DEATH to the French! Down with the French !” Such was the Neapolitan nobles to throw off the kingly yoke, and to form the cry at Palermo on the evening of Easter Tuesday, the an oligarchical republic under the protection of the Church ; 31st of March, 1282. It was a terrible cry, one that sounded and in furtherance of his plan, he marched a body of troops into the knell, not only of many hundred lives of Frenchmen, but the Neapolitan territory. By his influence the Sicilians were the life also of French dominion in Sicily. It was a cry long induced to abjure their allegiance to Conradin and the Ghibelline remembered-a cry which became known as that of the Sicilian house of Suabia, and to form themselves into a sort of republic Vespers, a cry that made brave Frenchmen blench, and gave in connection with Rome. But from the first it was apparent their enemies an opportunity of sneering without the possibility that the constituent parts of the state were too uncongenial to of being answered. Once Henry IV. of France said, when be welded into a veritable republic. The mixed races among angry, in conversation with the Spanish ambassador, "If I the inhabitants, the aristocratic and popular interests, and the am provoked, I will breakfast at Milan and dine at Naples," presence of a small minority yet favourable to royalty, were at that time under the Spanish crown. "And perhaps," said so many causes of disunion. After a few months of trouble the Spanish ambassador, “ your Majesty may reach Sicily in and confusion, Manfred, who had raised men and money in time for vespers."
Germany, appeared in arms in the southern provinces, and. But how came the French to have any interest in Sicily ? restored the royal authority on the mainland and in Sicily. For What were the circumstances under which the historic facts a short time he professed to act as regent for Conradin, his known as the Sicilian Vespers took piace ?
nephew, but at last he gave out that Conradin was dead, and The island of Sicily was early conquered by the Saracens, caused himself to be crowned king at Palermo. He was at once when they spread from their native confines of Arabia into recognised as head of the Ghibelline faction, and displayed an Europe. In their hands it remained till the year 1058, when uncompromising and active hostility to the Papal court. Roger Guiscard, a Norman chief, undertook to win it back to Under these circumstances, Innocent IV. looked about for the Christians, and, overthrowing the Saracenic ruler, established some one whom he could pit against Manfred. Richard, himself in his place. Roger's brother Robert, also a Norman Earl of Cornwall, brother to Henry III. of England, was adventurer, had established himself in the kingdom of Naples, first applied to; but on due consideration declined the honour and on his death Roger united the two dominions under one of a kingdom which, though the Pope professed to give him, crown. In Norman hands the crown of the Two Sicilies re- it was yet clear the earl would have to win and also to keep by mained till the time of the Emperor Frederic Barbarossa. His his own good sword and his own broad pieces. Then it was son Henry married Constance, the only child and heiress of offered to one of Henry III.'s own sons, but was declined after William II., who was the direct descendant of Roger Guiscard. much money had been spent in backing up the title.
In Henry, upon his father's death, became Emperor of Germany, Charles, Duke of Anjou, brother of St. Louis, Alexander IV., and of course, in right of his wife, King of Naples and Sicily. who had succeeded Innocent, found a willing recipient of the His reign was not a long one, and when Frederick II., his kingdom of Naples, even on condition of winning it at the successor, came to the throne, a minor, there was a chance, sword's point. To assist him, the Pope published a crusade which was not lost by enemies of the imperial house, to loosen against Manfred, and promised endless felicity to all who should the hold which the emperor had upon his Italian dominions. die fighting in behalf of the French duke. At Benevento—where,
For many years the factions of the Guelphs and Ghibellines in spite of terrible bravery, the Neapolitan army was routed, that is to say, the partisans of the Papal power (the Guelphs), and Manfred, scorning to be taken, plunged into the thickest of and those of the emperor (the Ghibellines)--had divided all the fight and there met death-Charles of Anjou at one stroke eastern Europe. The interest of the Pope was the interest of overcame all resistance, and found himself master of the kingdoms a large body of men who, in addition to the influence which of Naples and Sicily. Conradin, who was not dead, though only their priestly office gave them over an ignorant and superstitious a youth in his seventeenth year, pat himself at the head of the people, possessed an immense power by virtue of the monopoly remaining friends of his house, and marched to pluck the fruit which they exercised over the sources of secular learning. which the Duke of Anjou had won. At Tagliacozzo he met This influence they exerted in behalf of themselves and their the French troops, a bloody battle ensued, the Germans were master, and succeeded in forming a compact and well-organised routed, and Conradin fled to Astura, where he was given up to party among the laity in opposition to the imperial power. the vengeance of his enemy. That enemy, incapable alike of Among their adherents were the inhabitants of the principal generosity and mercy, caused him to be publicly put to death, Italian cities, ever apprehensive of danger from their German the vice-gerent of Christ consenting. Upon the scaffold, which suzerain ; the kings of France, ever jealous of the power and was erected in the market-place of his own capital city, Conpredominance of the emperors; and an un-German following radin announced, before laying his youthful head on the in Germany, known as the Saxon party. The Ghibelline or block, that his rights survived in Peter III. of Aragon, who had Imperial faction included those who strove to make the emperor married the daughter of Manfred. He slew many more at his supreme as in the older time he had been, and not only claimed death than he had done in his life, for by his sacrifice there was for the emperor an entire independence of the Papal see, but kindled in the breasts of his proper subjects such a hatred for asserted his right to appoint and control the Pope himself. the rulers who had assumed the mastery as was not extinguished
Of course, between these two factions the warfare was till long after the Sicilian Vespers. incessant. At times one prevailed, at times the other; but no The brutality of the French usurper knew no bounds. All opportunity was lost by either of injuring the enemy, whether who had taken part against him in the late wars were put to in season or out of season. The so-called vice-gerent of Christ death, their property was confiscated, their houses were razed was 'no whit better, if so good, as his imperial foe, and means to the ground. Subjection the most utter and complete, were taken to ensure the success of the Papal cause which it is nothing short of it would satisfy the tyrant, who, “lacking hard to suppose the vice-gerent's Master would have approved. nothing but the wrath of God," made his kingdom on the When Frederick II. * died in 1250, after a reign of 38 years, mainland a howling waste. But for Sicily his fierce fury was spent in ceaseless attacks upon the Papal power, he left two reserved. The Sicilians had risen very generally in favour of Bons, Conrad, his heir, and Manfred, who was illegitimate. Conradine. Charles, therefore, sent over Guillaume l’Estendard,
Although Conrad had been elected King of the Romans, a the cruellest man in his army, to be governor, and to root out title which usually assured the wearer of the imperial title, the prevalent disaffection. This ruffian fully justified his he was prevented by the arts of Pope Innocent IV. from master's choice. With fire, sword, and gibbet, he “quieted” succeeding to the parple. Strong efforts were also made to the island ; there was not a house where there was not one dead, oust him from his kingdom of Naples, but there he established and those who remained alive envied their brothers who had himself, and after a reign of two years died, leaving a young died. Those who had exclaimed against the severity of the son, Conradin, whom, as his successor, he commended to the Suabian government looked back sorrowfully to the days when
Manfred ruled them. “We thought we had got a king from This monarch was Frederick I. of Sicily from 1197 to 1250, and the Father
of fathers, and we have gotten antichrist,"
said the clergy, who, curbed by Manfred, were utterly despoiled by