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Cannt having come into power, Chaucer felt a corresponding in mind when we come to remark upon the poems of Chaucer Referse of fortune, and lost the office he had so long held. In singly. 1389 the Lancastrian party were once more in the ascendant, Before proceeding to consider the poetry of Chaucer in deand Chancer was appointed to the valuable office of Clerk of the tail, it is necessary to speak very shortly upon matters which King's Works. But misfortune again overtook him. In about have given rise to much controversy—the language in which he two years he lost all the offices which he had held; in his wrote, and the principle of versification which he adopted. distress he was compelled to sell or mortgage the pensions Some writers have treated Chaucer as one who spoiled the which had been conferred upon him from time to time, and purity of the English tongue by the wholesale introduction of which had amounted to considerable sums; and was thus French words into it; while others have regarded his works as reduced to very great poverty. In this distress he seems to the most perfect standard of the English spoken in his day. have continued for some years, until in 1394 he received a The truth appears to be that in the main Chaucer used the pension from the king, which was subsequently increased English language as it was usually spoken and written in his sufficiently to place him in comfort. He died on the 25th of day by the aristocracy and among educated men, which would October, 1400, probably at his house in Westminster, and was for obvious historical reasons be less purely Saxon and more buried in Westminster Abbey.
mixed with French than the language of the lower orders. But Not only was Chaucer thus almost throughout his whole life it is also beyond doubt that Chaucer, in enlarging the range of bronght into constant and close intercourse with some of the ideas which were to be expressed in English poetry, must have most eminent political and party leaders of his time, but he found it necessary at the same time to enlarge its vocabulary, also appears to have lived on terms of intimacy with his and that he did so by the adoption of words from the French. brother poets and men of letters. Of these, as we have seen, and though, many words used by him have since been lost, and the greatest was Gower, between whom and Chaucer a close many more have been introduced, it is still truethat the vocafriendship existed. His connection with John of Gaunt, too, bulary thus formed is substantially the same as that now in use. brought him within the circle of the great religious movement With regard to the forms of English words as written by brought about by Wickliffe and his disciples. John of Gaunt Chaucer, a few points must be borne in mind by the reader, was Wickliffe's protector, and the Lancasterian party at that in order to a thorough understanding of the author. In its. time leaned much upon the support of those large classes of the earliest form—the Anglo-Saxon-English was a language, like community who, like Wickliffe, rebelled against the dominion the classical Greek and Latin, with a complete system of inand revolted against the corruptions of the regular clergy. flections-forming, for instance, the cases of its nouns by Hence we can trace throughout the works of Chaucer-in appropriate changes in their termination, instead of by the use his vigorous, and no doubt somewhat exaggerated, pictures of of prepositions, as in the present day. In the English of wealthy and self-indulgent abbots, dissolute monks, and lying Chaucer, though it was not so to the same degree in that of pardoners, contrasted with his attractive sketches of the poor some of his contemporaries, these case-endings, except the s or es and pions parish clergy-his sympathy with the movement of of the genitive, are lost, the rest being represented, if at all, the Reformers.
by an e at the end of the word, which e is sometimes sounded It will easily be seen that the times in which Chaucer lived and sometimes silent. In words of French origin, also, the and the circumstances of his career were peculiarly favourable final e is in Chaucer, as in French poetry, as often sounded for a great and original poet, and especially for one with as mute. The presence of the final e in many words in which Chaucer's unrivalled power of catching and reproducing the it is no longer written, and the fact that this final e is peculiarities in character and habit of classes of men. Border habitually sounded as an additional syllable of the word, is the conntries are the favourite ground of picturesque writers. one strongly marked difference between Chaucer's English and Types of character are more strongly marked and more sharply our own so far as the noun is concerned. But it will be noticed contrasted there than elsewhere. Thus Scott chose for his by every reader of Chaucer that the sounding of the final e is nusual field the border-land between England and Scotland, or by no means an invariable rule; indeed, it is probably quite the dividing line of highland and lowland. And the age of as often silent, especially before a vowel or the letter h, from Chaucer may well be called the border-land between the dark which it may be inferred that in Chaucer's day the older proages and the modern period. In his own great poem he brings nunciation was beginning to give way to the modern. Thus together the knight who had fought for the Cross in Prussia such words as poore (poor) and time are sometimes, as the metre with his brethren of the Teutonic order, and the prosperons shows, to be read as we pronounce them now, and sometimes as London merchant and the essentially modern country gentle poore, time. In the verb, also, there are a few old forms still man; and this was a true picture of the times. So in the retained in Chaucer which we have now lost. Thus the infinitive literature of that age, as we have already seen, the formal and of the verb, instead of being, as now, to seek, is more commonly learned Gower and the rough and antique satirist Langlande to seeken, or to seeke. The plural of the present tense, instead were alike contemporaries of Chancer ; while in Italy Petrarch of being we, you, or they seek, was generally we, you, or hi seeken, was writing poetry as polished and artistic as any that the the stiil older form ending in eth being occasionally found. world has ever seen. This was just the age in which the genius The imperative mood is not seek, but seeketh. In the past of Chaucer, with its singular variety of scope, and its power participle Chaucer still habitually retains the old prefix i or y of seizing points of character, would find fullest play; and (corresponding to the German ge, as gehabt
, from haben) at the Chaucer's varied career was entirely in his favour. As soldier, beginning of the word. Thus he writes itaught, ipinched, courtier, scholar, diplomatist, and man of business, he must isett, when we shouldsay taught, pinched, set. With the exception have had unusual opportunities of studying character and of these points, however, and some others of minor importance, learning the real life of his age. And we find the character the chief differences between Chaucer's English and our own of his poetry in this respect just what we might expect to find are differences of spelling. And
as the eye becomes
accustomed. it under these circumstances. He has left, in such poems as to the older spelling, and the few antique grammatical forms "The Flower and the Leaf” and “The Court of Love," perfect become familiar, every student will find that he meets no greater specimens of the fairyland in which the Troubadours delighted, difficulty in reading Chaucer than that which arises from with all their grace bat all their fantastic unreality. But the an occasional obsolete word, for which a dictionary has to be same poet has left that marvellous photograph from real life, consulted. the prologue to the “Canterbury Tales;" and the genuine and The versification of Chaucer has been the subject of much simple pathos of the story of Griselda. The variety of cha controversy. To some his lines have seemed absolutely without racter in the poetry of Chancer keeps constantly before our metre
, rhythm, or order of any kind; while others have minds that, though he is rightly called the source from which perhaps run into an opposite extreme, and represented his the stream of English poetry takes its rise
, that source itself, versification to be as regular as that of Pope or Goldsmith. like the great lake that feeds the Nile, derives its fulness not The truth seems to be that in general Chaucer's versification only from the springs that arise within its bosom, but from is quite regular, the proper measure of syllables being found the streams whose waters it collects and makes its own. Some in the line and the proper number of accents. The seeming of the various channels of literature which converge in the irregularity arises from not attending to the pronunciation of works of Chaucer we have already pointed out in previous words in Chaucer's time. But, on the other hand, it is plain lessons, and we shall ask our readers to bear this observation that Chaucer did allow himself far greater licence in the
matter of metre than modern poets have done; and there are in part of Jean de Meun, two poets who lived, one nearly & a large number of his lines in which, though a certain rhythm century and a half, and the other nearly a century before is preserved, the syllables will not bear counting. The main Chaucer. The work is, as usual, an allegory, in which, under key to Chaucer's versification is to be found in what we the person of Amant or Lover, are detailed the adventures of have already explained the sounding of the final e. It must true love in its pursuit of the rose, the object of its affection. also be remembered that many words of French origin, such “The House of Fame” is a dream and an allegory, like the as courage, menace, liquour, were not pronounced as we pro- preceding poems, but an allegory of a very different class. The nounce them, with a marked emphasis on the first syllable, poet is borne by a golden eagle to the temple of Fame, where courage, ménace, líquour, but as in French, with both syllables the goddess sits enthroned, and awards such measure of fame equally emphasised, courage, ménáce, líquóur.
as she will to those who seek her honours, while the names A thorough understanding of Chaucer's system of versification the great dead are inscribed in their appropriate places apon is of so much importance to any one beginning to read his the temple. This scheme' affords to Chaucer not only amph works, that we give here the first twelve lines of the Prologue space for brilliant and impressive description, but for keel to the “Canterbury Tales” as they are commonly printed, followed discrimination of the characteristics of those to whom he assiga by a metrical arrangement of the same. Both the text and the a place in the temple; while the injustice of the godde metrical arrangement of it are taken from Mr. Bell's edition of decrees admits of that satiric treatment of which Chancer Chaucer :
a master. The general character of this poem is knowo “Whan' that Aprille, with his showres swoote, most readers through Pope's modernised version of it, unde
, The drought of Marche hath perced to the roote,
the name of “The Temple of Fame." And bathud every veyne in swich licour,
The long poem of “Troilus and Cressida," and the series o Of which vertue engendred is the flour;t
tales published under the title of “The Legend of Good Women, Whan Zephirus eek with his swete breeth
are of a wholly different school. In them we find nothing Enspirud hath in every holte and heeth
dream or allegory, nothing of the dreamy unreality of The texdre croppes, and the yonges soune Hath in the Ram his halfe cours ironne,'
romance. The subjects, no doubt, are very remote from And smale fowless maken' melodie,
own time or from Chaucer's, but the interest of the poen That slepen alle night with open yhe, 40
is purely human and natural. “Troilns and Cressida," thong So priketh hem nature in here corages, 41
many of its principal characters are Homeric, is founded on Thanne longen folk to gonon pilgrimages."
story wholly unknown to, and, indeed, quite out of harmar “Whân that | April | 18, with his schow | rěs swote, with the notions of classical times. Chaucer, no doubt, deris Thd drought of Marche / hath per oěd to thě roote, the story from Boccaccio, just as Shakespeare afterwards by And ba | thud éve | rý vēyne | In switch | lrcour,
rowed it from Chaucer. The "Legend of Good Women" consi of which / vërtue 1 engön | drĕd is the flour ;
of a series of nine stories of women in ancient times famona Whăn Zē | phirus, eěk with | hřs sweë | tě breeth
their constancy and devotion in love. It is said that this bo Enspi | rud häth Yn eve / tý hölte | ind heeth
is one of the very latest of Chaucer's works; and them Thẻ tên | drẻ crop | pẽs, and | thế võn | gõ sönne
internal evidence to support the view. There is also a tradit Håth in thd Rām | hřs hål | fè cours | Yrõnne,
that the work was intended as a kind of apology to the And smã lẽ föw | lẻ mã | kẽm mỏ | 1bdiễ, That slepen al lê night | with õpën õhe,
sex to atone for any harshness with which he might have trea so pri këth hëm nåtūre In hêre | coräges,
women in his earlier works. Thinne lön i gěn folk | to gon | on pil | grimages."
There are many other shorter poems of Chaucer which author is almost always that founded upon chronological order
, no great importance in itself, but which has been the subi The most instructive classification of the writings of a great space does not allow us to examine. And he has left us
separate work in prese, “ The Testament of Love," & work for such an arrangement shows us not only the author's works, of much discussion, in consequence of an idea, probably with but the history of his mind as well
. The history of Chaucer's foundation, that the book contains, under an allegorical ga writings is so ill ascertained, that no chronological arrangement the story of the author's own life. of them can be reliable. But they may usefully be grouped into certain classes, according to their general character. In Canterbury Tales," which we shall do in the next lesson.
It remains only to consider Chaucer's greatest work, the first place, we find a series of poems, some of them of considerable length, but by no means among the longest of Chaucer's poems, which distinctly belong, in subject, in form,
THE UNIVERSITIES.–VII. and in treatment, to the school of the French romance-writers, who, as we have seen, had from the first supplied the literary HAVING passed his final Michaelmas Examination, the sta
DUBLIN UNIVERSITY.-II. appetite of the Normans in England. They are almost all dreams and allegories of love or kindred subjects. They are full of is publicly admitted to the degree of Bachelor of Arts (An graceful fancy, ingenuity of invention, keen appreciation of the Baccalaureus), in the Senate House, by the Chancellor or beauties of nature, and sweetness of versification. But they
Chancellor of the University. do not show the higher and rarer qualities of Chaucer's genius.
The proceedings on the occasion of conferring degrees To this class belong “ The Court of Love," "The Assembly of called “commencements.” The fee which has to be paid for Fowls,”. “ The Cuckoo and the Nightingale," "The Flower and degree of B.A. is £1; and three years after the taking of the Leaf," "Chaucer's Dream,” and “The Book of the Duchess." B.A. the student, without keeping his name on the co of these, the last-mentioned two refer, the one to the marriage, books in the meantime, can proceed to the degree of Mast the other to the death, of Blanche, John of Gaunt's first wife. Arts (Artium Magister) by payment of the fee of £9 16s. 6 To the same class is to be referred the long poem, “The Ro admit the graduates of one university to the same degree
The three older Universities of Oxford, Cambridge, and Du maunt of the Rose." This is a translation of a very famous eundem gradem) in the other on payment of a fee of £l. French romance, the production in part of Guillaume de Lorris,
From the ontline which we have given of an undergradu 1 When.
• The third person plaral of the course in Dublin University, it will be seen that the entire * His was used for its as well present indicative, like slepen in of his course (if he be non-resident) will be entrance, £15 as for his ; its being of much later the next line, and longen. The form eight half-years' fees (eight guineas each); making, altoge introduction. has been already noticed.
£82 4s. To this, of course, must be added the expense 3 Sweet.
least nine journeys to Dublin during the four years, an * In such moisture as to form 11 Nature so stimulates them in expense of stopping there each time about three days. the power (virtue) by, which the their passions. He, hem, here, are In the foregoing we have spoken only of what is the mini flower is produced.
the usual forms in the English of of examinations required for a degree: there are num
Chaucer's day for they, them, their. honours and prizes which the more ambitious student $ In the sigu of the Ram.
* Past participle for run. The the usual form of the infinitive is obtain in all the departments of a university education. form has been already observed in en. Hence, by a natural con we will now explain, first treating of those which are most upon.
traction, the infinitive of go be. to attract the attention of those whose limited means * Small birds.
comes gon, as in the text. render the aid thus offered to them a valuable boon.
students during their undergraduate course, which we cannot Young men of limited means, on proving such in the here enumerate ; we have mentioned above the most important. form of an application to the Senior Lecturer before the 1st of In addition to the undergraduate course in Arts, which we June in each year, will be allowed to become candidates for a have explained, there are Schools in the various faculties of sizarship, the examination for which is held each year in Trinity Divinity, Law, Medicine, and Engineering, with professors and Term, and the sizarships are granted, according to the number of lecturers attached to each, and numerous and valuable prizes. Facancies, to the best answerers. A sizarship is tenable for four To mention the requirements in these schools for their respecyears from the date of a student's entrance, and candidates are tive testimoniums and diplomas would occupy too much space. allowed to " enter" as Sizars, instead of passing the ordinary
Before joining any of these schools, and so becoming a "proEntrance Examination, if they desire to do so. In case of a man fessional” student, the undergraduate must have passed a certain entering as a Sizar, the entrance fee is only £5 1s. 3d. The portion of his course in Arts, which varies for each school. privileges of a Sizar are that he has not to pay any annual fees, We may, in conclusion, mention that the University of Dublin and is allowed to dine in the College Hall free. In other words, was founded in the year 1591 by Queen Elizabeth, and since that any poor student who has sufficient ability to gain a sizarship, time has given to the United Kingdom some of her most obtains his whole academic education, and his dinner during illustrious sons in all departments of scientific, literary, and term for four years, free of charge. There are also
minor offices public life. The present Chancellor and Vice-Chancellor of the in the college, such as Chapel Clerkships, open to him; and one University are the Right Hon. Lord Cairns, LL.D., late Lord who obtains a sizarship is sure to be able to get pupils to read High Chancellor of England, and the Right Hon. Sir Joseph with him, and so defray his personal expenses. A sizarship may Napier, Bart., LL.D., late Lord High Chancellor of Ireland ; be obtained either in Classics, Mathematics, or Hebrew.
both graduates of Trinity College. The following are the subjects of examination for each kind of sizarship :Classical Sizars.-Greek and Latin Grammar, Ancient
COMPARATIVE ANATOMY.-XIX. Geography, Greek and Roman History, English Composition,
VERTEBRATA. Greek and Latin Prose and Verse Composition, viva voce exami. nation in two Greek and two Latin books, selected each year In the last lesson we described those animals which occupy the from the Entrance Course (the two selected are announced each lowest scale of the vertebrate kingdom, live in water, and year in the University Calendar), and examination by papers in breathe by means of gills. the "Iliad" of Homer, Public Orations of Demosthenes (viz., Proceeding a step higher in the ladder of vertebrate life, we the "Olynthiacs," "Philippics,” “ De Coronâ,” “ De Falsá come to those animals which can live either on land or in water, Legatione ''), the four Plays of Euripides (edited by Porson), and on this account named the Amphibia (from the two Greek Xenophon, Horace, Virgil, Books i.--. of Livy, Terence, and words audi, both; Blos, life), living in two elements. The Am. the Orations of Cicero.
phibia constitute an intermediate form of life between the Mathematical Sizarships.-Geometry of the right line and strictly aquatic and the terrestrial animals. Cavier classified circle ; Algebra (including the theory of equations); and Trigo- them under the name of Batrachia in his fourth order of Repnometry (plane and spherical).
tilia ; but recent zoologists have justly objected to this clasCandidates for the Mathematical Sizarships are also examined sification, and now consider them as a distinct division of the in the Classics of the ordinary Entrance Course.
Vertebrata. Professor Huxley, in his recent work on the classi. Hebrew Sizarships.- The Grammar, the Second Book of fication of animals, follows out this plan after a method much Samuel, Psalms xlii.—Ixxii., and the Greek and Latin books ap. more scientific in its arrangement than that of any other recent pointed for the viva voce examination for Classical Sizarships. observer. We shall, therefore, follow out his system of classiSizars are required to reside in college.
fication as far as the limits of this lesson will admit. In order SCHOLARSHIPS.
to live in two such different media as water and air, it is requiScholars rank next to the Fellows of the College, and are fish, and also of that form of breathing apparatus which pre
site that these animals should be in possession of gills like the members of the Corporate Body of the University. The Scholar- dominates in the higher forms of vertebrate life, called lungs. ships, which are tenable until the M.A. degree may be taken, The latter consist of membranous bags, divided internally into are granted in both Science and Classics. (For the details of a number of small compartments or cells, over which the blood the examination, which is a very severe test of scholarship, we is carried by means of a delicate net-like arrangement of capilmust refer the reader to the University Calendar.) Scholars lary vessels, in order that the oxygen element, so essential to only pay half tuition fees, and receive a small annual allowance the welfare of the component tissues of the animal, may be in money from the college. They have their “commons " free, restored to the blood, and the carbonic acid removed from it. and only pay half the ordinary rent for their rooms. They must Nothing can exceed the beauty and extreme delicacy of the be resident students, and members of the United Church of Eng- mechanism
of the breathing apparatus, which, variously modiland and Ireland. "Non-Foundation" Scholarships are, however, fied, is seen to play such a useful part in the economy of the granted to Dissenters and Roman Catholics on the same terms, higher animals. The Amphibia possess the typical characters of and with the same emoluments, as the Foundation Scholarships. the Vertebrata, already described. Like fishes they are coldMODERATORSHIPS.
blooded. Their blood is red and corpusculated. Fig. V. illasInstead of proceeding to his B.A. degree by the ordinary trates two red blood corpuscles of the frog, magnified 700 times, Michaelmas Senior Sophister Examination, as already ex. after drawings made by Dr. Lionel Beale. The blood corpuscles plained, a student may become a candidate for a Mode of the proteus and the siren are the largest known. ratorship, and obtain his degree by passing in one or more of By Professor Huxley the Amphibia are divided into four the five Moderatorship Courses, which are as follow:-Mathe orders, as follows:matics and Mathematical Physics--Classics-Logic and Ethics 1. The Urodela, or those with persistent tails. 2. The Batra--Experimental and Natural Science and History, Political chia, or frogs. 3. The Gymnophonia, or Amphibia with naked Economy, and English Literature. For each of these Moderator- snake-like bodies. 4. The Labyrinthodonto, so called from the ships the course of reading prescribed is very extensive, and to labyrinth-like and complicated arrangement of their teeth. gain the first Senior Moderatorship is a high university honour. The first order comprises the newts, salamanders, proteus,
Two Studentships are given each year, one to one of the siren, etc. The second, toads and frogs. The third, those Senior Moderators in Classics, and the other to one of the Senior animals called by Linnæus, Cæcilia (cæcus, blind), or blind-worms. Moderators in Mathematics and Physics, the candidates being They are, however, not blind, as that naturalist supposed ; they selected in accordance with the distinction they have gained in have eyes, but very small ones, and nearly hidden under the some one other Moderator Course at least. Those who obtain skin. The fourth are a genus of gigantic fossil Amphibia. FootStudentships are paid £100 per annum by the College Board prints of these animals have been found in the new red sandfor seven years. They are not required to reside, and have no stone in different parts of this country: duties to perform. Thus these prizes are a great aid to those The Amphibia undergo a remarkable change or metamor of limited means in the early years of their professional career. phosis as they advance towards maturity. They are for the
There are numerous smaller distinctions and prizes given to most part developed from eggs deposited in the water and
afterwards fecundated. The resulting young are called tad again restored to it from the atmosphere, and to expel from the poles. In their early stage they resemble fishes. They breathe blood the carbonic acid which results from the waste products. by means of gills, which project from each side of the body It will be surmised that in those animals (for example, the behind the head. (Fig. II.) They have no fins, and in their frog, etc.) possessing only temporary gills, that, as the lungs early stage they are destitute of legs. (Fig. I., a.) As life ad usurp their place, a change must of necessity arise in the vances these external gills disappear, the animal breathing by arrangement of the blood vessels. This is the case. When the means of internal gills, which are suspended from arches, and lungs come into play, the blood is diverted to them and away bathed by the water in a similar manner as that arrangement from the gills. (Fig. IV.) In those Amphibia with persistent described in fishes. Presently a pair of legs (Fig. I., b) may be gills this change is only partial. In the frog tribe the skin also seen to grow from the sides of the body. The hind legs make acts as an organ of respiration by absorbing moisture. By their appearance first, and the fore legs subsequently, in the reason of this it is enabled to live for a long time deprived of frog. (Fig. I., c.) This is not always the case with the other food and air. This fact has given origin to many amusing tales Amphibia ; for example, in the salamander the order of leg. of toads being found alive entombed in coal-beds and blocks of appearance is reversed. In the siren the hind legs are wanting stone, where they had evidently existed (believe it who chooses !) As the legs approach to
for hundreds of years. wards a state of perfect de
The digestive and nervous velopment, the tail gradually
apparatus undergo a elight contracts and wastes (Fig.
increase in complexity from I., d), until it has completely
that described in the last disappeared. During this period changes are taking
Frogs are destitute of place in the internal as well
ribs, and consequently have as external economy of the
not an expansile chest. This body. Nature now prepares II.
necessitates them to breathe it for an extended sphere of
by swallowing the air. The action by endowing it with
skeleton of the Amphibia a pair of lungs, by which it
evinces decided advances is enabled to live either in
towards that of the higher its native element, or to ex.
Vertebrata. This is very eritend its peregrinations to
dent in the disposition and terrestrial soil, and live there
conformation of the bones also. This transition from
of the limbs-i.e., in those the larval to the frog con
which possess the latter. dition cannot fail to remind
The skull joins with the ver the student of another me
tebral column by means of tamorphosis-namely, that
two condyles, which, Profes. which the caterpillar un
sor Huxley remarks, sharply dergoes to become butterfly
distinguishes the Amphibis or moth. In the former
from the higher Vertebrata. the transit is from a strictly aquatic to a double form of
REPTILIA. life; in the latter from an
Far away beyond the conearthy to an aërial state of
fines of history-probably existence. It is by such
ages before the secondary metamorphoses as these
organisation—the earth was that Nature teaches man to 2
tenanted by gigantic speaspire to a higher degree of
cies of the class Reptilie. intelligence and usefulness.
The reorganisation of the The lesson comes with an
earth completed, and man equal force from the much
placed upon its surface, we despised toad-whose hoarse
find the reptile again playcroakings break the still. ness of the night in its quiet AMPHIBIA.-I. (a, b, c, d) SUCCESSIVE METAMORPHOSES OF THE FROG. II. ture debits the snake with
ing a prominent part. Scripreign of darkness over their
TADPOLE OF FROG, SHOWING EXTERNAL GILLS. III. SKELETON OF THE
the credit of inducing our marshy habitations—as it
DISTRIBUTION TO THE GILLS. does from the pretty but
V. BLOOD CORPUSCLES OF THE FROG first parents to commit the (HIGHLY MAGNIFIED).
sin of disobedience. Known irresolute butterfly, bask Refs. to Nos. in Figs.-IV. 1, artery arising from a single ventricle, and di- from the earliest times, ing to and fro in the sun viding
into six branches, which go to the three pairs of gills, 22, 33, 44. their ungainly appearance, shine of day. In the frogs,
their malignity of dispositoads, and newts the gills
tion, and the formidable entirely disappear, and for this reason they have been named attribute (poison-fangs) peculiar to an order of this class, bare Caducibranchiate Amphibia.* Others are called Perenni- rendered them objects of hatred and fear. They are regarded branchiate Amphibia, from the fact that their gills remain by every one-except the enthusiastic naturalist—as the most permanently, even after the formation of complete lungs. despicable part of the whole of Nature's handiwork. Shakespeare Such are the proteus and siren;
also the axolotl, to which drew from them an expressive illustration of dissimulation the Mexicans are partial as an article of diet, especially
"And Gloster's show when, as Dr. Baird remarks, dressed after the manner of stewed
Beguiles him, as the mournful crocodile eels, and served up with rich and stimulating sauces.
With sorrow spares relenting passengers ; The Circulatory Apparatus.-The heart of the Amphibia is
Or, as the snake, rolled in a flowering bank, indicative of progressive development. It consists of three
With shining checkered slough, doth sting a child, chambers or cavities. Two of these are reception cavities, and
That, for the beauty, thinks it excellent. named the systemic and pulmonic auricles ; the third is a pro- The Reptilia are now classified with birds as a sub-group of pelling one, and called
the ventricle. The object of the ventricle Vertebrata, which Professor Huxley calls the Sauropsida. is to propel the blood to the system and lungs—to the system for the purpose of carrying oxygen for the nutrition of the class differ materially from each other. The Crocodilia have tissues, and to the lungs so that the oxygen element may be their bodies covered with horny plates embedded in the
. * From caducus, casily falling ; branchiæ, gills.
Larpa, a lizard ; ovis, appearance.
They have very short legs and webbed feet. The alligators of a fourth, by a septal division of the ventricular cavity into have not webbed feet. Tortoises have a complete external two parts ; so that the blood, arterial and venous, still mixes. skeleton, covered with thinner plates, which represents a part of In some this intraventricular septum is almost complete, formthe skin. The snakes are destitute of these thick outward ing a quadrilocular heart like that of the higher vertebrates. investments, but have scales covering their bodies.
The blood corpuscles are not very numerous. They are oval The Teeth.—The dental apparatus varies according to the in shape and of large size, varying from ito ito of an inch in reptile's mode of life. The crocodiles have long jaws, armed the long diameter, and go to aboo of an inch in the short diameter. with a single row of conical teeth, held in bony sockets. In The nervous system does not indicate any considerable adalligators, the front teeth (canine) of the lower jaw fit into a pitvances in its general structure above that of the higher fishes. in the edge of the upper jaw. The Chelonia (tortoises, etc.) The brain is of small size in comparison with the skull. have no teeth. Their jaws are covered with a horny bill, which The young of the Reptilia are developed from eggs. Some serves the purpose of teeth. The teeth of the Ophidia (serpents) are hatched before being born, as in the viper. The majority, are not lodged in sockets. In the cobra, rattlesnake, viper, etc., however, deposit their eggs in the sand on river banks, and leave the teeth are grooved or per.
them to be hatched by the heat forated by a canal, which com
of the sun. The egg of the municates with a poison gland
crocodile is about the size of (see Vol. II., p. 176), and serves
that of a goose. The turtle to convey the poison into the
makes two or three visitations wound made by the animal's
to the shore in the course of bite. The opening of the
a year to deposit her eggs in canal is not at the extremity
a cavity she scoops out to reof the tooth, but at a point a
ceive them. Her eggs amount little above it, so as not to in
to about a hundred at each terfere with the cutting ac10
sitting. She carefully covers tion of the tooth. These teeth
them with sand, and leaves are attached to movable bones.
them. The mode of developWhen at rest, the poison
ment of the reptilian embryo fangs are hidden by a fold of
resembles that of the higher the gums. Behind them are
Vertebrata. The Reptilia radiments of other fangs, to
possess a completely ossified replace the former, if lost.
skeleton. The skull is small, The poison of these serpents 2'
the greater part of its bulk prove rapidly fatal to hot
being made up of jaws. The blooded animals when intro
head is articulated to the duced into the blood current
spinal column by means of through a wound. When
a single condyle. The ribs swallowed it is harmless.
are numerous in the crocoThe tongue in some of these
diles, lizards, and serpents. animals is very long. In the
In the snake they amount to well-known chameleon it is,
as many as three hundred when fully extended, nearly 12
pairs. In the latter they are as long as the body. By means
free at one extremity, the of an hyoid apparatus it can
breast-bone and limbs being protrude and retract it with
absent. amazing rapidity. It serves
The spinal segments form a as an organ of prehension.
series of ball and socket joints, The Alimentary Canal pre
80 as to allow considerable lati. sents few differences from
tude of motion. The tortoise that already described in the
is invested by a bony habita Amphibia. It is compara
tion, consisting of two plates, tively short, and usually of
united at the sides, to the inner great width. The gullet is
aspect of which it is immova. wide and extensible, especi.
bly fixed. The anterior and ally in the snake, which is
posterior extremities are open, said to be able to swallow
to allow the animal to protrude animals of greater bulk than
its head and limbs. The upper itself. The large and small
or back plate is called the caraintestines are very distinctly REPTILIA.—I. ANATOMY OF THE COMMON Snaks (AFTER MILNE-EDWARDS). pace; the under or ventralone, divided, and separated by à Refs. to Nos. in Fig. 1.–1,
glottis ; 2, gullet, cut across at 2 to the plastron. The upper plate curtain or valve. In a tor
show the heart, etc., in situ ; 3, stomach ; 4, intestine ; 5, cloaca ; 6, consists of eight ribs flattened toise of moderate size the
anus ; 7, liver ; 8, ovarium ; 9, ova, or eggs; 10, windpipe ; 11, prin out, blended together, and whole length of the alimentary cipal lung ; 12, little lung.
solidly fixed to the backcanal was found to be four
bone. The lower plate refeet. The small intestines were 204 inches, and the large 161 , presents the breast-bone, arranged in a similar manner. It is inches long. The stomach was 2 inches long. The intestines composed of nine pieces. The shoulder and pelvic bones, which terminate in a cloaca, which is generally also the common point afford attachment to the limbs, are situated in the interior of of termination of the urinary and generative organs.
this bony house. The neck and tail portions of the spinal column The Respiratory Apparatus.-The Reptilia never breathe by only are free. The bones of the (in Reptilia possessing) ex. gills at any period of their existence, like the two preceding tremities are well developed, and approach in character those of classes, but by lungs. These are two in number, and made up the higher Vertebrata. The toes are usually five in number on of numerous cells, usually of large size, aggregated together. each foot, movable, and armed with claws. In snakes and lizards the lung called the principal lung is much CLASSIFICATION.-Professor Huxley groups the Reptilia into larger than the other, and, in fact, the working lung. The the following orders :-(1) Crocodilia, comprising the modern smaller one, called the little lung, is either rudimentary or crocodiles, alligators, and caimans, and the extinct Teleosauria absent. Tortoises and turtles, like the ribless frogs, owing and belodonts; (2) Lacertilia, lizards, blind-worms, and the to their possessing immovable ribs, are necessitated to breathe chameleons ; (3) Ophidia, or snakes ; (4) Chelonia, turtles and by swallowing the air. The reptilian heart consists of three tortoises. Besides these, there are five orders of fossil cavities. There is an evident tendency in many to the formation Reptilia.