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LESSONS IN CHEMISTRY-XXIX. It may be procured by whipping, with a bunch of twigs, freshly.
drawn blood in the act of coagulating, which it always does THE COMPONENTS OF THE ANIMAL FRAME.
when removed from the influence of life; it attaches itself to Bones, which compose the rigid skeleton about which the animal the twigs in white, opaque, elastic filaments, which under the organism distributes its muscles, nerves, etc., are formed of a microscope appear to be composed of small globules arranged dense cellular tissue of gelatine, made stiff by inorganic salts, in strings. It occurs in muscle in bundles of fibres, hence its chiefly phosphates of lime and magnesia and calcic carbonate. name. This admits of ready proof. Suspend a cleanly-scra bone in In a solution of very dilute caustic alkali, fibrine is soluble. water which has been acidulated with one-sixth of its bulk of Caseine constitutes nearly 3 per cent. of milk, and forms the hydrochloric acid. Effervescence commences over the whole bulk of all cheese. Like albumen, it is insoluble save in alkaline surface, owing to the escape of the carbonic acid gas. In the solutions. In milk it is in its soluble state, owing to the course of three or four days, all the mineral salts will have been presence of a little free alkali. If this be neutralised by a little dissolved out. After several washings in pure water, the bone sulphuric acid, the milk "curdles," the coagulum is collected, is found to be perfectly flexible, though it has retained its shape ; re-dissolved by the aid of a little sodium carbonate, and allowed to if it be dried it will become of a transparent horny appearance, stand until the fats and oils rise, when the liquid containing the and when boiled for a few hours it will gradually dissolve. The caseine is drawn off by a siphon; to this acid is again added, and solution on cooling will gelatinise. The following table will the caseine again precipitated; this process is repeated several show that bones and teeth have a kindred composition :
times, and finally it is treated with ether to remove all traces
of fat. Bones. Teeth. Enamel. It appears as a white curdy substance. When dissolved in a
weak alkaline solution, as it is in milk, caseine does not coagu
late upon boiling; by this means it may be distinguished from Animal matter.
20 Calcic phosphate
albumen; but when its solution is hot, it absorbs oxygen from
57-67 Calcic carbonate
the air, and becomes covered with a skin. The most remarkable Calcic fluoride
action caseine undergoes is produced by the secretion from the Magnesic phosphate
mucous membrane of the stomach. This is taken advantage of Other salts
to make cheese. The inner membrane of the fourth stomach of a calf is salted and dried; when the milk is slightly warmed
and brought in contact with this, rennet, the caseine coagulates, Horn.—Next in solidity to bones and teeth ranks that horny and carries down with it all the fatty compounds in the milk, substance which appears in the shells and horns of animals, in leaving a clear liquid, whey. This curd, submitted to strong nails, wool, hair, etc. It does not dissolve, as the gelatine will, pressure, becomes cheese. from bones when boiled under pressure, but is softened by heat. Legumine is the form in which azotised matter appears in the It seems to take an intermediate place between gelatinous and vegetable kingdom. It is so closely similar to caseine that many albuminoid substances. Alkaline solutions have the power of eminent chemists pronounce them to be the same body. It dissolving it; when caustic potash is used, ammonia is given appears in the seeds of leguminous plants. To prepare it, digest off. An idea of the composition of some of these bodies will be the pulp of crushed peas in warm water for two or three hours, given by this table :
The undissolved portion is separated by straining, the liquid is allowed to deposit its starch, then, on the addition of a little acetic acid, the legumine falls as a flocculent precipitate. It
behaves like albumin, and even undergoes coagulation by rennet, Carbon.
50-3 50.0 50.62 50-65 48.61 which faot enables the Chinese to make a kind of cheese from Hydrogen
dried peas, which contain a fourth of their weight of legumine. Nitrogen
The relative composition of these albuminoid substances will Sulphur.
27:55 Oxygen, etc.
be indicated in the following table :
ALBUMINOID GROUP. The softer parts of the animal structure are comprised of
Legumine various substances, the accurate analysis of which is so difficult that no satisfactory formulæ have been devised to express their
59.7 53.83 50-53 composition; yet their main properties are well understood.
7.15 They are classed under two heads :
15-65 18.15 The Albuminoid group, which comprises albumen, fibrine, Oxygen caseine, and legumine; and
0-85 The Gelatigenous group, which includes gelatine, chondrine, Phosphorus
0-3 and osseine. Albumen is found in almost a pure state in white of egg, and
100-00 100-00 in the serous fluid of the blood. If white of egg be mixed with water and filtered, the filtrate neutralised exactly with acetic Proteine.-When a solution of any albuminoid substance is acid, then largely diluted, a copious flocculent precipitate falls, neutralised a flocculent precipitate falls, which proves to be the which may be collected on a filter: this is albumen. It is same for each of the four members of the group. At first this was insoluble in water, but readily soluble if the water be slightly considered to be the base of the group, the members being its alkaline. The most characteristic property of albumen is the compounds with sulphur and phosphorus. Hence it was called fact that it solidifies and becomes insoluble when heated to and proteine, from putos, first-the foundation of the group. But above 60° Cent. The solution of albumen in alkaline water this idea has been abandoned, and proteine is considered to be does not undergo coagulation when heated ; a small portion of a product of the action of the alkali on an albuminoid subsulphur, however, is separated.
stance. Alcohol precipitates albumen from its solution ; ether does The Gelatigenous group. — These substances contain less not. The solutions of most of the metallic salts precipitate carbon and sulphur, but more nitrogen than the preceding group, albumen ; hence in cases of poisoning from such salts, the and have no representative in the vegetable kingdom. antidote is the white of eggs. Tannic acid, or infusion of galls, Gelatine is the main component of the walls of the cells which, also gives a copious precipitate. In the human body albumen filled with albuminoid matter, build up the material of the animal forms 7 per cent. of the blood; it is found in all serous exuda- frame; it is, as we have noticed, the organic constitaent of tions, but not in any of the fluids with which the body parts, bone. except in the case of disease.
Gelatine is found in almost a pure state as isinglass, which is Fibrine, like albumen, occurs in a liquid and in a solid state; prepared from the floating bladder of sturgeons. Glae and size in the former condition it constitutes 25 per cent. of the blood, are impure varieties. It is soluble in hot water; corrosive and in the latter it forms the largest part of the muscular tissue. sublimate, platinic chloride, and infusion of galls precipitate it.
6.9 15.4 23.5 1-2
15.5 22-0 1.6 0.4
But with tannic acid it forms a compound of a buff colour, It is found to be a compound of sodium with two resinous acids, which is the basis of leather,
glycocholic and taurocholic, but it is a very complicated comGlue and size represent the commercial value of gelatine. The pound, and in its analysis there appear several peculiar subparings of hides, the ears and hoofs, etc., are steeped in lime- stances. water to remove the hair and other impurities; they are then Cholesterine is ever present in very small quantities, but it is exposed to the air, that the lime may become carbonate, and extremely insoluble, and when once too much is secreted it thus innoxious. When washed they are introduced into a copper becomes deposited in the gall-bladder, forming "gall-stones;” with a false perforated bottom; the water is heated by injections when these get into the duct, violent pain at once ensues. of steam. As soon as a portion of the liquid gelatinises on (2.) Blood is the great agent which builds up and repairs the cooling, the copper is emptied, and the liquid allowed to cool. body, and furnishes material from which the glands extract their A fresh supply of water is added to the copper; this produces secretions. Hence it contains all the elements necessary to an inferior kind of glue, while the product of the third dilution renew every part of the frame. When allowed to stand it soon is size. The process of drying the glue is the most delicate part coagulates; this is brought about by the fibrine refusing to of the manufacture. The soft gelatinous mass is cut into slices remain in a fluid state when separated from the action of life. by wire, and these are exposed to the air on nets. But a sudden If this fibrine be removed, as previously described, the blood rise of temperature will liquefy the whole ; a frost or a fog will will remain Auid. Under the microscope it appears not as a be equally injurious. The marks on a cake of glue are from the fluid of uniform colour, but as consisting of serum, a yellowish meshes of the net.
transparent liquid, in which float red Leather is made by steeping the skins in lime-water, and Blood corpuscles. These the fibrine as it coagulates gathers removing the hair by scraping. They are next submitted to the together mechanically, and thus the blood is separated into its action of a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid, which clears two parts. These corpuscles owe their colour to homatine, which them of lime and opens the skin to the action of the tan. The contains no less than 6:6 per cent. of iron. This may be removed * tanning" is a long process; oak-bark is used to supply the without materially affecting the colour. tannic acid ; this combines with the gelatine in the cuticle, The corpuscles are flattened discs, the shape of which varies forming leather.
in different animals. The leather used for boots and shoes undergoes the process The blood which flows back to the heart by the veins owes its of currying, by which it is impregnated with oil, which renders dark colour to the presence of carbonio acid gas; whilst the it more supple and impervious to moisture.
bright red of the arterial blood is due to the free oxygen which Chondrine may be distinguished from gelatine by becoming it contains. The supposed process of respiration was alluded coagulated by vegetable acids and by alum. It is produced by to in the lesson on carbonic acid. boiling any of the cartilages; its solution gelatinises on cool. The normal constitution of the blood is albumen, fibrine, ing. There is reason for believing that chondrine oxidises into hæmatine, globuline; oleic, steario, lactic, phosphoric, sulphuric, gelatine.
and hydrochloric acids combined with sodium, potassium, amOsseine is the gelatine procured from bones. The composition monium, calcium, and magnesium; small portions of cholesterine of this group is given in the following table :
and phosphorised fat.
Chyle. The intestines are lined with a set of vessels, termed GELATIGENOUS GROUP.
lacteals; these absorb from the digested food this incipient Gelatine. Chondrine. Osseine.
blood, which is a milky fluid, and empty it into the thoracic duct, from which it enters into the general circulation.
Its composition, determined from the few specimens which Carbon
have been obtained, is similar to that of blood, and some few of 6.63
the red corpuscles are found in the thoracic duct. The true
nature of chyle and blood is not well understood; it may yet be 24.62
found that the red corpuscles are animal organisms. 100.00 100.00 1000
LESSONS IN LATIN.-XL. The liquids which circulate through animals may be divided DEYIATIONS IN THE THIRD CONJUGATION (continued) into three classes: (1.) Those which are secreted by various glands, and aid the progress of digestion. (2.) Those which are
4. Perfect in -ivr; Supine in -ITUM. the products of digestion, as blood and milk. (3.) Those which THESE verbs in the perfect and supine really follow the fourth come away from the body, carrying off the used-up material. conjugation, and so form a kind of hybrid conjugation, a com
(1.) The saliva is secreted by glands in the neighbourhood of pound of the third and the fourth. the mouth, and is poured into the food during the process of
i. Cupio, cupěre, cupivi, cupitum, to desire. mastication. It contains a very active principle, ptyaline, which ii. Pěto, petěre, petivi, petitum, to strive after, aim at; ab can convert starch into sugar. Its inorganic constituents are aliquo, to ask from, entreat. salts of sodium, potassium, and calcium, together with lithates
iii. Quæro, quærere, quæsivi, quæsitum, to seek. The comof the alkalies. These are sometimes deposited on the teeth, pounds are in quiro, quisivi, quisitum; as, exquiro, to search forming tartar.
out. Gastric juice is secreted by the lining membrane of the iv. Rudo, rudere, rudivi and rudi, ruditum, to roar. stomach, whence it issues to carry on the work of digestion
v. Tero, terěre, trivi, tritum (E. R. trite), to rub. that is, of rendering the food soluble. Its active principle is
vi. Arcesso, arcessěre, arcessivi, arcessitum, to send for. pepsine, which has a remarkable solvent power on albumen.
vii. Capesso, capessěre, capessivi, capessītum, to take in hand. When the process of digestion is going on, the gastric juice viii. Facesso, facessere, facessivi, facessitum, to make, take contains a free acid which, according to Miller, is a mixture yourself off ; negotium facessere, to give trouble. of hydrochloric and lactic acids. The saline constituents are ix. Incesso, incessěre, incessivi (no supine), to fall upon. chlorides of calcium, sodium, and magnesium, sodic lactate, and
x. Lacesso, lacessěre, lacessivi, lacessitum, to challenge. a trace of phosphates of lime and iron. The pancreatic fluid is the product of the pancreas—the
VOCABULARY. sweetbread of culinary language. It carries on the work com. Adipiscor, adipisci, Expeto, -ivi, -itum, to lepus, leporis, menced by the saliva, saccharifying the starch ; it seems also to adeptus sum, dep., desire, demand.
howe.] have an action on fatty matters. It is one of the few fluids in to obtain.
Exterus,-1,-um, foreign, Par, paris, n., a pair. the body which contain albumen in a soluble state.
Aratrum, -i, D., of another country. Propěre, hastily. The oile is secreted by the large and important gland, the
Fastidio, 4(with acc.), Religiose, religiously.
Atterore, to rub at, or liver, from the venous blood; it is collected in the gall-bladder,
Repetěre, to seek back, wear doren,
Lepor, or lepos, oris, repeat, borrono. from which it is passed by a duct into the digesting food. Its Caveo, cavi, cautum, m., joke, wit. (Mark Suscipio, -ére, -cepi, colour is greenish-yellow, and from containing mucus it is ropy. to take care, avoid. the difference be -ceptum, to under. From the latter it may be separated by dissolving in alcohol. Cupide, eagerly. tween this word and take, begin.
xxii. Statuo, statuěre, statui, statutum, to make fast, appoint. 1. Sæpe homines, res quas vehementer capiverunt, adepti fastidiunt. Compounds, stituo, etc.; as, destituo, to abandon. 2. Audistine ut leones rudiverint? 3. Bellum ita suscipiatur ut nihil xxiii. Suo, suěre, sui, sutum, to sew. aliud nisi pax quæsita videatur. 4. Quum omnem antiquitatem xxiv. Tribuo, tribuěre, tribui, tributum, to impart, to assign memoriâ repetivěris, tria vix amicorum paria invenies, qui alter pro XXV. Solvo, solvere, solvi, solutum, to loosen, altero vitam deponere parati erant. 5. Cave ne judices de re priusquam xxvi. Volvo, volvěre, volvi, volntum, to roll; congruere, to eam accurate exquisivěris. 6. Erechthei filiæ cupide mortem expeti: agree; metuěre, to fear; pluere, to rain; sterndere, to sneeze, verunt pro vità civium. 7. Omnis Romanorum philosophia repetita est want the supine. The ensuing two have the perfeet in i, and the a Græcis. 8. Legimus Romanos sæpe copsůles suos ab aratro arcessivisse. 9. Multa sacra, ab exteris nationibus adscita atque supine in itum :-Fugio, fugăre, fugi, fagitum, to fly; lambo, arcessita, Romani religiosissime coluerunt.
lamběre, lambi, lambitum, to lick. EXERCISE 152.-ENGLISH-LATIN.
VOCABULARY. 1. Who does not know that Hannibal once wore down the resources Affecti simus, let us Delinquere, to do Fædus, foeděris, 2.., a of the Romans? 2. Never do good men desire bad things. 3. I shall
feel. (The subjunc wrong.
treaty. never disdain what I shall obtain. 4. Dost thou think that, having
tive of the first per Disjicere, cast Furiosas, -2, -um, mad. obtained money, thou wilt not disdain it? 5. Neither despise por
son plural here, as asunder, split. Modo, only nor, but
often is used as the Dominatio, -ōnis, f., disdain any one. 6. Call thy generals from the plough. 7. Do not give trouble to that good man. 8. Bad pupils give trouble to the best
lordship, tyranny. Potestas, -itis, f. teachers. 9. In war we seek for peace. 10. Peace is sought for by Afficere, to make, to affect Excerpere, to take out. porer. us in war. 11. My children eagerly desired death for my life. 12. It Benefactum, -, 9., a Existimatio, önis, Transigere, to bring is certain that our citizens will fall on the enemy.
good deed, benefit. esteem.
EXERCISE 153.-LATIN-ENGLISH. 5. Perfect in -1; Supine in -TUM.
1. Eodem modo erga amicos affecti simus, quo erga nosmet ipsos. a. The stem ends in b or p.
2. Acti labores jucundi sunt. 3. Sola virtus in suả potestate est; i. Capio, capĕre, capi, captum, to take. Compounds in cipěre, omnia præter eam subjecta sunt fortunæ dominationi. 4. Unus dies
, cipio, cepi, ceptum; as, percipio, to take up wholly.
bene et ex præceptis philosophiæ actus, peccanti immortalitati anteii. Rumpo (rupo), rumpăre, rupi, ruptum, to break. Scabo, factorum recordatio jucundissima est.
ponendus est. 5. Conscientia bene actæ vitæ multorumque bene
6. Victus est Xerxes magis scabere, scabi (E. R. scab), to scratch, wants the supine.
consilio Themistoclis, quam armis Græciæ. 7. Hostes, fædere quod 6. The stem ends in c, 9, qu.
modo icérant rupto, subito in castra nostra irruperunt. 8. Plinius iii. Ago, agere, egi, actum, to lead, drive, do, handle, etc. ; 80, subacti, omni libertatis recuperandæ spe ademptä, miseram transe
nullum librum legit quem non excerperet. 9. Cives ab hostibus circumagere, to drive round; peragere, to drive through. The gerunt vitam. 10. Milites hostium aciem pertregerunt et disjecerunt. other compounds have ígo, egere, egi, actum; as, abigo, to 11. Fædera icta ab hostibus tracta sunt. drive away; exigo (used of time), to spend ; subigo, to subdue ;
EXERCISE 154.-ENGLISH-LATIN. cogěre, to bring together, compel (cum and agere), has coëgi, coactum.
1. Your troops will break the treaty they have formed. 2. Will the iv. Facio, facěre, feci, factum, to make, do. Fio is used as enemy break through our line ? 3. Never can the enemy scatter our the passive of facio. A in facio, passes into i in efficio (ef and that wicked men pass their life in misery? 6. The king has taken
forces. 4. Wicked men pass their life in misery. 5. Dost thou think facio), etc. In the imperative, facio makes fac; but perficio (to away all hope of regaining peace. 7. Make extracts from (excerpere) complete) has perfice; the other compounds retain fac; caleface that book (acc.). 8. Our soldiers, taking up their arms (abl. abs.). (from calefacěre, to warm), however, occurs.
will make an attack upon the enemy. 9. I wish to be affected in the v. Ico, icěre, ici (not very good), ictum, to strike, used of a same way towards the old as towards the young. 10. Religion alone treaty. Of the present, we find only icit; the other forms are is in its own power. 11. Whatever it pleases (placet sibi) it can do, supplied by ferire, to strike.
God being its helper. vi. Jacio, jacěre, jeci, jactum, to cast, throw. Compounds,
Fabula.-Capra et Lupus. jício, jēci, jectum, jícěre; as, rejicio, I throw back.
Lapus capram in altâ rupe stantem conspicatus, “ Cur non," inquit, vii. Logo, legěre, legi, lectum, to read; so allěgo, I choose for " relinquis nuda illa et sterilia loca, et huc descendis in berbidos myself ; perlěgo, I read through; prelėgo, I read before ; relēgo, campos, qui tibi lætum pabulum offerunt ?" Cui respondit capra: I read again; sublego, I read under. The following, however,
“Mihi non est in animo, dulcia tutis præponere." have, in the present, ligo; as, colligo, I collect (colligere,
Fabula.---Canis et Boves. collēgi, collectum); deligo and eligo, I choose out ; recolligo, I Canis jacebat in præsepi bovesque latrando a pabulo arcebat. Cui collect again; seligo, I select; but diligo, I love or esteem; unus boum, “Quanta ista," inquit, "invidia est, quod non patēris at intelligo, I understand; and negligo, I neglect, have, in the eo cibo vescamur, quem tu ipse capere nec velis nec possis !"-Hæc perfeet, exi; as, diligo, diligere, dilexi, dilectum.
fabula invidiæ indolem declărat. viii. Frango, frangěre, fregi, fractum, to break. Compounds,
VOCABULARY. fringo, fringere, fregi, fractum ; as, perfringo, I break through.
Capra, -æ, f., a she- | Indðles,-is,f.,character. Vescor, vesci, s dop. ix. Linquo, linquere, liqui, lictum, to leave.
I feed on, eat (with x. Vinco, vincěre, vici, victum, to conquer.
Herbidus, -a, - um | Præsepe, is, D., abl.). c. The stem ends in m.
(herba), grassy. xi. Emo, eměre, emi, emptum, to buy. Compounds in imo,
KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN LATIN.-XXXIX. iměre; as, eximo, exēmi, exemptum, eximěre, to buy off ; but in
EXERCISE 147.-LATIN-ENGLISH. coemo, to buy at once, the e remains.
1. In all matters, before you approach them, deliberation is necesd. The stem ends in u or v.
sary; but when you have deliberated, approach the thing itself speedily. xii. Acuo, acuěre, acui, acutum, to sharpen. The compounds 2. Socrates, on the last day of his life, discoursed many things conare without the supine.
cerning immortality. 3. The fight having begun (literally, hands harxiii. Arguo, arguěre, argui, argatum (part. fut. active argui- ing been joined), our soldiers excelled in bravery. 1. The mind sets in tarus), to convict. Instead of argutom and argutus, convictam motion that body over which it has been placed. 5. Zeno placeda and convictus are used. Argutus, in good Latin, occurs only as happy life in virtue alone. 6. Nature has produced in man a desire to
arrive at truth. 7. A love of themselves has been produced by nature an adjective.
in all animals. 8. Alexander, the conqueror of so many kings and xiv. Exuo, exuěre, exui, exutum, to go out, put off.
peoples, became a slave to anger. 9. I hope that yon will always apply xv. Induo, induěre, indui, indutum, to go in, put on.
yourself to letters with the greatest zeal. 10. Men endowed with the Ivi. Imbuo, imbuěre, imbui, imbutam, to dip into, fill with. greatest intellects, regarded the sanctity of tomba ; (there) clang to xvii. Luo, luěre, lui (no supine, the part. luiturus), to wash.
their minds (an idea) that death is not annihilation, blotting out all xviii. Minuo, minuěre, minui, minutum, to lessen.
things, but, as it were, a certain migration of life.. xix. Nuo, nuěre, nui, to wink, nod; found only in the com
EXERCISE 148.-ENGLISH-LATIX. pounds; no supine, yet abnuiturus.
1. Consulistine patrem? 2. Consule tuis liberis. 3. Ubi bene conxx. Ruo, ruěre, rui, rutum, to rush, fall (ruiturus).
suluerint rem aggrediantur. 4. Milites manus conserebant. 5. Quis xxi. Spuo, spuere, spui, sputum, to spit.
militum in prcelio excelluit? 6. Deus animum corpori preposuit. 7.