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31st.

Vingt-et-un,
21 | Vingt-et-unième,

21st.

OUR HOLIDAY. Vingt-deux, etc.,

22 Vingt-deuxième, etc., 22nd. Trente, 30 Trentième,

30th,

PRISONERS' BASE. Trente-et-un, 31 Trente-et-unième,

A GOOD out-door game which may be played without any appaTrente-deux, etc.,

32 Trente-deuxième, etc., 32nd. Quarante, 40 Quarantième,

ratus-requiring neither bats, balls, mallets, nor any other

40th. Quarante-et-un, 41 Quarante-et-unième,

instruments not always accessible—is a desideratum; and such

41st. Quarante-deux, etc., 42 Quarante-deuxième, etc.,

42nd.

a pastime is found in the ancient game of Prisoners' Base. Any Cinquante, 50 Cinquantième,

50th. group of boys or young men possessed of nimble heels, and Cinquante-et-un,

51 Cinquante-et-uniême, 51st. pretty equally matched in point of strength and agility, may Cinquante-deux, etc.,

52 Cinquante-deuxième, etc., 52nd. join in this wherever there is a moderately large field or piece Soixante, 60 Soixantième,

60th of ground at their disposal, and find plenty of wholesome amuseSoixante-et-un, 61 Soixante-et-unième,

61st. ment and exercise. Soixante-deux, etc., 62 Soixante-deuxième, etc., 62nd.

The game, as we have said, is an ancient one. It is, in fact, Soixante-dix, 70 Soixante-dixième,

70th.

of an antiquity so remote, that its origin cannot be traced. In Soixante-onze, 71 Soixante-onzième,

71st. Soixante-douze, 72 Soixante-douzième, 72nd.

the fourteenth century, it was so constantly played around the Soixante-treize, 73 Soixante-treizième,

73rd.

precincts of the palace at Westminster, that the senators of the Soixante-quatorze, 74 Soixante-quatorzième, 74th,

nation found themselves interrupted in their grave duties by Soixante-quinze,

75 Soixante-quinzième, 75th. the players, and a proclamation was issued to suppress it in that Soixante-seize, 76 Soixante-seizième,

76th. immediate locality. But Shakespeare alludes to the game in Soixante-dix-sept,

77 Soixante-dix-septième, 77th, such a way as to show an impression that it was of much older Soixante-dix-huit, 78 Soixante-dix-huitième, 78th.

date than this. One of his characters in “Cymbeline," describSoixante-dix-neuf, 79 Soixante-dix-neuvième,

29th ing a battle between the Roman forces and the Britons, says of Quatre-vingts, 80 Quatre-vingtième,

80th.

the latterQuatre-vingt-un, 81 Quatre-vingt-unième, 81st.

"An ancient soldier, Quatre-vingt-deux, etc., 82 Quatre-vingt-deuxième, etc., 82nd. Quatre-vingt-dix,

With two striplings-lads more like to run

90th. 90 Quatre-vingt-dixième, Quatre-vingt-onze, 91 Quatre-vingt-onzième, 91st.

The country base than to commit such slaughter

Made good the passage."
Quatre-vingt-douze, etc., 92 Quatre-vingt-douzième, etc. 92nd.
Cent,
100 Centième,

100th. And there are other allusions to the game in his works, as well Cent-un, 101 Cent-unième,

101st.

as those of our older writers. Deux cents, 200 Deux centième,

200th,

Formerly, districts and counties were matched against each Deux cent-un, etc.,

201 Deux cent-unième, 201st. Trois cents, 300 Trois centième,

300th.

other to play the game, as they now play cricket. The wide Trois cent-un, etc.,

301 Trois cent-unième, etc., 301st. popularity cricket has gained since its rise in the last century Mille 1000 Millième,

1000th. may have done much to throw prisoners' base into the shade, or Deux mille, 2000 Deux millième,

2000th. even into oblivion, in localities where it was previously very much Deux mille-cinquante, 2050 Deux mille-cinquantième 2050th. in vogue. It is still frequently played, but not so much as it Un million, 1,000,000 Millionième, 1,000,000th. deserves to be, and would be were it more widely known.

The people of different localities had somewhat different KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN FRENCH.

modes of playing it, and the game was called by various names. EXERCISE 152 (Vol. III., page 30).

Sometimes, as in the passage just quoted from Shakespeare, it 1. N'êtes-vous pas faché d'avoir perdu votre argent ? 2. Je suis was simply base or bays; at others it was bars or prison-bars; chagriné d'avoir perdu ma bourse. 3. De quoi remplirez-vous cette but prisoners' base or prisoners' bars came at last to be the bouteille ? 4. Je la ferai remplir d'encre. 5. N'est-il pas nécessaire names by which it was usually known. The origin of these de faire scier notre bois ? 6. Il est nécessaire de faire scier notre bois- different terms will be seen as we proceed with our description à-brûler. 7. Votre jardin est trop petit, n'est-il pas nécessaire de faire

of the game. arracher des pruniers ? 8. Il est nécessaire de faire abattre des pruniers. 9. Avez-vous rempli d'argent la bourse de votre ami? 10.

First, as to the older modes of playing it, which may still Je l'ai remplie d'or. 11. Toutes vos bouteilles sont-elles remplies de linger in some country places, although they do not give rise vin? 12. Elles sont toutes remplies d'encre. 13. Etes-vous fâché to such good sport as the way we shall presently recommend. d'avoir rempli d'encre vos bouteilles ? 14. Je suis bien aise de les Strutt gives the following account of it:avoir remplies d'encre, car j'ai besoin d'encre. 15. Etes-vous content “The performance of this pastime requires two parties of de ce livre? 16. J'en suis content. 17. Cette terre est-elle bonne à equal number, each of them having a base, or home as it is quelque chose ? 18. Elle n'est bonne à rien. 19. Cette dame est-elle usually called, to themselves, at the distance of about twenty chérie de ses enfants ? 20. Elle est chérie de ses amis et de ses enfants. 21. Etes-vous reconnaissant de ces services ? 22. J'en suis

or thirty yards. The players then on either side, taking hold reconnaissant. 23. N'est-il pas possible de fendre ce morceau de bois ? of hands, extend themselves in length, and opposite to each 24. Il n'est pas possible de le fendre. 25. Est-il agréable de voyager other, as far as they conveniently can, always remembering en hiver ? 26. Il n'est pas si agréable de voyager en hiver qu'en été. that one of them must touch the base. When any one of them 27. Il est facile de blâmer les autres. 28. N'est-il pas glorieux de quits the hand of his fellow, and runs into the field, which is mourir pour son pays? 29. Il est glorieux de vivre et de mourir pour called giving the chase, he is immediately followed by one of son pays. 30. En avez-vous rempli l'encrier? 31. Je l'en ai rempli. his opponents ; he is again followed by a second from the 32. Ne serait-il pas nécessaire d'arracher tous ces arbres ? 33. n ne former side, and he by a second opponent; and so on alternately, serait pas nécessaire de les arracher tous, car mon jardin est très- until as many are out as choose to run, every one parsning grand. 34. Henri Quatre était aimé de son peuple.

the man he first followed, and no other; and if he overtake EXERCISE 153 (Vol. III., page 68).

him near enough to touch him, his party claims one towards 1. Have you not shut the front door ? 2. We have shut it, but we their game, and both return home. They then run forth have not shut the back door. 3. Who arrived before me? 4. The again and again in like manner, until the number is comgentleman who is sitting before the window. 5. Who lives behind pleted that decides the victory; this number is optional, and, your house ? 6. There is no house behind ours. 7. Do you not think I am told, rarely exceeds twenty. It is to be observed, that that by dint of working he will grow rich ? 8. I do not believe that he will grow rich if he sells his goods so cheap. 9. Does he learn every person on either side who touches another during the music without the knowledge of his parents? 10. He learns it without chase, claims one for his party, and when many are out it their knowledge. 11. Did you marry without your sister's knowledge ? frequently happens that many are touched." 12. I married without her knowledge. 13. Our friend is not in the This is, perhaps, the oldest form of the pastime, and we trace house; he is out. 14. He is not out of the city; he is within. 15. here simply the term base, which, as we have seen, was applied Have you money about you ? 16. I have no money about me. 17. Do to it in ancient times. But the later addition of “prison" and you live in the back or in the front of the house? 18. We live in the prisoners" is explained in the description of the game as it front. 19. Has the cook put the plates upon the table, or under ? 20. used to be played in Essex :She has put the plates, dishes, spoons, and forks on the table. 21.

“They play this game with the addition of two prisons, How much do those potatoes cost you ? 22. I bought them at the rate of five francs the hectolitre. 23. Have you had the inside or the which are stakes driven into the ground parallel with the home outside of the house repaired ? 24. I have had the interior and the boundaries, and about thirty yards from them. Every person exterior repaired.

who is touched on either side in the chase is sent to one or

other of these prisons, where he must remain until the con spite of a casual victory in another part of the field. For clusion of the game, if not delivered previously by one of his prisoners' base is a game of strategy as well as of activity, and associates. This can only be accomplished by touching him, there may be detected, in this as well as other points, an obserwhich is a difficult task, requiring the performance of the vance of military rules and tactics, which, it is no great stretch most skilful players, because the prison belonging to either of fancy to say, may owe its origin to times when the simple party is always much nearer to the base of their opponents game of "the country base was played by a population than to their own; and if the person sent to relieve his con- familiar with war. federates be touched by an antagonist before he reaches him, he also becomes a prisoner, and stands in equal need of

LESSONS IN GREEK.-XXIX. deliverance. The addition of the prison occasions a consider. able degree of variety in the pastime, and is frequently pro

THE PRESENT AND IMPERFECT TENSES, ACTIVE VOICE. ductive of much pleasantry.”

To illustrate what we have been saying in the previous This will give a better idea of the general character of the lesson, suppose that we have to construe BovAevoval. This is game of prisoners' base, which, rightly played, as we have the third person plural indicative present, formed by adding frequently witnessed it, is a combination of both the practices the termination ovor to the stem of the present, Bovaev, which here described.

comes from βουλευω, I advise; and consequently βουλευουσι It commences with the selection of partners, who are chosen signifies they advise. Suppose, also, that we are requested to by a captain on each side. The first captain selects a man from put into Greek the English he has, and that we have given us the group of persons who may be disposed to join in ; his rival for the purpose the verb exw, I have. Exw is the first person does the same; captain No. 1 then takes a second player, and singular indicative active. To get the stem of the present, we 80 on alternately until all the candidates are absorbed in the two cut off the w, and to ex, thus obtained, we affix el, the personal. opposing sides. A line is then drawn on the ground for the ending of the third person singular indicative active, and so we base, and all the parties range themselves on this line, a few obtain exel as the Greek for he has. yards separating the two divisions. Two stations in the dis Again, suppose that we have the form eBoulevov, and wish to tance are also marked off as prisons. They should be oppo- ascertain what the form is. We find that this form is made up site the extreme ends of the base line ; but the prison of each thus : e is the syllabic augment, Bover the root, eBoulev the party faces the rank of its opponents, so that any one running tense-stem of the imperfect, and oy the person-ending of the from the base to the prison of his own side has to cross the field first person singular ; consequently the form means I was advis. diagonally.

ing, since Bouleuw signifies I advise. Accordingly, to put into Play commences by one man stepping forward in front of the Greek the imperfect ye were advising, we take Bouleuw, and rank of his opponents, and challenging them to the contest cutting off w, the termination of the first person singular, we with the words“ Chevy, chevy chase!” This is a defiance to prefix to the root thus obtained the augment e, and so form any single individual on the opposite side to touch him before he eBovaru, the stem of the imperfect; to this stem we add, as the can regain the base of his party. One darts forward for this termination of the second person plural, the letters ete, thus purpose; the challenger then runs, dodges, and does all he can forming eBovAevete, which means ye were advising. In order, not only to elude his pursuer, but also to draw him within reach then, to form the imperfect, take the present as given in the of attack in turn. If the challenger is touched, he has to go to vocabulary, cut off the person-ending of the present, prefix the the prison in the distant corner of the field ; but if he escape, augment, and subjoin the person-ending (that one of the personany man from his side may attempt to cut off the retreat of endings which you want) to the tense-stem. Care should be his friend's pursuer, and, by touching him before he can regain taken in all cases to get the tense-stem before attempting to his base line, send him to prison in the challenger's stead. add the person-endings, or the mood-vowel, or indeed to form Failing in this, he in turn becomes liable to attack; and so any required part of the verb. this part of the game proceeds briskly.

VOCABULARY. But an equally exciting portion is connected with the rescue Ayopew, I harangue, 'Etepos, -a, -ov (Latin, 'Ote, when (with inof prisoners; and this, after any one has been touched, may

alter), another. dicative). proceed simultaneously with the challenging just described. Anelpos, -ov (adverb Exw, I have, possess. Oftws (before consoThe persons who may have been touched take up their stations

atrelows), unskilful; 'Iva, in order that nants, outw), thus. in the allotted corners, and they must remain there until either

απειρως εχειν, to (with subjunctive ranoiaw, I draw their rescue is effected or the game is at an end. In order to be ignorant of. after a principal near, approach. release a man, it is necessary that one of his own side should Arompetw, I turn tense; with opta- Ilpovola, -as, , foreleave his base, and run to his friend. If he succeed in touching

away, turn from. tive after an his thought ; προν. him without molestation from the other party, the deliverance Atodevyw, I flee. torical tense).

exelv, to care for. is complete; both the prisoner and his comrade may return in Apotpov,-ov,to (Latin Kallos, TO, TIPOOTTINTW, I fall to, triamph to the base. But if the would-be deliverer is himself

aratrum), a plough beauty.

happen, befall. touched by an opponent before he can reach the prison corner, revvawws,generously, Kevow, I conceal. Στασιαζω, I live in he himself becomes a prisoner also. The side which makes the

nobly, bravely. Movoin, -95, , art, uproar, I disagree. greater number of prisoners, and thus renders their opponents Aelvos, -7, -ov, fear music.

Те - kal, both, as so weak in number as to be unable to continue the play with

TO DELvov, "Oray, when (with well as, and effect, become the victors in the game.

peril.

subjunctive). and. Thus played, the game gives incessant opportunity for vigi. lance and activity. Each party is constantly on the watch both

EXERCISE 80.-GREEK-ENGLISH. to make prisoners and to release its own. While one of a side

1. Δυο όδω προς την πολιν αγετον. 2. Βοε το αροτρον αγετον.

4. Tas nav (sc. COTI) kallos, draw ex? may be giving a challenge, and thus engaging the attention of 3. Xaiwuey, w Taldes. the opposite party, another of the same side may be in readiness γούν σωφρονα. 5. Οι πολιται τους νομους φυλαττοντων. 6. to dart forward to efect the release of a captive friend. Thus | Εταιρος εταιρου φροντιζετω. 7. Πατηρ τε και μητηρ προνοιαν everybody must be on the alert, not only for the chance of exeTwy TTS TWY TEKYWY Taldelas. 8. Ο γραμματων απειρος συ making a prisoner, but also for the opportunity of a rescue βλεπει βλεπων. 9. Τας προσπιπτουσας τυχας γενναιως φερε. 10. when the energies of the adversary are engaged in another | Ο παις τω πατρι ροδον φερει, ένα χαιρη. 11. Ο παις τω πατρι direction.

ροδον εφερεν, ένα χαιροι. 12. Σωκρατης ώσπερ εγιγνωσκεν ούτως So long as one man of a side remains on the base line ελεγεν. 13. Οτε οι Ελληνες επλησιαζον, οι βαρβαροι απεφευγον. while his friends are chasing or being chased in the field, 14. OeULOTOKAMS kai AploteiOnS TOTE COTUOTaGernv. 15. Makethe camp of that line is secure; but if the last man of a party δαιμόνιοι μουσικης απειρως εχουσιν. 16. Aποτρεποιτε, ο θεοι, το leaves the line, either in zeal for his friends, or to avail himself deivov ap' wuwu. 17. Mn étepov Kevbois kapotą vovv, alla ayopeuwv. of what may appear a tempting chance of a touch, any man of

REMARKS ON THIS EXERCISE. the opposite side, by stepping on the base left vacant, gains the The subjunctive of the first person plural holds the place of victory at once. In military language, the enemy's " base of the imperative ; thus, yaipwuer, w Taides, is to be rendered, let operations” is thus secured; and, according to true military us rejoice, O boys. principles, his defeat follows as a necessary consequence, in The imperfect often denotes a repeated act, and may some

I say.

-OUS,

ful ;

zens.

times be rendered, with the aid of the verb to accustom, thus- | 'Eraipos étaipØ TIOTEVĎAtw. 14. TTV TOM Reyovor jeeyay kurdūvov Ewkpatns, etc., was accustomed to speak. The optative, as ex- ELVOUVeurai. pressive of a wish, may be used as a softened imperative, as

REMARKS ON THIS EXERCISE. ATOTPETTOITE, etc., O that you would turn away; that is, turn away. Mn étepov, etc., literally, do not conceal in your heart condition expressed or understood, and so requires a dependent

Mpiv av, before (with subjunctive or optative); ay refers to a another thought, speaking different things—that is, do not say mood. one thing and think another.

In the exercise ennyedle is the third person singular of the EXERCISE 81.-ENGLISH-GREEK.

imperfect indicative; the n between et (ETI) and the verb is the 1. This road leads to the city. 2. Two roads lead to the city. temporal augment formed by lengthening the a, the first letter 3. Two horses drive the plough. 4. These roads led to the city in the verb ayyeddw. In oxuw and iseterw the augment is 5. Women are beautiful when they have good sense (a sound formed by simply lengthening the . The optative form in mind). 6. The citizens keep (guard) the laws. 7. The citizens enißovlevtaley is occasioned by érı in a sentence in what is were keeping the laws. 8. The citizen keeps the laws. 9. You, called the obliqua oratio, that is, a dependent sentence. A O citizens, keep the laws. 10. My father takes care of my direct independent sentence is called oratio recta. In other education. 11. My mother and my sisters took care of my words, the optative is required because the fact is represented education, 12. The citizens nobly bear the chances that befall. as dependent on the report of the messenger ; in English the 13. The mother brings a rose to the father, that he may rejoice. indicative must be used. The force of the aorist in the im. 14. The sister brought a rose to her brother, that he might perative TOTEVOaTw cannot be given in English by any one rejoice. 15. The daughter, the mother, and the father disagreed. word. The student must wait for the explanations to be given 16. Do not (that ye would not, un with opt.) disagree, o in the Syntax. parents! 17. The boys were rejoicing. 18. I rejoice. 19. You

EXERCISE 83.- ENGLISH-GREEK. rejoice. 20. We rejoice. 21. Thou rejoicest. 22. They rejoice. 23. You were rejoicing. 24. I was rejoicing. 25. My sister was 2. Good men plant for their offspring also. 3. Good men will

1. The general will free the city from the enemy (plural). rejoicing. 26. The young man is ignorant of music. 27. These plant for their children (Tats). 4. The messengers report many girls are ignorant of music. 28. I am ignorant of music. 29. things. 5. The enemy plot against the king. 6. The enemy We, O boys, are ignorant of music. 30. Those who are un

will plot against me. 7. I announce many things to the citiskilled in letters, seeing see not. 31. Those women are unskilled in letters. 32. I am not unskilled in letters. 33. We be angry with Agamemnon.

8. Achilles is angry with Agamemnon. 9. Achilles will are not unskilled in letters. 34. Two men are fleeing. 35. He brother. 11. I was angry (first aorist) with the enemy. 12.

10. Thou art angry with thy conceals his thought in his heart. 36. When the barbarians I will entreat my judges. 13. Socrates will not entreat his approached, he fled. 37. May the gods (opt.) turn the danger judges. 14. The good citizens will not entreat their judges. from us.

15. The enemy are destroying Platæa. 16. The soldiers will THE FUTURE TENSE, THE FIRST AORIST-ACTIVE VOICE. destroy Platæ. 17. The soldiers destroyed the city. 18. Hear

The stem of the future is formed from the stem of the pre-(aorist) me, 0 my offspring (plural). 19. One friend believes sent by the addition of o to the stem of the present; e.g., au-, another (étaipos étaipo). 20. One friend will believe another. Auo-. Avo- is the stem of the future : subjoin the person-end- 21. One friend did believe another. 22. They believed. 23. ings, and you have the tense in full.

They did believe. 24. They believe. 25. They will believe. The first aorist active stem is formed from the stem of the 26. Thou wilt believe. 27. They two believed. 28. We shall future by prefixing to that stem the augment ; by affixing the believe. 29. We believe. 30. The soldier prevails much by person-endings, as given in the paradigm, we obtain the tense his valour. 31. I prevailed much by my valour. in full. The future and the first aorist of ayopew are thus formed :ayopeu., Future, ayopevo-, ayopevow, -els, -El, etc.

HISTORIC SKETCHES-XL. ayopevo., Aorist First, nyopevo-, nyopevoa, -as, -e, etc.

ANCIENT EGYPT. Observe in this last instance that the augment is not the The interest attaching to Egypt and the Egyptians cannot fail syllabic but the temporal, namely, e is changed into n.

to be great, not only for the strictly historical student, but for VOCABULARY,

every one who has read the Old Testament Scriptures. To the ABAaße.o, innocence, | Alkartas, -ov, d, a Kai, even, also (in historical student the history of Egypt must be especially innocuousness (a, judge.

Latin, etiam). interesting, seeing that the civilisation of Egypt was the protonot; Blaßn, in- Ekyovos, -ov, 8 and 1, Karaduw, I destroy type of all the great historical civilisations of the world; and jury). a descendant, off. (κατα and λυω).

that Egyptian influence, Egyptian conquest, Egyptian colonies, Αγαμεμνων, -ονος, και, spring (tor. Kuyovveuw, I am in made their impressions upon the whole of the known earth.

Agamemnon. 'ExTwp, -opos, d, Hec danger, i incur To the reader of the Bible narrative must have come many
Aubw, both.
Επαγγελλω,I an danger.

a prompting to learn more than is there given about that singuΑπολυω, I free from nounce, report (ay-Mnviw, I owe

lar people whose history, when it touches that of the Jews, is (ano and Auw). yelos, a messen. grudge, I amangry

recorded with such vivid exactness, but is barely, if at all

, told Δακρυον, -ου, το, και

ger; hence

with.

when it has no reference to the chosen people. «Now there tear.

angel).
'OT1, that.

arose up a new king over Egypt, which knew not Joseph," is the Διαλυω, I put an Επιβουλευω, I plot Πλατειαι,

1, only information given in the Bible concerning a whole period end to (sia and against.

Plataa.

of history during which the country was conquered from withλυω). .

Eo xatos, -1, -ov, the spatia, -as, y, an out, and an entirely new race of people took the mastery. Δικαζω, I judge (δικη, last, extreme. army.

There was no need, if we may presume to say so, to give more justice, judgment). 'IKETEUW, I implore. PUTEVW, I plant.

information for the purposes of the Mosaic history, the object

there being to contrast the treatment of Israel at one period EXERCISE 82.-GREEK-ENGLISH.

with the treatment at another, in order to show the necessity 1. Oi otpaTWTAL TNV TONY AT TWY Toeuw atmoduroVOI. 2. there was for bringing them out of the land of Egypt, even with Ο χρηστος ανθρωπος και τοις εκγονοις φυτευσει. 3. Ο αγγελος | a mighty hand and a stretched-out arm. But the student may επηγγελλε τους πολιταις, ότι οι πολεμιοι τα στρατεύματι επι- | reasonably inquire what were the circumstances under which βουλευσoιεν. 4. Αχιλλεύς Αγαμεμνονι εμηνίσεν. 5. Οι Έλληνες | the whole policy of the Egyptians towards the Israelites became ανδρεια πολλα ισχύσαν. 6. Σωκρατης ουχ ικετευσε τους δικαστας, so changed; that whereas at one time a large province μετα πολλων δακρυων, αλλα πιστευσας τη εαυτου αβλαβεια εκιν- allotted to the strangers to dwell in, and every encouragement was δυνευσε τον εσχατον κινδύνον. 7. Πριν αν αμφοιν μυθον ακουσης, | given for them to live happily in the land, at another time the un ouxaçe. 8. Oi Makeoauovio Haataias katedūsav. 9. Tis av hand of every man was against them, and they were made to πιστευσαι (πιστευσεις) ψευστη; 10. Ακουσαις (ακουσειας) μου, ως endure, in the country where their fathers had been princes, 12 dide. 11. O ayyedos ennyYXAey, oti of Toleucou tn otpatia em almost unendurable slavery. Then, again, those many threatenBoulevodler (eniBouleudelav). 12. AKovoov pov, w pixe. 13. ings in the books of the prophets, how great a desire do they

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not beget to know more of the people against whom they were who drove and also protected his companion with a shield, and denounced, and upon whom they were fulfilled ? “ Behold, I by a warrior, the Egyptians were specially famous. Their skill will bring a sword upon thee, and cut off man and beast out of in archery was proverbial, and the exactness of their drill, and thee. And the land of Egypt shall be desolate and waste; and the compactness of their battalions, were subjects of universal they shall know that I am the Lord : because he hath said, The admiration. The idea of military glory was embodied in the river is mine, and I have made it. Behold, therefore I am rule of caste which placed a warrior second only to the priest in against thee, and against thy rivers; and I will make the land of the social and political scalo ; and in the earlier and middle Egypt utterly waste and desolate, from the tower of Syene even periods of Egyptian history, this idea found practical expression unto the border of Ethiopia. It shall be the basest of the king- in expeditions against native rival states, and against foreign doms; neither shall it exalt itself any more above the nations ; foes. Excellence in peaceful arts and sciences was, up to a cerfor I will diminish them, that they shall no more rule over the tain time, found to be compatible with proficiency in war; and nations." (Ezek. xxix. 9, 10, 15.) So said Ezekiel. Not less cer- it was not till the Egyptians, yielding to the enervating influences tain, nor less terrible are the utterances of Jeremiah; and not less of luxury and of climate, reposed for their security upon the terrible certainly was the wrath which accomplished these things. dread of their renown, rather than upon present strength, that We would know about this wrath, and what it accomplished. their enemies ventured to find out in what parts they were

Then there are those wonderful monuments of Egyptian art, valnerable. The decline of the military power of the original which no one who has read about, much less seen, can fail to Egyptians, if such a term may be applied to people who are inquire into, and to seek to learn the history of the people who supposed to have had their origin in a branch of the Hindoo conceived and executed the design of building them.

family, began to be marked some little time before the advent Materials for an account of ancient Egypt are extremely few, of Joseph into the country. The Hyksos, or wandering shepfor an historic sketch almost as scanty. The Bible furnishes by herd tribes, had made several successful raids from their deserts far the greatest number of serviceable links in the chain, but into the land of plenty; and though driven out with the strong these are not very many, not enough to dispense with further hand, it was only by efforts which taxed the strength of the information. Such further information has been obtained by government, while the marauders carried back with them into means of traditions, by the records of other nations upon which their deserts the memory of a country rich in all the wealth of the Egyptians set their mark, and by the histories engraven in nature and art, and peopled by a race in whom prosperity was hieroglyphics upon the walls and statues of the Egyptian beginning to develop its weakening influence. The people also palaces and tombs. These hieroglyphics have, by dint of long who in times of distress came to Egypt to supply their wants and industrious perseverance, been so far deciphered, that if no saw at once the wealth and the “nakedness of the land," and grammar has been educible from them, it has yet been possible noted what they saw as a faot to be treasured up against the to frame a system of interpretation applicable to hieroglyphics time when they could use it to their own advantage. generally, and so to read those sermons in stones which the It was perfectly natural, therefore, that the Egyptians, con. ancient Egyptians carved for the instruction of those that scious of the bait they were to men who had nothing to lose and should come after. By this assistance it has been possible to everything to gain by a war, should, with the further conscious. decide upon the locus in quo of many an historical event, battle, ness of their own growing inability to defend themselves, have victory, change of dynasty, manners and customs, mode of been particularly jealous of the prying eyes of strangers. It was government, the rise and fall of priests and kings; and the this jealousy which gave Joseph a pretext for feigning anger advent of national blessings and calamities are thus chronicled. against his brethren. “Ye are spies!” “To spy out the nakedProminent facts stand out in relief against the blank wall of ness of the land are ye come down,” was the very language an past time, and serve as marks by which to trace the march of Egyptian ruler might reasonably have used to strangers who the people from their origin to their historical grave. It is had come from the dreaded country of the wanderers, and who proposed in this sketch to make available some of the informa- might, impelled by hunger for "the corn in Egypt," or moved tion derived from the Biblical and other sources mentioned, by the inhospitable character of their own home, return in num. and to present in the form of a sketch the rough historical bers, and accomplish the subjection which the Egyptians were outlines of one of the most remarkable people upon the face of beginning to fear. The same jealousy, had no rule of caste the earth.

supplemented it, would have made the Hebrews, equally with Originally it appears that Egypt was divided into a number other shepherds, "an abomination unto the Egyptians,” even of small states, whereof Memphis was the most powerful. The to preventing the Egyptians from eating at the same table with Pharaohs, of whom Abraham heard and whom he visited, them. reigned there and were powerful princes, obeyed by a numerous This dread of evil to come out of the desert was not mis. aristocracy, and by a large and thriving population, skilled in placed. The natural tendency of a nomad population, which all the arts by which nations grow rich. Whether they ever has increased so that the wandering space at its disposal is reigned over the whole country is questionable, but it is certain insufficient for its wants, is to pour over the frontiers of the they commanded it either in sovereignty or by alliances, and that nearest civilisation, to wage war upon it, and finally to overtheir word was law throughout Egypt. The people were ex- come it, or to be absorbed within it. The wise king who ruled cellent agriculturists, and seem early to have taken advantage Egypt in Joseph's time seems to have apprehended this rule, of the river's overflow to get extra corn crops out of the ground and knowing that ere long he might expect to see its application annually inundated; they were also good mechanicians, elegant to the desert men and Egypt, took the statesmanlike precaution architects, and truly wonderful builders. In the sciences of of offering upon the frontier a home to the best of the wanderers mathematics and astronomy they were more learned than any of -men who, besides being warlike, and able therefore to bear the their contemporaries, except perhaps the Chinese ; and their brunt of first attacks, were intellectually and morally far in pursuits generally wero those of a people more wedded to the advance of all their compeers, and might, as Joseph had done, arts of peace and civilisation than to those of war. Indeed," inform his princes” and “teach his senators wisdom." they appear to have been almost too indifferent to the science Hence the settlement in the land of Goshen. The Israelites and practice of war, for on their borders to the south were the emigrated en masse to the land that flowed with milk and honey, aggressive Ethiopians, ever ready to take advantage of the and the Egyptians enjoyed the benefit of their presence, both as weakness or unreadiness of an enemy; and on the west were warders against invasion from the west, and as the possessors of those children of the desert, the wandering shepherd tribes, a civilisation hardly inferior to their own. The wisdom of the who availed themselves of every opportunity to assail their government made every provision for the encouragement of wealthy and tempting neighbours. It must not be supposed, the Israelites in their new home, even causing a jealousy to however, that the Egyptians were altogether neglectful of the spring up in the breasts of the Egyptians against them; the art of ensuring peace by preparing for war. They had a very new-comers taught the people many new and desirable things, complete and very efficient military system, and their arms, both and the first blows of invasion fell upon them instead of upon offensive and defensive, were superior to those of all the sur. the native population. For many years all went well with the rounding nations; their war-horses-used for chariots rather two peoples, who lived together in unity, though, of course, in that than for cavalry purposes-were of the finest breed, and great distinctiveness which was characteristic of both of them, but care was taken to maintain the breed unsullied. In the use of especially of the Hebrews, who then, as now, were "a peculiar chariots drawn by two horses, and manned by a charioteer, people," separated by indelible natural marks from all the rest

of mankind. Then there “arose a Pharaoh who knew not Sea, and passed out through the Straits of Bab-el-mandeb. Men Joseph.” The Hyksos, or shepherd kings of the vast districts of all colours and of all nations were among his prisoners, and on the west of Egypt, gathering their forces, took an oppor. he had the wisdom to profit by what his enemies could teach tunity, and came upon their enemies like a thunder-clap. Vain him, and to establish at home the arts and manufactures which was the interposition of the Israelites between the desired land his captives knew. Although uncertain, it appears probable, and its assailants; vain was the military system, perfect as it that the conquests of Sesostris, extending to Syria and Pales. was supposed to be, of the great Egyptian monarchy. The half- tine, took place during the wanderings of the Israelites in the savages of the deserts were an overmatch for the refined soldiers desert; and if so, by weakening native princes whose territories of the kingdom, and the old civilisation went down before the were not retained, must materially have assisted their occupamighty onset of the invaders like chaff before the wind. The tion of the promised land. ancient dynasty of the wise Pharaohs, who had ruled equitably After Sesostris came many weak princes, relieved now and and striven to do right, was ended ; a shepherd chief, indeed an again by the presence of some strong men; bat for three hundred abomination to the Egyptians, was seated on the Egyptian years after the death of the great conqueror little is known of throne, and a rule was established at once subversive of the Egyptian history, the Scripture record making scarcely any Israelitish and old Egyptian brotherhood. The Pharaoh who mention of it. About a thousand years before Christ, Shishak, "knew not Joseph"-that is to say, who was not bound by the King of Egypt, made war upon Palestine, and was one of the ties which knit Joseph's descendants (for Joseph had been dead first scourges sent by the Almighty upon Israel to bring them long years before) to the Egyptians-governed tyrannically over back to a knowledge of Him whom they so systematically both peoples alike, bruising both of them in pieces, like a deserted; but the power of Egypt was broken by many distant potter's vessel. The Egyptians proper, being the more nume- expeditions, and after Shishak's reign declined rapidly. The rous, and the more necessary to the conquerers, fared better throne was accessible to whoever was strong and bold enough than the Israelites, who were doubtless looked upon as deserters to seize it-even strangers occupied it; and the manifest weak. from the cause of the wandering tribes, and were punished as ness of the once mighty empire attracted the greedy attention traitors who had made common cause with the enemy. They of those who were on the look-out for conquests. In the year were particularly oppressed, they were set on labour not only 713 B.C., Sennacherib, King of Assyria, then one of the mightiest derogatory in itself, but hard beyond compare, and even princes on the earth, invaded Egypt with an army which, but insulted in every possible way both as regarded their nation and for a pestilence which struck down thousands of the troops, religion. From having been the friends of princes they became must easily have conquered the whole land; but the sickness the slaves of servants, and were forced to endure in a strange was such that the Assyrian army had to turn back, and going land all the miseries and indignities of the most servile peoples. up to Jerusalem died there. After this the Egyptians as a Under the late rule their religion, though regarded with jealousy nation may be said to have become extinct, so large was the and dislike by the priesthood, had been liberally tolerated, and admixture of foreign blood and foreign institutions. Soldiers "in the land of Goshen, where the children of Israel dwelt," were brought in from without, and men of no known country had been allowed to be the prevailing faith. But now things became kings. Some of the kings-Pharaoh-Necho, for example, were altogether different. With difficulty could the descendants B.C. 616-infused the energy and strong will of a new man into of Abraham preserve their distinctiveness ; it was almost the administration, and for a while caused Egypt to shine forth impossible for them to worship God according to the rites which with even more than pristine splendour. His fleets scoured the tradition bade them observe; their labour was incessant, the Mediterranean and Red Seas, and pushed into Indian waters ; severity of their taskmasters was unremitting, and no amount and it is asserted that an expedition, fitted out at his cost, sailed of zeal, no amount of submissiveness, served to bring an amelio- down the east coast of Africa, discovered and rounded the Cape ration of their condition. The new masters were insensible to of Good Hope, and returned home after an absence of three pity; careless whether or not they destroyed the Israelites as a years, by way of the Atlantic and the Straits of Gibraltar. population; anxious only, while their own rule lasted, to get as But Egypt had had its day as an empire, and was doomed much work as possible out of the wretched folk. Many of to fall under the advance of newer civilisations. Cyrus the the people died under the unwonted burdens laid upon them, Persian struck the first great blow at her, and Cambyses, his others took to heart the deep teaching of adversity, and son and successor, effected her subjugation, put all her chief acknowledging the hand of God in the aflictions which were nobles to an ignominious death, and compelled her wretched sent upon them, chastened their minds and purified their hearts, king to drink poison. The Persians, who had a religious hatred and became gradually fitted for the great change which was as well as the contempt of conquerors for the Egyptians, opthereafter to come to them under the guidance and apostleship pressed the people almost worse than the Egyptians had done of Moses. What that change was, how it was wrought, and by the Hebrews many centuries before. The temples were the effect it has had upon the whole world since that time, will defiled, the sacred animals were slain and eaten, and the priests be traced in the historic sketch of the Jewish nation which it is of Egypt-hateful to the Persians, who detested all priests proposed to make one of the present series of papers. Enough whatever—were made to bear almost unendurable oppression. here to know that soon after the departure of the Israelites by The history of Egypt, therefore, during the whole period of the the mighty hand and stretched-out arm of the God of Israel, Persian occupation, is a record of constant desperate rebellions, the power of the shepherd kings waned and drooped, and was fiercely and pitilessly repressed; and this state of things conultimately overthrown by & well-planned insurrection of the tinued until the overthrow of the Persian power in Asia by Egyptiang.

Alexander the Great. He, in the year 332 B.C., entered the The people rising again from their ashes, in which had lived country, wrested it from the Persians, and built the city of their wonted fires," grew more powerful than before the Alexandria and established the great library there. Upon his conquest by the

Hyksos. The King of Thebes extended his death the empire he had founded fell quickly to pieces, and the empire over all Lower Egypt, annexed the greater part of several members of his dominions came into the hands of whoNubia, and having driven the Hyksos into fortresses, finally ever could seize them. Egypt once more passed ander native compelled them to surrender, and did to the defenders according rule, and became again famous in history under the Ptolemies, to the universal, cruel custom of the Egyptians. Although it whose line, ending in Cleopatra, lasted two hundred years, and happened that the Hyksos again made head, and, bringing in then succumbed to the overshadowing power of the Romans. reinforcements from the desert, drove the reigning king from In the year 30 B.C., and under the auspices of Augustus Cæsar, his throne, they never more 'made serious havoc with the Egypt became a Roman province. What part she played in Egyptians, and were themselves finally driven out by the aid after history-how she was the seat of one of the chief of an Ethiopian army. Then came an era of great glory for Christian churches—how monachism began there-how Chris: the Egyptians. Sesostris (Rameses the Great) united all the tians devoid of the spirit of Christ behaved unchristianly, and Egyptian states under one king, and developing the resources becoming unworthy were swept

away by the tide of Saracenic of the land, grew mighty and flourished. His conquests conquest-how Saracens yielded in the end to Turks-may be extended from the extreme south of Ethiopia into Persia and related in another paper; but the limits proposed for the Greece. Large portions of eastern Arabia acknowledged him, present subject do not allow of extension of treatment, and the and it is said that he even made preparations

for the conquest sketch remains, therefore, essentially one of the history of of India, by means of his fleets, which were built on the Red purely ancient Egypt.

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