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MASC.

FEM.

NEUT.

the good. Acc. Bors,

(5.) Among the secondary derivatives must also be included

Singular, those formed by means of prefixes as well as suffixes. These are mainly verbs, and are treated somewhat largely under the Nom. Gin, cine, cin, an or a. head of Compound Verbs.

Gen. Gines, einer, eines, of an or a. (6.) In respect to COMPOUNDS, properly so called—that is,

Dat. Einem, ciner, einem, to or for an or . words formed by the union, not of prefixes and suffixes with Acc. Ginen, eine, ein, an or a. radicals, but of radicals, or other independent words, one with This article has no plural. another—the German is peculiarly rich. Not only is it rich in the abundance of such compounds already in use, but it pos dative and accusative of the definite article into one word.

(2.) Certain prepositions are frequently contracted with the sesses a rare facility of forming them, as occasions arise, out of its own resources.

EXAMPLES (7.) In forming these compounds, the two components are Dat. Am, for an dem,

as, am Feuer, at the fire. often merely joined together as one word; as :-Uhrmacher (from Acc. Ans, an bas, ans Licht, to the light. Uhr, a clock or watch, and Macher, a maker). But in numerous Acc. Aufé, auf bas, aufs Gaus, upon the house. cases the union is marked by the insertion of certain letters, Dat. Beim, bei dem, beim Vater, with the father. which may be called letters of union; thus

Acc. Durch,

durch tas, turchs Wasser, through the water,

Acc. Fürs, für bas, fürs Gelt, for the money. Die Tod e& noth (from Tod, death, and Noth, need, agony), the

Dat. Hinterm, death-agony.

hinter dem, hinterm Saure, behind the house.

Dat. Im, Das Himmels licht (from Gimmel, heaven, and Licht, light), the

in bem, im Himmel, in (the) heaven. Acc. Ins,

in bas, ins Gaus, into the house. light of heaven.

Dat. Bom, von dem, Die Herzen & güte (from Herz, heart, and Güte, goodne

vom Uebel, from (the) evil.

vor bas, , vors Fenster, before the window. ness of heart.

Dat. Vorm, por tem, vorm Thore, before the gate. Der Pferdearzt (from Pferb. horse, and Arzt, doctor), the horse

Dat. Überm, über dem, überm Feuer, upon the fire. doctor. Das Hirten leben (from Hirt shepherd, and Leben, life), the pas. Dat. Unterm,

Acc. Übers, über das, übers Sand, over (the) land. toral life.

unter dem, unterm Wasser, under (the) water. Dat. Zum,

zu dem, zum Flufse, to the river. Der Gier fuchen (from Ei, egg, and Ruchen, cake), the omelet.

Dat. Sur,

zu der, zur Ehre, to the honour. (8.) Some of these letters of union are nothing more than the

$ 5.-NOUNS. signs of the genitive case of the first component; others are

(1.) In German, as in English, the nouns (that is, the names mere euphonic additions. (9.) In some instances the union of the parts of a compound Common nouns, which designate sorts, kinds, or classes of ob

of persons and things) are divided into two great classes ; viz. : is characterised by the omission of some letters; as :- Der Sonn- jects; and Proper nouns, which are peculiar to individuals. tag (Sonne, the sun, and Tag, day), Sunday. Denkwürdig (denken,

The student will bear in mind the following rules :to think, and würrig, worthy), worthy of thought. (10.) Finally, in all compounds, the main accent falls upon as nouns, begin with a capital letter; as:-1. Der Sohn, the son;

a. In German all Nouns, as also all parts of speech when used the first component, which always qualifies or defines the second, bie Tochter, the daughter. 2. Der Gute

, the good (man); tie Gute, as containing the fundamental idea.

the good (woman). 3. Da$ Singen, the singing. $ 3.-PARTS OF SPEECH.

b. Also: The Indefinite Pronouns ; as :--Jemand, anybody, (1.) The parts of speech in German are usually reckoned ten; somebody; Jedermann, everybody ; Etwas, anything, something; namely, Articles, Nouns or Substantives, Adjectives, Numerals, and Nichts, nothing. Pronouns, Verbs, Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, and In Note, that when etwas and Nichts are connected with a terjections.

noun, or with an adjective used as a noun, they do not begin (2.) Of these, six-namely, Articles, Nouns, Adjectives, Nume with a capital; as :-&r Hat etwas Brot, he has some bread. Gr rals, Pronouns, and Verbs--are capable of inflection, that is, hat nichts Gutes, he has nothing good. admit of changes of termination by which various modifications c. Also : The absolute Possessive Pronoun (when used substanof meaning are expressed; the other four-namely, Adverbs, tively. Sect. XX. 2); as :-Die Meinigen, my family ; bad Meto Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections are in form in nige, my property. variable.

d. Also: The Indefinite Numerals, when used without a sub(3.) All parts of speech capable of inflection have two num- stantive; as :- Alles, Alle, all; Einige, some; Mancher, many a; bers: the Singular, which denotes but one; and the Plural, Viele, many. which denotes more than one.

e. Also : The Personal Pronouns, Du, 3hr, thou, you, etc., (4.) All parts of speech capable of inflection, except the verb, when we would distinguish thereby the person addressed. have four Casés: namely, the Nominative, Genitive, Dative, and f. Also : Gin, when a numeral adjective, and likewise when & Accusative; also, three Genders, namely, the Masculine, the pronoun as distinguished from the article ; as :-30 yabe nut Feminine, and the Neuter.

Einen Freund, I have only one friend. Das Gine Pferd ist blind, (5.) Cases are variations made in the form of a word, to indi- tas andere ist lahm, the one horse is blind, the other is lame. cate its several relations to other words; the nominative being g. Lastly, Adjectives derived from names of persons; 28:that form which denotes the subject of a verb; the genitive that Das Schillersche Haus. Observe, that adjectives derived from which is chiefly used in signifying source or possession ; the the names of countries do not begin with a capital; 23:- Der dative that which indicates the person to whom, or thing to deutsche Band, the German confederacy ; die französide Sprade, the which an action is directed; and the accusative that which French language. points to the immediate or direct object of an action.

(2.) Under the head of common nouns are commonly included The cases in German correspond well to those in the Latin several subdivisions ; as Collective nouns, which are the names language. The Vocative, however, is never counted, because it of a plurality of individuals considered as unity; and abstract is exactly the same in form as the nominative ; while

the Abla- nouns, which are the names of certain qualities or attributes te tive (as in Greek) is wholly wanting, its place being generally garded as separate from any given substance. supplied by the Dative (with a suitable preposition).

(3.) The nouns, both common and proper, as before said, are § 4.- THE ARTICLE.

regularly inflected; thus exhibiting by means of terminations (1.) There are two articles in German : the Definite, ber, the ; numbers and cases will be made sufficiently clear under the head

the several modifications of gender, number, and case. The and the Indefinite, ein, a or an. They are inflected thus :

of declension of nouns.
Singular,
Plural,

$ 6.-GENDER.

(1.) Strictly speaking, the masculine gender belongs excluNom. Det, die, tad, the. Nom. Die, the.

sively to words denoting males; the feminine, to those denoting Gen. Des, ber, des, of the.

Gen. Der, of the. females; and the neuter to such only as are neither male por Dat. Dem, der. dem, to or for the. Dat. Den, to or for the female. And in English, accordingly, with very little exception, Acc. Den, die, tad, the.

Acc. Die, the.

this is found to be actually the case.

MASC.

FEM.

NEUT.

FOR ALL GENDERS.

BY THE MEANING,

BY THE FORM,

TUBE-DWELLERS.

(2.) Not so, however, in German; for there the names of Under the name of male beings must be included that of the many things without life, from their real or supposed possession Almighty, as also those of angels and other superior powers; of qualities pertaining to things with life, are considered and those of mythological deities and of human beings; those of treated as masculine or feminine. Often, moreover, words indi- beasts, birds, reptiles, and fishes. The term female beings must cating things without life are deemed masculine or feminine, have a like latitude of signification. merely from some resemblance in form to those designating things properly male or female. Hence arises, in grammar, the

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN GERMAN, distinction between the natural and the grammatical gender of words.

EXERCISE 141 (Vol. III., page 43). (3.) Were the natural gender alone regarded, it would be 1. Sind wir genöthigt, auf unsern Freund zu warten? 2. Nein, nicht necessary only to know the MEANING of a word, to know its seinetwegen. 3. Dieser Mensch wird seiner Treulosigkeit wegen verabscheut. gender ; but since this is not the case, we are often obliged to 4. Grāmen Sie sich unsertwegen nicht! 5. Meinetwegen mögen Sie thun, determine gender chiefly by the FORM. We give below, there was Sie wollen. 6. Mein Bruder starb im neunzehnten Jahre seines fore, the principal rules for determining the gender in either Alters an der Auszehrung. 7. Wissen Sie, wer Ihre goldene Uhr gestohlen way; suggesting only, as the best mode of learning the excep-Hat? 8. Nein, aber ich habe jenen Mann, welcher gestern in unser Haus tions (which are numerous, and here purposely omitted), the fam, im Verdachte. 9. Zuerst hatte ich einen Diener des Hauses im Vercustom of constantly and carefully noting them in reading and bachte. 10. Nachdem ich meine legte Reise vollentet hatte, witmete ich mich speaking.

tem Studium der lebenden Sprachen. 11. Nachdem wir zu Mittag $ 7.-RULES FOR DETERMINING GENDER.

gespeist hatten, ritten wir spazieren. 12. Nachdem er gefrühstüdt hatte, bes suchte er seinen Schwager. 13. Diese Dame braucht achtzehn Ellen Muse

selin zu einem Kleide. 14. Sener Jüngling wurde Doctor. 15. Jenes (1.) To the Masculine belong (1.) To the Masculine belong Unternehmen machte unsern Nachbar zum reichen Mann. 16. Er sagte names of

mir, er würde seiner selbst wegen mit seinem Vater sprechen. Malo beings : as, der Mann, the

man; der Löwe, the lion. Days : as, der Montag, Monday;

RECREATIVE NATURAL HISTORY. Months: as, Ser Januae, January;

a. Those primary derivatives SOME LAND, SEA, AND FRESHWATER SHELLS, WORMS, AND der Februar, February. (see § 2. 3) ending in the inSeasons: as, ber Frühling, spring; significant suffixes er, el, en, We have already shown, in our paper on British pearls and der Sommer, summer.

and those also that are with pearl-shells, that all shelled creatures of the sea, fresh-water, Winds : as, ter Nortwint, the out affixes of any kind. or land, possess the power of building up the walls of the tiny North wind; der Südwind, the

castles in which they dwell. There are others which possess no South wind.

shell-building power, and depend for defence and protection Points of the compass : as, ter b. Those secondary deriva- from injury on the shelter afforded by either holes in the earth,

Norb, the North; der Süb, the tives formed by means of the crevices amongst the rocks, or pipe-like coverings formed from South.

significant suffixes er, is, ing, materials gathered together either by the exercise of the will Mountains : as, der Harz, the and ling.

and ingenuity of the creature, or by natural processes over Harz; ber Atlas, the Atlas.

which it has no control. Then we have shell-dwellers who, not Stones : ter Diamant, the dia

content with their own natural covering, bore deep holes in mond ; ter Rubin, the ruby.

rocks and timber, in order to secure a perfectly safe place of Fruit-trees: as, der Birnbaum, the

shelter; and yet another vastly important group of worm-like pear-tree; der Apfelbaunt, the

creatures, the Helminthes, or worms which dwell within the apple-tree.

tissues of other living organisms. (2.) To the Feminine belong (2.) To the Feminine belong Although the accomplished naturalist, who is well up in the the names of

subject, would distinguish at a glance the distinctions which Female beings : as, die Frau, the

exist between true land, fresh-water, and marine shells, and wife; die Tochter, the daughter. a. Those primary derivatives assign to earth, sea, or parasitical worms their true position, the Rivers: as, die Weser, the Weser; ending in c, d, de, t (ft), te. casual observer would find some difficulty in determining the

tie Themse, the Thames. b. Those secondary deriva particular order to which each or either belonged. As an exFruits : as, die Birne, the pear; tives formed by means of the ample of this similarity of structural form and contour, we must die Nuß, the nut.

suffixes e, ei, in, heit, feit, refer our readers to the accompanying illustrations. Fig. 1 reTrees and flowers : as, die Birte, schaft, ung.

presents a shell, dwelling in fresh water (Paludina vivipara); the birch; die Erle, the alder;

Fig. 2 a marine shell (Trochus magus); and Fig. 3 a land shell die Roje, the rose.

(Cyclostoma subaspera). The resemblance between land and (3.) To the Neuter belong (3.) To the Neuter belong sea slugs is nearly as close as that between land snails and the names of

sea snails. Fig. 4 represents a large land slug (Arion rufus), Countries and places : as, Franf.

and Fig. 5 a slug from the sea (Tergipes despectus). reich, France ; Berlin, Berlin.

There are few who know that money may be made of slugs and Metals : as, das Silber, silver.

snails. Land slugs, although occasionally taken medicinally by Materials : as, das Holz, wood.

persons suffering from pulmonary consumption, are of little comLetters : as, das A, the A; das a. Those secondary deriva- mercial importance. The Eastern seas, however, yield a slug B, the B, eto.

tives formed by means of the (Holothuria edulis) commonly known as the Bêche de mer, or Infinitives used as nouns : as, suffixes chen, lein, el, fal, fel, trepang, which ranks high as an article of merchandise, and is das leben, life; das Reiten, niß, thum,

the cause of much maritime activity and general briskness of riding.

trade. The trepang is in great request in the markets of China, Many individuals taken toge

as an ingredient in the composition of the gelatinous soups and ther (i.e., collective nouns) :

hashes in which the Celestials so much delight. With pickled as, tas Heer, the host.

6. Those nouns having the sharks' fins, little squares of salt fat pork, and preserved bamAdjectives used as nouns (in an augment ge.

boo shoots, the Bêche de mer makes a dish perfectly irresistible abstract and indefinite way):

to a Chinaman. There are six kinds of slugs generally sought as, das Gute, the good; tas

for, the best being those obtained by diving amongst the reefs Schöne, the beautiful.

and rocks where they are known to resort; others are taken Pronouns and particles used sub

either by torch or moonlight, in the shallow pools; whilst the stantively: as, sein liebes Idy,

inferior kinds are gathered by hand from the rocks at low water. his beloved self; das Wie und

The various kinds, when selected and arranged according to bag Wo, the how and the

their quality, are cleaned, carefully cut open, cooked in large caldrons in the water which they themselves yield, and are

as,

where,

then subjected to a carefully-conducted and thorough drying and snail-culture is on the increase. Our common brown process, on trays or shelves arranged in sheds erected for the garden snail (Helix aspersa), although inferior in size (and, it is purpose. Very large quantities of dry wood are consumed said, in flavour) to the great apple snail, is capable of furnishing before the drying process is complete, as the slugs require very good and wholesome food, which might ward off the pangs of perfect and careful preparation before they are in a condition hunger in many poor families, did not the stern and un. to be shipped. Some idea of the importance of the trepang yielding bar of custom and prejudice stand obstructively in trade may be gathered when we inform the reader that one the way. Whilst on the subject of snails, it may not be out trader obtained amongst the Feejee group of islands, by barter of place to refer to the belief which exists amongst certain of with the natives, 25,000 dollars' worth, during a seven months' our sheep-farmers, that the flavour of the celebrated Portland round of trade. The influence brought to bear on the shipping mutton is in great measure owing to the vast number of minute interests of the southern seas by the slug trade is immense, as snails which the sheep, in feeding on the close, short pasture will be believed when we give the returns of one voyage in of that locality, are necessarily obliged to masticate with it. pursuit of trepang :-Pecals of Bêche de mer collected, 1,200 ; Two descriptions of land shells are found in countless thou. cost of outfit of ship, etc., 3,500 dollars ; returns of cash on sands on the sheep pastures of the Portland dunes : one is sales effected, 27,000 dollars. The value of dry Bêche de mer, Helix virgata, a banded, yellow snail; and the other Bulimus as brought to the markets of China, ranges between ten and acutus. That these little creatures contribute largely in sixty dollars per pecal,* according to class and quality. building up the tissues of the sheep which feed on them,

Snails of both land and sea are of very considerable com- there can be no doubt, as the mutton from sheep which mercial importance and value. The common periwinkle (Turbo have been reared in this snail-land has been found to lose its littoreus) of our coasts is without doubt the most familiar piquant flavour on being removed to other localities, even when and best-known type of the sea-snail.

fed on a liberal allowance of the most A visit to Billingsgate at high-market

approved artificial food. We shall have tide will serve at once to show how

occasion, as we proceed, to refer to certain vast the consumption of these little mol.

marine creatures, whose habit it is to bore lusks must be. Shovelled up, measured

holes in the solid rock. Here, again, we by the peck and bushel, like piles of

may trace the curious similarity which black grain, and then carted away

exists in the habits of both sea and land throughout the length and breadth of

shells, for we find a particular species of mighty London, the periwinkle

snail (Helix saxicava) indulg. becomes a noteworthy element

ing in regular and systematic 3 in British industry, and, al

[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]

ASS

rock-boring habits. During though eaten from a pin's

the summer months, this depoint, affords in the gathering

scription of snail, which is and vending honest employ

found abundantly in Picardy, ment to thousands. A com

feeds in the thickets and bination of prejudice and

about the hedge-rows, but as custom renders the land-snail

winter approaches it makes of England a production of

its way to the hills of calcomparatively small import

careous rocks (marbre naps. ance. On the Continent, how

léon) found in the commune ever, especially in France, the

of Retz, and betakes itself to snail may be fairly regarded as

the deep excavations formed ranking next to the oyster in

by a legion of former stonethe list of shell-food. The

borers, and there hybernates true edible snail (Helix poma

until warm weather shall come tia), the apple snail, or Grand

again; but instead of sealing escargot of the French, is by

himself up, as we found H. no means common in this 1. PALUDINA Vivipara. 2. Trochus Magus. 3. CYCLOSTOMA SUBAS4. ARION RUFUS. 5. TERGIPES DESPECTUS.

pomatia to do, the living snail country. Specimens are oc

finds the bottom of his gallery casionally found in the neigh

- which is not unfrequently bourhood of Ashford, in Kent, near Dorking, and in some over six inches in depth by one inch and a half in diameter-2 other localities. It has long been a popular belief that this sufficient protection, without the aid of an operculum. These particular kind of snail was first introduced by the Romans, as curious galleries, or rock-tubes, contract gradually from the es. it has been found in the neighbourhood of the sites of ancient ternal orifice to the bottom of the cell, where they terminate in a Roman encampments. In England, the existence or non-exist- sort of cup-shaped indentation to which the snail firmly attaches ence of H. pomatia is a question interesting to the scientific itself by suction. It is most curious, that these snail-burrowz only. In France, considerable pains are taken, and much atten- are almost invariably made on the rocks which face the east and tion paid to its culture and well-doing. Snail-gardens, or escar- north-east. It has been computed that the result of the winter's gatoires, as the French call them, are established for feeding the hybernation of each snail deepens the hole in which it shelters snails in. These are formed either by making a sort of pound, at the rate of half an inch per season. The manner in which or enclosure, with boards and upright posts, or a number of shal- the boring and perforating process is achieved, has been a low square or oblong pits are dug in the earth for their recep- subject for much debate and investigation. The labours of the tion. Vegetables and herbs are scattered on the floors of the sea-borers have also led to a great deal of scientific controsnail-pens, in order to afford the shen-bearing flock an agreeable versy, some investigators maintaining that an acid secretion feeding-ground. Whilst summer lasts, the snail's food consists thrown out by the borer softened the rock and so led to its of potatoes, green leaves, and bran. As winter approaches, and being easily entered by the shell, whilst others have positively the cold wind warns H. pomatia that hard times are coming, asserted that secretion had nothing to do with the process, and he proceeds to some corner, or quiet nook, and commences to that the shell alone, acting by the aid and agency of intensely form and secrete the operculum, or trap-door, with which its hard and spine-like cutting teeth, filed or cut away the stone castle-gate is soon closed and defended. It is whilst the snails much as an artesian well-boring tool, when moved forward and are in this sealed-up and torpid condition, that they are gathered back, aided by water, cuts its way far into the solid rock. The for the market. When a sufficient number have been collected, limits of this paper will not admit of our fully discussing this they are packed in suitable casks or barrels, and dispatched knotty subject. There are many curious and deeply interesting to their purchasers. Over four millions of snails have been matters of evidence which have been by experienced naturalists gathered annually by the proprietor of one set of snail-gardens, brought to bear on the question of friction versus chemistry in

the matter of rock-perforation by shells. We must, therefore, * The pecal, consisting of 1334 lbs., is a weight in general use amongst defer this question until the publication of another paper enables the Japanese and Malay traders, and is equal to the "tan” of China. us to resume it.

PERA,

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LESSONS IN CHEMISTRY.--XXX.

rial from the wear and tear of the body. It is an amber.

coloured liquid, possessing an aromatic odour when warm, MILK-THE EXCRETIONS-FOOD-VEGETABLE

except in discase; and during the process of digestion it is acid. COMPONENTS.

Urea (CH.N,O) is the principal outlet for the nitrogen of Milk-Seeing that this fluid is the only food of the young the system. A human adult excretes about an ounce and a of the mammalia for many months, it may be regarded as the quarter daily. It may be separated from urine by adding an most important as well as the most peculiar of the secretions. equal bulk of nitric acic, and treating the acicular crystals of It is only secreted by the female, who for this purpose is en- nitrate of urea thus obtained with baric carbonate. The carbonic dowed with mammillary glands. It consists of caseine, which, acid comes off, and the urea crystallises from the barium nitrate. 18 we have seen, is analogous to muscle; of fatty principles; a Since its formula may be written thus, NH,O,CN, it is peculiar sugar, and sundry salts. Its whiteness is an optical sometimes called Cyanate of Ammonio. This salt can be made delusion; under the microscope it is a clear liquid, in which readily, and when a solution of it is evaporated at a gentle small globules of transparent fatty matter, enclosed in a slight heat, it undergoes a metamorphosis, and becomes urea pellicle, float. If allowed to stand, these rise to the surface, without any change in its elements, which seem to have grouped forming cream, When this cream is churned, the pellicle of the themselves anew. It will be noticed that an addition of two fat-globule is mechanically broken--the fat agglomerates, molecules of water will produce ammonium carbonate, and forming butter. The butter is washed with cold water, in order this explains the cause of the fact that no urea is found in to remove as much as possible the caseine, which, owing to its decomposing urine, but a quantity of ammonium carbonate. complicated composition, readily decomposes, and thus makes Uric or Lithic Acid (H,C,H,0,0).-Human urine does not the butter rancid. Salt is also added to retard the decompo: contain much of this acid, but it is present in considerable sition of the fat. The caseine, which is in solution in the butter- quantity in the semi-liquid excrement of birds; and the vast milk, has been described. Albumen is also found in colostrum,beds of guano chiefly consist of ammonium urate. When urine that is, milk which is secreted

is surcharged with this acid, soon after the birth of the young.

it deposits itself in hard The milk of the cow contains

crystallised grains, forming red much albumen that it Fig. 55,

gravel. If this deposition go coagulates when it is boiled.

on in the kidney or bladder, The sugar in the milk has the

calculi are the result. In gouty peculiar quality of not under:

subjects it is liable to ac. going alcoholic fermentation,

cumulate, joined with soda, and the consequent liberation

about the joints of the fingers of carbonic acid gas. Such a

and toes, forming what are product would be dangerous to

improperly called chalk stones. the tender stomach and intes.

It is found in combination tines of the young animal.

with the alkalies, and these The Arabs prepare a fermented

Fig. 57.

urates form the deposits which liquor from mare's milk, but in

urine frequently gives on cool. this casea part of the milk-sugar 0 Fig.

ing. There are many other is converted into grape-sugar 56.

compounds which are found in by the caseine, and becomes

minute quantities in urine, but the source of the fermentation.

which, although of great cheWhen in a warm atmosphere

mical use, are not of general the sugar is liable to undergo

interest. change, and the product is STARCH :-Fig. 55, Starch of Wheat; Fig. 56, Starch of Arrowroot;

THE NUTRITION OF ANIMALS lactic acid; and seeing that Fig. 57, Starch of Rice,

AND PLANTS. caseine is insoluble in the

In order to supply the body presence of an acid, it is pre

with the various compounds of cipitated as curds; thus the milk is said " to turn." The com., which we have found it is composed, we take food-that is, position of cow's milk will be seen from the following analysis :- vegetable and animal substances which contain these requisite Water

873.00

bodies. We need say nothing of animal food, for the constiButter

30.00

tution of all flesh is analogous; but the existence of the comCaseine

48-20

pounds which build up the animal frame in the vegetable king. Milk-sugar

43.90

dom is not so evident. Nutritious substances may be divided Calcium phosphate

into two great classes—those which contain nitrogen, or azotised Magnesia

0:42

bodies; and those which are wanting in nitrogen, or non-azotised. Iron

0:07 Potassium chloride

bodies. The former supply the flesh with building material, for

1.44 Sodium

muscle, etc., contains nitrogen; and the latter seem chiefly Soda with caseine

to devote themselves to the maintenance of animal heat in the

system. 1000-00

Corn.-Taking corn as the staple vegetable food of man, we Urine, the chief of the fluid excrements, is separated by the find its constituents are:-1, starch ; 2, gluten, the albumen of kidneys from arterial blood. Its contents, which are subject matter ; and 6, a skeleton of ligneous tissue, which undergoes

the vegetable kingdom; 3, dextrine ; 4, oily matter; 5, saline to much variation, may be thus given :Water .

The proportion of 933.00

no change in passing through the system. Urea

these ingredients varies in different climates. The following Extractive matter.

17:14

table gives some idea of this :Uric acid

1.00
Sodium Sulphates
6.87

English fine
Potassium Sulphates

Wheaten Bran. Scotch Indian
Sodium Phosphate
2.94

Flour.

Oatmeal. Corn. Ammonium

1.65
Calcium and Magnesium

1.00
Water

14
Sodium Chloride
Sal-ammoniac

Oily Matter.
Silica

0-03
Starch, etc..

72

62
Mucus.
0:32

100

100 100 1000-00 This excretion is the channel which carries off the waste mate Gluten, which is the characteristic of cereal seeds, may be VOL. IV.

94

2.31

0-24 0:42

30.10

.

Gluten

4.45 1.50

16 10 2

13 18

6 63

14
18
6

12

8 66

100

obtained from flour by making it into a paste with water, then crop proposed to be raised. The decay of the large cities, such as washing this, tied in a muslin bag, in a gentle stream of water ; Nineveh, Babylon, etc., has been ascribed to the fact that the the starch is removed in suspension, and this is being carried land in their neighbourhoods became exhausted of its phoson so long as the water runs through the bag milky. Upon phates, and in time refused to grow cereal crops. The means opening the bag a grey, sticky, tenacious substance is found of importation being very imperfect, the population gradually adhering to it, which is mainly gluten. It evidently is a com- decreased, or emigrated. We renew the exhausted soil by suppound of at least two substances, one of which is soluble in plying it with guano, bone-earth, phosphate of lime, and other hot alcohol, the other is not. Liebig regards this latter artificial manures. substance as vegetable fibrine ; the former, which is deposited Those constituents of the plant which we have noticed, which from the alcohol as it cools, has been termed gluten.

are not of a mineral character, are assimilated by the plant Starch (CHC), or amylaceous matter, occurs in a large pro- from carbonio acid gas, nitrogen, water, and oxygen. The portion in seeds, roots, and stems of certain plants. It process by which these changes are effected is wholly unknown, appears in grains: those in wheat (Fig. 55) are 100th of an The green colouring matter of the leaf has the property, in inch in diameter; those of arrowroot (Fig. 56), auth; while those sunlight, of decomposing the carbonic acid which the leaves of rice are much smaller, and they are also angular (Fig. --the lungs of the plant-inhale. The oxygen is thrown off in 57). As sold in the shops, it is either in a white glistening a pure state, fit for animal respiration, while the carbon is repowder, or in peculiar angular masses, which are easily tained. Some of it forms the woody tissues of the plant; some crushed; it is insoluble in cold water. If the water contain of it, with the elements of water, and occasionally a little 2 per cent. of alkali, the starch becomes converted into a nitrogen, concurs to produce gluten, starch, sugar, and the tenacious mass; or if the water be heated to 60° Cent., it other organic constituents of plants. suddenly assumes a pasty condition, in which state it is used by Cellulin or Collulose (C18H00:).- This substance is the " base. the laundress. Under the microscope the grains seem to be con- ment tissue" of all vegetable structures; it occurs nearly pure structed in layers; but it is possible that this appearance is as cotton, linen, elder pith. The particles of woody matter are due to folds in the skin which encloses them. The point a deposited in the meshes of this cellulin. (Fig. 55) is called the hilum, and is supposed to be the point Pyroryline, or Gun Cotton (CH29NO,0,5).-When cellalin of attachment of the grain to the cellular tissue of the plant. is immersed in a mixture of equal measures of strong nitrie acid, Starch is readily prepared from potatoes, of which root it forms whose specific gravity is 1.5, and sulphuric acid, it undergoes a rather more than 80 per cent. of the solid matter, by causing remarkable change. As may be seen by the above formula, them to be rasped; the pulp is then washed on a sieve, and the one of the oxides of nitrogen is introduced into its composition. water, milky with the granules of starch in suspension, is Apparently the fibre is not changed, but it has assumed the received into vats, where the amylaceous matter subsides. property of rapid combustion. After several washings and strainings, it is finally dried.

To prepare Gun Cotton. The mixed acids are allowed to cool to Rice starch is more difficult to procure, from the fact that it theordinary temperature of the air; the cotton, paper, or sawdust

, is associated with 7 per cent. of gluten in the seed. This is then immersed for some minutes ; the material must not be gluten is dissolved by a weak alkaline solution, which leaves immersed in large quantities, but piecemeal-the paper, sheet the starch untouched.

after sheet. After ten minutes it is removed, and thoroughly The presence of starch is easily determined by the action of drained from the acid, by pressing it between two porcelain iodine, which, as has been already noticed, turns it blue. plates in an inclined position. It is now washed in cold

From what we have seen of the insolubility of starch, it water, until not a trace of acid is left, and dried with care, at a must be evident that this substance is unfitted for the food of temperature not above 100° Cent. The rapidity of its explosion the young shoot which the germinating plant puts forth, as may be shown by igniting a little gun-cotton resting on gun all food, to enter the minute vessels of either the animal or powder--the latter is generally not fired. Although this vegetable frame, must be in a state of solution, and yet, were property renders it peculiarly adapted for blasting brittle rock, the starch soluble, the rain would wash away the contents yet for military purposes an explosive is required of slower of the husk as soon as it burst. These difficulties are solved by combustion, in order to heave the shot. Gun-cotton exerts its one of the most wonderful of arrangements

propulsive force but for a short time, and distresses the Dextrine.When a solution of starch is boiled with a little ordnance. This difficulty is now being overcome by comdilute sulphuric acid, it becomes thin and limpid, and does pressing the fibre, which renders the inflammation slower. It not give the blue compound with iodine; the starch has become possesses great advantages over gunpowder; it can be kept dextrine, a substance closely resembling gum, and is indeed without injury any length of time damp, and speedily dried for sold as British gum, in those useful bottles of “mucilage." use; it leaves no "train ” when carried about; it is light, and,

If this boiling with dilute acid be continued for some time, a above all, yields no smoke upon explosion. It will explode further and still more remarkable change takes place the when violently struck. When dissolved in ether, it forms the dextrine becomes grape sugar, or glucose (CH,06,H,O). collodion of the photographer.

This very same result is produced in seeds by a minute Lignine is the encrusting matter in the cellular tissue which quantity of a ferment, diastase, which is probably albumen or gives hardness to wood gluten in a particular stage of decomposition; one part of diastase can convert 2,000 parts of starch into sugar. In the germinating plant this conversion is not sudden, but gradual,

LESSONS IN ITALIAN.-XVI. thus supplying the rootlet with proper aliment as it requires it. In brewing, this natural process is taken advantage of to

VOCABULARY. convert the starch of the barley into sugar, and this sugar--as Andate, go.

Collera, anger.

Egli mori, he died. will be explained in the next lesson--suffers, by fermentation, Andrete, will you go? Concerto, concert. Egli lo condurrå, he a further change, becoming alcohol, carbonic acid gas, and Arriveremo, shall we Conversazione, inter will bring or conwater. The barley is "steeped” in water, and then spread out

arrive ?

course, company, duct him. on a floor; here it begins to germinate, and by continually Bastonata, blow (with Corte, court (of a

Avvenire, the future. conversation.

Egli è nato, he was

born. turning the bed with wooden shovels, this germination goes on

a stick).

sovereign).

Ella giunse, she an uniformly. The acrospire is watched, and as soon as it is Bene, good.

Cugina (f.), cousin, Erano, were. about half an inch long, and is going to bifurcate, the vitality of Bristol (also Bri-stol-le Da, from.

Exsi, they. the seed is destroyed by rapidly drying the grain. Experience or Bri-sto-lio), Bris. Di qui, from here. Festino (dancing, gamhaving taught the maltster that at this point all the starch has tol.

Difetto, fault.

ing, etc.), evening become sugar, the malt is then mixed with water, and allowed Caccia, chase, Disonore, dishonour. party, to ferment.

Cajfa, coffee, coffee- Dogana,custom-house. Fiorino, florin. The saline matters plants contain they obtain directly from

house.

Domani, to-morrow. Firenze, Florence the soil in which they grow, and are those phosphates, etc., of

Cena, supper.

Dormire, to sleep. Gli vien imputata, is which the mineral structures of the body are composed. The Che, what?

Cestria, Chester. E corso, ran,

imputed to him. Egli, he.

Guadagno, profit great use of artificial manure is to supply soil which is deficient Chi (only of persons), Egli se lo reca, he re- Ha mandato, he has in such salts with those peculiarly required by the nature of the who ?

gards or reckons it.

sent.

(rived.

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