TRANSLATION OF EXTRACT II, IN LAST READING, is in an inferior rank a man of the same type, "a wanton and a DEMOSTHENES, “ DE CORONA," 250—261.

merry." Of very different, but not less strongly-marked types

are the sober and prudent merchant, the poor clerk or scholar Turn we now to our man of dignity-to him who considers others from Oxford, the serjeant-at-law, and the franklin or country as worthy only of the spittle of his mouth-and beg him to comparo gentleman. Then there are the haberdasher, the carpenter, his fortunes with mine. (Addresses himself to Æschines.) Born and the webbe or weaver, the dyer, and tapiser or carpet-maker, the bred in the veriest poverty, your earliest years found you attached to cook or keeper of a cook-shop, and the shipman or sea captain. the ink, to sponge the benches, and to sweep the schoolroom; such a doctor of physic is also of the party, and a wife of Bath—& were your occupations--occupations befitting a menial, but unworthy well-to-do cloth manufacturer. In strong contrast with somo 2 freedman's son. Arrived at manhood, you became your mother's of the preceding characters is the poor parson of a country aid; as she performed her stock of initiatory rites, you read the parish, who is going on pilgrimage accompanied by his brother, mystic formulæ, and bore a part in all the subsequent operations. At a ploughman. The list is completed by a miller, a manciple or night it was your business to clothe the candidates in skins of fawn, steward of some public institution, a reevo or bailiff, a sompner to pour them out huge cups of wine, to wash them with the lustral or summoning officer of an ecclesiastical court, and a pardoner water, to cleanse their skins with loam and bran; and, the holy rites or seller of papal indulgences. With this company, and the thus done, to raise them up and bid them cry

good cheer of the Tabard, the evening passes pleasantly; and (Mimics) "My bane I have fled,

at its close the host of the inn proposes that he should accomMy bliss I have sped :"

pany his guests to Canterbury, acting as their guide upon the none, as was your boast, giving forth the holy shout with such a way; that to shorten the road each of the company should tell potent voice as yourself. (Turns to the oystanders.) Verily I can

two stories on the journey to Canterbury, and two on the return believe it! for who that hears those powerful tones of declamation in journey ; that he himself should act as arbiter among them, to which he now indulges can for a moment doubt that his religious whose decisions all should be bound to yield obedience; and exclamations were pre-eminently grand? (To Æschines.) The day that the most successful story-teller should be entertained at found you a different employment. You had then to conduct your supper by the whole party on their return to the Tabard. This noble troop through the public streets, their heads crowned with proposal is at once accepted. The pilgrims start for Canterbury fennel and with poplar leaves, while yourself were seen-now pressing the following morning; and in accordance with their agreement the coppered serpents--now elevating them above your head-now they tell their tales in the order in which the host calls upon shouting "Eroi Saboi ”-now raising a dance to the words "Hyes Attes, Attes Hyes !"--while all the crones and beldames of the quarter them. And the incidents of the journey and the tales of the honoured you with the pompous titles of Exarch, chief conductor, travellers form the subject of the poem. chest-carrier, fan-bearer-gingerbread and cake and twisted bun falling

The special advantages of this plan are evident. No schemo plentifully upon you as the reward of your pious labours. Happy and could have enabled Chaucer to fill his canvas with a greater distinguished lot! Who can think it were his own, and, so thinking, variety of characters, taken from all classes of society, and of not deem himself supremely blest ?-Mitchell,

all shades of opinion and temperament, or to have brought them together in a manner more natural and unstrained. No

plan, in short, could have enabled him to give us a more comLESSONS IN ENGLISH LITERATURE.-Y. plete and living picture of the life of his day. And the samo CHAUCER AND HIS TIMES—THE "CANTERBURY TALES." give endless variety to his stories, suiting in each case the

thing enables him, without any appearance of incongruity, to We have reserved to the last the consideration of the “Canter. character of the story to the circumstances of the story-teller bury Tales," probably the latest, and certainly by far the with admirable judgment. Had this plan been worked out in greatest of Chaucer's works.

its entirety, the " Canterbury Tales," which as it is form a The general conception of this great work is, in one sense, long work, would have been one of the longest in the world ; not altogether original. Writers before Chaucer had done what for we should not only have had the story of the journey to many have done since, that is, had brought together a number Canterbury, and the journey back, with probably the incidents of imaginary personages, more or less naturally grouped, and of the stay at Canterbury, and the farewell supper to the teller had placed a series of stories in the mouths of these characters; of the best tale; but we should also have had more than 120 by this means giving a sort of continuity to what would other tales. But the work as we have it is manifestly incomplete. wise be a collection of isolated stories, and securing a double We have only twenty-four tales, and even this number is only interest for the whole work. Boccaccio, shortly before, had reached by certain departures from the original plan. Of tho adopted this scheme in his “Decameron," in which he intro- pilgrims who started in company, the knight, the miller, the duces a number of young ladies and gentlemen who have taken reeve, the cook,* the man of law, the wife of Bath, the friar, refuge in the same villa to escape the pestilence in Florence; the sompnour, the clerk of Oxenford, the merchant, the squire, and it is not improbable that the plan of the “Canterbury the franklin, the second nun, the doctor of physic, the pardoner, Tales" may have been to some extent suggested by the “ Den the shipman, the prioress, the monk, the nun's priest, the mancameron;" though it is more likely still that this method of ciple, and the parson tell one tale each. Chaucer himself begins grouping was so familiar to the writers of Chaucer's day, and to tell the Tale of Sir Thopas, a dreary rhyming tale, intended therefore suggested itself so naturally to his mind, that it as a burlesque upon the romances of chivalry still common, as could not be said to have been due to any one example. But, we have seen, in Chaucer's time. But he has not gone far however this may be, it is clear that in the judgment with when the host indignantly interrupts him, telling him he will which Chaucer has selected his group of personages and the have no more of such“ drafty specho” and “ rhyme doggerel ;" mode of bringing them together, the unequalled power with whereupon the poet begins again, and tells in prose the moral which he has given life to the individuals composing it, and the tale of Melibæus and his wife Prudence. One of the existing dramatic force with which he has conducted the action of the tales, too, is told by one who is not among the company which poem, this great work is in the highest and best sense original. started from the Tabard. During the journey the cavalcade is

The poet begins by telling us that one night in spring, the joined by a canon, an alchemist and a most unscrupulous rogue, season of pilgrimages, he found himself at the hostelry of the and his yeoman or servant. And the yeoman tells a tale, in Tabard (afterwards the Talbot), in Southwark, ready to start on which he exposes the fraud and folly of his master so effectually, a pilgrimage to the shrine of St. Thomas à Becket at Canterbury. that the canon leaves the company as abruptly as he had joined He finds there nine-and-twenty or thirty other persons bound it. The story, too, of the pilgrimage itself is as incomplete as upon the same pilgrimage with himself. The company is a the number of the tales. All that has come down to us--and most varied one. The first group we are introduced to consists no doubt all that was written has come down to us—is the of a knight, a young squire, his son, and a yeoman, his servant, general prologue, in which the pilgrims are described, the plans going to perform the vow made by the knight, as we may for the journey formed, and the start related; the twenty-four gather, during his last foreign expedition. A prioress, Madame tales already mentioned ; and short prologues or introductions Eglantine, a very dignified lady, was also there, and in her train an attendant nun and three priests. Then there was a monk, The cook's tale is a mere fragment. A second cook's tale, printed a great man of his class, delighting in the chase and despising in almost all editions of Chaucer-the "Tale of Gamelya"-is oerthe restraints of monastic rule. The mendicant friar, again, tainly not Chaucer's.

to the several tales, containing detached portions of the history

He was a lad full fat and in good point;10 of the journey. But whether the tales are now preserved in the

His eyen steep, *and rolling in his head, order in which their author would have finally retained them,

That steamed as a furnace of a lend ;'1 and to what portions of the journey the various prologues refer,

His boots supple, his horse in great estate.

Now certainly he wiss fair prelate; it is often impossible to decide. There is much reason to think

He was not pale as : . pined ghost. that Chaucer, at his death, left what he had written very much

A fat swan loved he best of any roast. in confusion, and that some other hand arranged the fragments.

His palfray was as brown as any berry.as The work naturally divides itself into two parts, the one deal. ing with the history of the pilgrims and the incidents of their

Our next extract, also taken from the prologue, is the character journey, and consisting of the general prologue to the whole of the poor country parson, and the contrast between it and the work, and the special prologues, or introductions, by which the picture of the luxurious monk will at once remind the reader of tales are connected together ; the other consisting of the twenty- what has been said of Chaucer's sympathy with the party of four tales told by the pilgrims.

Wickliffe, and his dislike of the monks :The prologue is the most remarkable of all Chaucer's works,

A good man was ther of religioun, and one of the most remarkable in the whole range of lite

And was a pore parsoune of a toun;' rature. It consists, for the most part, of a series of masterly

But riche he was of holy thought and werk. portraits of the pilgrims, every one of which is now, after an

He was also a lerned man, a clerk

That Cristes Gospel gladly wolde preche ; interval of nearly five hundred years, as fresh, as clear, and as

His parisschens devoutly wolde he teche. vivid as if it had been painted yesterday. Each one of them

Benigne he was, and wonders diligent, embodies the characteristics of the class of which it is the type

And in adversite ful pacient; so fully, that we feel convinced that we know what kind of men

And such he was i-proved ofte sythes. the monks, the lawyers, the doctors of Chaucer's day were ;

Full loth were hims to curse for his tythes, that we know, in fact, what our forefathers and their manner of

But rather wolde he geven out of dowte, life were like. Yet each one is also marked by individual traits

Unto his pore parisschens aboute, belonging to the man, not to the class, which impress upon the

Of his offrynge, and eek of his substaunce.7 mind that those we read of are no mere abstract representatives

He could in litel thing han suffisance.

Wide was his parisch, and houses fer asondur, of classes, but real living men and women. Every student

But he ne lafte not' for reyne ne thondur, of literature ought to make himself thoroughly familiar

In siknesse ne in meschief to visite with this prologue. All that we can do is to show Chaucer's

The ferrestiin his parisch, moche and lite, 11 manner of description by means of a few selected examples.

Uppon his feet, and in his hand a staff. The first portrait we choose is that of the prosperous monk

This noble ensaumple unto his scheep he gaf," or abbot. In this extract we alter the old spelling in some

That first he wroughte and after that he taughte. places :

Out of the Gospel he the13 wordes caughte,
A monk there was, a fnir for the maistrie,'

And this figure he added yit therto,
An out-rider, that loved venerye;"

That if golde ruste, what schulde yren doo ?
A manly man, to be an abbot able.

For if a prest be foul, on whom we truste,
Full many a dainty horse had he in stable;

No wondur is a lewed man' to ruste;
And when he rode, men might his bridle hear

And schame it is, if that a prest take kepe, is
Jingle in a whistling wind so clear,

A schiten scheppard and a clene schepe :
And eek as loud as doth the chapel bell.

Wel oughte a prest ensample for to give,
There as this lord was keeper of the cell,

By his clennesse, how that his scheep schulde lyve,
The rule of Saint Maure or of Saint Beneyt,

He sette not his benefice to buyre,17
Because that it was old and somedeal straight,

And lefte his schepe encombred in the myre,
This ilka monk let forby hem pace,

And ran to Londone, unto Seynte Paules,
And held after the newe world the space.?

To seeken him a chaunterie for soules, 18
He gaf not of that text a pulled hen,

Or with a brotherhede be withholde ; 19
That saith, that hunters ben none holy men;

But dwelte at hoom, and kepte well his folde,
Ne that a monk, when he is cloisterless,

So that the wolfe ne made it not myscarye.
Is likened to a fish that is waterles ;'

He was a schepperde and no mercenario;
This is to say, a monk out of his cloistre,

And though he holy were, and vertuous,
But thilke text held he not worth an oyster;

He was to sinful men nought dispitous. So
And I saide his opinion was good.

Ne of his speche daungerous ne digue, 21
What should he study and make himselven wood,
Upon a book in cloistre alway to pore,

10 From the French embon point, 6 To excommunicate for nonOr swinkel' with his handes, and labour,


payment of tithes. As Austyn bit pas How shall the world be served ?

20 His eyes deep-set.

7 Both of what he had received Let Austyn have his swynk to him reserved.

91 Like a lead furnace.

in voluntary offerings and of his Therefore he was a pricasour aright;**

21 Wasted away.

property, that is, his benefice. Greyhounds he had as swift as fowl in flight;

** This last line illustrates a & Have sufficient. На сорOf prikyng and of hunting for the hare

peculiarity of Chaucer's versifica- tracted from haven, infinitive of Was all his lust,"' for no cost wolde he spare.

tion, which ought to be noted. have.
I saw his sleves purfiled at the hand

Modern poets, writing in this metre, • He omitted not.
With grys, and that the finest of a land ;"

almost invariably end ench para

10 Furthest. And for to fasten his hood under his chin,

graph with the second line of a 11 Great and small. He had of gold i-wrought a curious pin;

couplet. Chaucer generally ends A love knot in the greater end there was.

the paragraph with the first line His head was bald, and shone as any glass,

of the couplet, making the end of And eek his face as he had been anoynt ;**

one paragraph rhyme with the is Take note of it,

beginning of the next, and so con 16 Foul, dirty. 1 A fine-looking man, for the . It was an old and familiar necting the two to the ear. Thus, 17 Did not place a hired substimastery-i.e., above others. saying that a monk out of his it will be observed, the last line in tute in his benefice. The abuses • Hunting.

monastery was like a fish out of the description of the monk ends among the clergy referred to is 3 Where this monk was superior water.

with "berry;" the next paragraph, these lines are the constant theme of the monastery.

10 Why.

introducing another personage, of the satirists of the period. • St. Benedict.

begins, “A frere there was, A 18 An endowment for saying Somewhat strict. 13 As Austin bade-i,c., accordwanton and a merry."

masses for the soul of the giver • Let them pass by. We stilling to the rule of St. Augustine. "A poor parson of a townland of the endowment in St. Paul's say, “Gave the go-by to." 1• A thorough horseman. or rural parish,

Cathedral * Followed the ways of the 15 Pleasure.

2 Parishioners.

19 To be maintained in a monasmodern world. 16 Embroidered at the wrist. Wonderfully.

tic brotherhood. . He gave not (would not give) 27 With fur, and that the finest + Oftentimes.

20 Not unchnritable, not pitiless a plucked fowl for - placed no in the country,

5 Very disagreeable would it be to the sins of others. value upon, 2. As if he had been anointed. to him,

» Harsh or proud.

12 Gave.
13 Those.
3* Layman.

11 Mad.

19 Toil.

But in his teching discret and benigne.

The payl y-drove in the schodes a-ryght;
To drawe folk to heven by fairnesse,

The colde deth, with mouth gapyng upright.
By good ensample, was his busynesse :

Amyddes of the tempul sat mischaunce,
But it were any person obstinat,

With sory comfort and evel contenaunce
What so22 he were of high or lowe estat,

I saugh woodnesie laughyng in his rage :
Him wolde he snybbe23 scharply for the nones, 24

Armed complaint, outhees, 17 and fiers outrage.
A bettre preest I trowe ther nowher non is.

The carroignels in the busshe, with throte y-corve;
He waytud after no pompe ne reverence,

A thousand slain, and not of qualme y-storve;"?
Ne maked him a spiced conscience, 25

The tiraunte, with the preye by force y-raft;
But Cristes lore, and his apostles twelve,

The town destroied, there was no thing laft.
He taught, and first he folwed it himselve.

Yet saugh I brente the schippes hoppesteres ;*

The hunte?) strangled with the wild beres : The short passages of narrative which occur under the title

The sowe fretenthe child right in the cradel; of prologues between the various tales, are scarcely inferior to

The cook i-scalded, for al his longe ladel. the general prologue in dramatic skill. The most noteworthy

Nought beth forgeten the infortune of Mart; character in them is the good-humoured host, with his ready

The carter over-ryden of his cart, mother-wit, managing the somewhat troublesome pilgrims.

Under the whel ful lowe he lay adoun. Of the other portion of the poem, the tales themselves, we

Ther wer also of Martz divisioun,** must speak bat briefly. We have already pointed out the

The barbour,"s and the bowcher, and the smyth, judgment with which Chaucer adapted the tale to the teller.

That forgeth scharpe swerdes on his stith.

And all above depeynted in a tour The stories may be roughly divided into two classes—the

Saw I conquest sitting in gret honour, dignified, or pathetic tales told by the higher and more educated

With the scharpe sword over his heed class of the pilgrims; and the broad, coarse, but humorous

Hangynge by a sotil twyne threed.26 stories told by the travellers of lower rank. The first and longest of the tales of the first class is the Knight's tale, which contains the story of Palamon and Arcite, derived no doubt by

LESSONS IN SHORTHAND.-XIV. Chaucer from Boccaccio. The Squire's tale is suited to the character of the squire. It is a wild story of love and enchant

HISTORY OF SHORTHAND. ment, probably of Oriental origin, and only half finished. The Man of Law's tale is the pathetic story of Custance, semination of the art of Shorthand in modern times, ending respec

193. There are three principal epochs in the improvement and disborrowed by Chaucer from the “Confessio Amantis” of Gower, tively at the publication of the matured systems of Mason (1682), as it had been by Gower from earlier writers. The Doctor of of Taylor (1786), and of the first edition of Phonography (1837) ; Physic tells the Roman story of Virginia. The Prioress relates and each may be assigned to some specific cause, or peculiar feature the characteristic story of a little Christian child murdered by of the time. The Shorthand of the Romans, as practised by Tiro, Jews, and of the miracles that followed his death, and revealed (the freedman of Cicero), Ennius, and others, was an abbreviated the crime. The Clerk's

tale, the most pathetic of the whole longhand, both as to the forms of the letters, and the orthography. number, is the story of Patient Griselda, since become familiar

194. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the principles of the Reformain many forms to all readers, but then told in English for the tion were extensively promulgated in this country from the pulpit. first time, being taken from the Latin of Petrarch.

A desire to preserve for future private reading the discourses of the Among the stories of the second class, the most humorous perhaps are those of the Miller, the Prior, and the Canon's principal preachers of that day, led to the cultivation of the newly

invented art of shorthand writing. Teachers and systems increased Yeoman; but the first and second of these, like most of Chaucer's rapidly; and by a comparison of one mode with another, and by exhumorous tales, are much too coarse to suit the taste of the perimenting with various series of alphabetical signs, Mason, at length, present day. The Parson's tale is of a class by itself

. It is in produced a system far superior to any that had preceded it. The proprose, and is, in fact, a sermon or moral discourse. The following powerful description of the Temple of Mars gress of the art, from the publication in 1588 of Bright's system of

arbitrary characters for words (or rather from the publication of the and its decoration is taken from the Knight's tale:

first shorthand alphabet by John Willis, in 1602), to the appearance And downward on a hil under a bent,1

of Mason's system in 1682, may therefore be considered as resulting Ther stood the Tempul of Marz Armypotent,

from the dawn of RELIGIOUS FREEDOM. Mason's system was pubWrought al of burned steel of which thentre

lished by Thomas Gurney, in 1751, aud it is used by members of his Was long and streyt, and gastly for to see. And thereout came a rage and such a prise,

family, as reporters to the Government, to the present time. That it made all the gates for to rise.

195. No other marked advance was made till the middle of the next The northen light in at the dore schon,

century. " It is singular," observes Mr. Bradley, iu his shorthand For window on the walls ne was ther noon,

treatise, “that although Stenography was introduced into this country Thorugh the which men might no light discern.

at a very early period, yet that our forefathers should never, until a The dores were alle ademauntz eterne,

very recent date, have thought of adapting it to that which is now its I-clenched overthwart and endelongt

primary, although by no means its only, use--we mean the transcript With iren tough; and for to make it strong

of addresses delivered to the public, or in which the community at Every piler the tempul to susteine

large are interested. The example of Cicero ought to have incited Was tonne greet, of iren bright and schene:" Ther saugh I first the dark ymagining

them to this pursuit, even had not the obvious nature of the art done Of felony, and al the compassyng;

so. However, the use to which it has been since so successfully The cruel ire, ees rad as eny gleede ;

applied, seems not to have been considered by them; for, up to 1780, The pikepurs, and eek the pale drede ;

public proceedings, or rather miserably abridged sketches of them, The smyler with the knyf under bis cloke;

were taken down in the ordinary writing for the London journals. The schipne brennyngs with the blake smoke;

Dr Johnson was one of the earliest reporters of the debates in The tresoun with the murtheryng in the bed ;

Parliament, and the Doctor boasted that he took care the Whig dogs The open werres, with woundes al bi-bled ;

should not have the best of the argument-a course which he conld Contek 10 with bloody knyf, and sharp manace ;12 Al ful of chirkyng' was that sory place.

well adopt; for, instead of reporting the speeches of noble lords and The slur of himself yet saugh I there,

honourable members, he composed them; and it is recorded that he His herte-blood!3 hath bathed al his here ;14

made them all speak in the same pompous and grammatical style in - Whether. 23 Snub, rebuke. + Across and along.

15 Driven into the hair-i.e.,

21 Hunter. * On that occasion, then and

5 Shining,
6 Spark,
into the head.

32 With is frequently used for Pickpurse, thief.

18 Madness.

17 Outcry.

by. Did pot spoil the natural sim. 8 Ships burning.

1$ Carrion, corpse.

23 Devouring. feity of his conscience,

9 Bled, covered with blood,

1. Not dead of disease. Το 91 Of the company, the army of A bend--that is, a slope.

10 Contention.
streve or starve is to die.

The entry. This contraction 1 Menace.

20 Schippes hoppesteres is pro

26 The barbour-surgeon. very common in Chaucer.

11 Shrieking.

bably the dancing ships, from the 20 The reference is to the s * Prees or crowd.

13 Heart's blood.

14 Hair.

motion of a ship on the waves. of Damocles.


J x Ur

which he was himself accustoined to write. In 1780, Mr. Perry, | graphic books. On these grounds Phonography may, in some rethen proprietor of the Morning Chronicle, organised a corps of spects, be said to afford the writer facilities of the same natare as reporters. From that time Stenography was studied for professional those which the invention of printing opened out to the reader.* purposes, and though there are some reporters on the daily papers who even yet use condensed longhand, the majority practise the equally

PHONETIC PRINTING. simple and far more expeditious system of Shorthand." The pub.

198. Closely allied with Phonography, as a mode of representing lication of the parliamentary debates caused a demand for reporters, the English language as it is pronounced, by a series of shorthand and for a system equal to their wants. Mason's, adopted by Ġurney, characters, is a corresponding system of printing, called Phonotypy. was found insufficient. Its lengthy outlines could not be traced fast the alphabet of which answers to the simple shorthand alphabet, letter enough to enable the reporter to keep pace with the flow of eloquence by letter. The order of the letters in the Phonotypic Alphabet is as that he often had to record; and the numerous arbitrary signs, and

follows: contractions of words, were too cumbersome for the memory. Byrom's p b, t d, cj, kg; fr, 3 d, s z, 53; m, n, 9; 1, r; W,y; h. system (privately taught by himself for several years) was made public in 1767, soon after his death. It was much practised in private The Roman, Italic, and Seript forms of the sixteen new letters are:

a s, e ε, ii; oo, De, u w: į, 8, 4. circles, but was not brief enough for the reporter. Mavor's appeared in 1780, and Taylor's in 1786. These two valuable systems, with

G, 4, ad, ES 3,

TJ 9. many others far inferior, were the fruits of this increased demand for

0, a a, ES, 3 3, Wy. the means of reporting the proceedings of the legislature, and their appearance marks the close of the second epoch, and the dawn of

he ho f f Zý zy

C. POLITICAL FREEDOM. 196. The practice of shorthand writing having been found so favour

A., & e, Li; , OO, W m; W D: Fį, 88, Uų. . able to the development of the mental powers of those who used it (as A a, E , li; 00, 00, Ww; WD: Fi, 8 %, UL 4. shown, first, in reporting the sermons of the Reformers, and then in tale di Wala Wu W'm taking down the discussions of our legislative assemblies); and the experience of above two hundred years having proved the utility of

199. This alphabet has been employed in the Exercises given in the art; and, by the establishment of cheap schools, the ability to this course of Shorthand Lessons, to aid the pupil in writing shortread and write having been acquired by nearly all who were able hand. It now only remains for us to give a specimen of Phonotypy, to afford the expense of learning these arts through the medium or the style of printing in which the provunciation of the language of the old alphabet ;--a somewhat extensive desire was shown, is represented to the eye, and a concluding sketch of Phonographic chiefly by young persons, to add to their other means of acquiring literature, and we shall then have finished our course of Shorthand knowledge the use of shorthand writing. Treatises on the art had Lessons. We select for our present subject the Constitution of hitherto been sold at high prices, seldom at less than half-a-guinea, the Phonetic Society, as bearing immediately upon the subject of this and were thus beyond the reach of many who were desirous of learn- series of Lessons. The title of the Society is "The Phonetic Society ing. To meet this want, William Harding, a bookseller in Pater. for the promotion of a Reading, Writing, and Spelling Reform,” it noster Row, published, in 1823, a neat edition of Taylor's system, was established 1st March, 1843, by Mr. Isaac Pitman, Bath, who with some slight improvements, at the reduced price of 3s. 63. The acts as Secretary. The President of the Society is Sir Walter C. book sold extensively, and in a few years other booksellers supplied, Trevelyau, Wallington, near Newcastle-on-Tyne. at a muche cheaper rate, not only Taylor, but also Byrom and

DE FONETIK SOSIETI. Mavor. The last publication of Taylor's shorthand was by Odell. Objekts ou de Sosjeti.-1. Tu ekstend de art ov Fonografi, or An attempt to improve upon Taylor's system, by marking the long Tonetik Eorthand, bị fri tigin fru de post, and pderwįz, and tu and short sounds of the vowels, with the intention of issuing a cheap promot de intelektual imprurment or de memberz or de Soseti. edition for general nse in National and British schools, led the writer 2. Tu introdys an imprurd metod ov tigin tu rid buks printed in of this sketch of the history of the art to the inventiou of Phono de prezent alfabet, bị a kors ov instrdkson in fonetik ridin. graphy. This occurred in 1837. Phonography is, however, so dif. ferent in all its details from Taylor's system, that its origin could and printiy, or a Fonetik Alfabet dat kontenz a leter for ig distiykt

3. Tu reform de ortografi ov de Inglis langwej, bį de us, in ritag never be discovered from the work itself. Founded, as it is, on the “alphabet of nature," and already extensively practised thronghout

send in de langwej. Great Britain and the United States of America, its publication may,

Klasez ov Memberz.-Klas 1. Rịt Fonctik Eorthand, and engej tu perhaps, without presumption, be called the third epoch in the deve korekt de Eksersįzez or Students, fru de post, gratuitysli

. lopment of the art of Shorthand. The immediate cause of the present

Klas 2. Rịt Fonetik Porthand, but do not korekt Eksersizez fru extended practice of this kind of writing, was THE DIFFUSION or to post. KNOWLEDGE AMONG THE MIDDLE CLASSES OF SOCIETY. It has yet

Klas 3. Lernerz ov Fonografi. to be extended to the lowest classes, and this will be the mission of Klas 4. Memberz hu aprur or de Objekts or de Sosjeti, bot du Phonography combined with Phonetic Printing.

not rịt Fenetik Zorthang. 197. That Phonography is likely to fulfil this mission, may be in. Subskripson.—Entrans fi, 6d. Anyal subskripson, not les dan Bd., ferred from one or two characteristics which distinguish it from all peabel 1st Janyari, or at eni tìm dyrin de mont. A blayk form or other systems of Shorthand. The first is, that it is founded on a aplikeson for membersip me bi obtend from de Sekretari bį forwardig strictly phonetic analysis of the English language, and may, conse a postej stamp. quently, be used with facility by those who are unable to spell in accordance with the usual unsystematic orthography. The second is,

Direkfonz for preperin Eorthand Eksersizoz.-Rịt in Fonografi, that Phonography is not adapted to the wants of the reporter alone, on ruld peper, a fų versez or Skriptur, or a fort ekstrakt from : but is especially well suited for letter-writing and general composi- nuzpeper, livin ereri alternet iïn for korekfonz and remarks, and tion, as it may be written in a form as legible in every respect as send de Eksersiz (wit de printed slip ov de nyzpeper, if spg bi emcommon longhand, with, at the lowest computation, one-sixth of the ploid) tu eni member in de printed List, in Klas 1, enkloziŋ an trouble ; that is, in one-third of the time, and with half the fatigue. envelop, stampt and adrest, for its return. The existence of two distinct styles of Phonography, one adapted for Fonograferz, and ol hw apruv ov eni ov de Objekts or do Sosjeti

, letter-writing, and the other for reporting, the second being only ar respektfuli rekwested tu join wpn or its Klasez, and dps tu asist in an extension of the first, and not a new system in itself, —is the basis ekstendig edukeson. Aplikefonz for membersip fud bi riten in of the popularity of Phonetic Shorthand. The consequences of these happy arrangements are, that letter-writing is extensively cultivated orthand for de forst tú Klasez. de nemz ov nu Memberz apir in among phonographers, and that a nearer approach to the introduction de Fonetik Jornal, poblist wikli, pris 3d., and ar repited in an of one uniform system of Shorthand writing,—which all disciples Anyal List, poblist 1st Mars, pris 21. Memberz hu kan rit 100 of the art have looked upon as likely to be productive of sach great wordz per minit ar distingwist bį de onorari mark (*) prifikst tu der benefits,--has already been made in the short period that Phonogra- nemz, wid an adisonal (*) for everi adisonal 50 wordz. phy has been before the world, than was made in the two hundred 200. Reader, Practise and Persevere. That these cffects will continue and increase, there is every reason to join ouro Pitsan, and subsequently in a separate volume, in Phonetic Shorthand. years during which Shorthand was previously employed in England.

• From Pitman's History of Shorthand, originally published in the Phpuntypie believe, on account of the uniformly increasing demand for phono- 1 A new edition of this work has lately been issued

NATURAL HISTORY OF COMMERCE. in the Devonian, carboniferous, Permian, and politic

strata. CHAPTER III. (continued).

The mining of iron pyrites is a large branch of industry THE EFFECTS OF GEOLOGY ON THE INDUSTRY OF THE BRITISH in Ireland, and the basis of an extensive series of chemi.! PEOPLE (continued).

cal manufactures in which the cost of fuel does not form

a preponderating item. This mineral is collected in Geological Distribution of Mineral Products (continued)—Relation of Scotland, the north-eastern parts of England, etc., being

Geology to Agriculture—Botanical Aspect presented by Geo- derived from the carboniferous and newer formations. logical Formations

Coprolites, the exuviæ of extinct gigantic reptiles, and ((.) Association of Iron and Coal in their Relation to pseudo-coprolites

, the osseous remains of large vertebrates, Indristrial Pursuits

and nodular concretions of phosphate of lime of organic The carboniferous system contains our greatest sources origin, cannot be expected to occur in strata of an epoch of natural wealth. It yields the coal which gladdens anterior to that in which those animals lived. They our bearths, and heats our roaring furnaces. It sup- occur in the liassic, and neocomian, and cretaceous plies us with iron ores and lime, and with the fuel neces- strata, and in the newer tertiaries, these last formations sary for smelting the iron, for the most part in close being characterised by the remains of whales and other proximity to the ores. We have thus two conditions mammals, as the first are by ichthyosauri, plesiosauri, especially favourable to the production of cheap iron, and other huge reptiles. As a source of manure, coproabundant ore and fuel-occurring together. In no other lites have become important. country perhaps, save Belgium, do we find an equally 3. Detrital. favourable combination of circumstances. The absence The chief minerals found in detrital deposits are gold from Ireland of any vast deposits of bituminous coal and tin-stone, i.e., stream-tin. Being derivative, the necessarily prevents the establishment in that country of occurrence of these minerals indicates the existence or those branches of industry in which the cost of fuel forms rocks containing them, either in the immediate neighany very large proportion of the total cost of production. bourhood, or in tracts drained by a local stream or its Hence, we have not had there any successful establish- tributaries. ment of iron-smelting in recent times. The iron ores, Keeping in view the geographical distribution of the however, both as earthy and bituminous carbonates and paleozoic rocks, especially of the Silurian, Devonian, as hæmatites, are now largely exported from Ireland to and carboniferous systems, and the fact of these strata England and Scotland to supply the enormously in being the sources of our chief mineral wealth, let us now creasing demand.

apply these phenomena to the industrial pursuits of the Large quantities of copper and other ores raised in people of these areas. Ireland, Ohili, Mexico, etc., are sent to Swansea to be III. Relation of Geology to Agriculture. smelted, as the proportion of fuel which is required 1. Botanical Aspect presented by Geological Formations. would render the process in those countries too costly to It has been stated that the soils of a country vary to be profitable. In other words, it is cheaper to carry ore a great extent with the nature of the underlying geoloto the coal than coal to the ore. Similarly the various gical formations. This phenomenon may be best illusclays raised in the south of England are transported to trated by reference to the district in the line of section Staffordshire to be converted into useful articles. shown in Fig. 1. (See page 225.)

Previous to the employment of steam as a motive force, The western parts of Wales, where the land attains an water was the prime mover; consequently our manu- elevation of from 2,000 to 4,000 feet above the sea-level, factories, at that time, were located where water-power are covered with heath, and are only fit for inferior paswas at command. But on the application of coal to the ture lands. Monmouthshire, Brecknockshire, Hereford, generation of Eteam, the seats of manufacturing industry and parts of Worcestershire are occcupied by the rocks were necessarily transported to districts where this of the old red sandstone formation; and in consequence mineral could be obtained abundantly and cheaply. of their susceptibility of decomposition, the marls breakNorwich, York, and Spitalfields could then no longer ing up into rich earth fitted for tillage, they naturally compete with the towns more favourably circumstanced, form a more fertile soil than that derived from the slates and in course of time ceased to be the great manufac of the west; hence we have in the former districts turing centres. Lancashire, on the introduction of steam good corn lands and productive orchards machinery, soon became the greatest manufacturing The low plain of new red sandstone presents facilities district, owing to its situation with respect to our coal for agriculture similar to those of the old red sandstone fields and to our outlets of commercial industry.

tract. From the time of the Romans to the seventeenth cen The configuration of the surface of the country occutury the Weald of Kent and Sussex was one of the chief pied by the Jurassic rocks which succeed, may be viewed sites for the production of iron, because of the close as an alternation of clays and limestones. The outcrops proximity of the fuel, wood, to the ore; but when coal of the clays can actually be traced by the wide valleys, came to be used in the reduction of the ores, this branch which are permanent grass lands; whilst the limestones of industry declined, and was soon removed to districts compose ranges of low hills or more elevated grounds. where the more abundant and cheaper supply of fuel These limestone ridges form escarpments (see Fig. 1) was to be found.

along the line of strike, that is, on the side (N.W.) on From the foregoing remarks we have an explanation which the several clays rise up from beneath the calwhy the coal-producing counties are the centres of our careous beds. The soil on these limestones is well manufacturing industry.

adapted for the growth of cereals, turnips, and clovers. (d.) Other bedded mineral products are met with in Passing on to the cretaceous series, which in the south strata of various ages. Slates are quarried in Silurian forms extensive tracts, we meet with siliceous, argilrocks in Carnarvon and Merioneth, in Cumberland, and laceous, and calcareous soils. The rocks in the western in some parts of Scotland. In these districts there is a part of the wealden area contain little lime and much very large population supported entirely by the quarry- silica, and are covered by some very wide-spread heaths ing and preparing of slates.

not worth bringing into cultivation. The natural forestRock salt is confined in Great Britain to the Keuper lands of the Weald or Wold are on the wealden clay, sandstone and marls.

which has been cultivated, though only of late years, by Building and architectural stones are chiefly quarried the help of deep drainage.



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