The base of the chalk escarpments is usually marked | Kuprevw, I become repons, -ov, 8, a Per-| Depekvons, -ous, ó, by a stratum of clay-the gault-which thus occupies a

master of, gain. sian.

Pherecydes. valley, and is a pasture tract. But the chalk strata Martis, -ews, ó, a roleucos, -ov, d, an overw, I kill

, slay, which form the South Downs and stretch far to the soothsayer, a di. enemy.


viner. west, into the centre of England, and thence away to

Npoontevw (our word vw, I beget, prothe north-east, are chiefly used for the purpose of sheep-Menda, I purpose, 1 prophesy), I fore- duce; in the per

am on the point tell.

fect, I am propasturage. There is little or no soil upon them, the

of ; το μελλον, the Σαρδαναπάλος, -ου, , duced, I have be herbage is short, and trees are absent; however, the


Sardanapalus. chalk ranges, especially the broad, sweeping plain of Mndela, as, ģi, Medea. Wiltshire and Hampshire, are gradually coming under

EXERCISE 84.-GREEK-ENGLISH. tillage—the chief crops being grain, turnips, clover, and sainfoin.

1. Οι στρατιωται των πολεμιων δισχιλιους διακοσιους εξηκοντα The soils derived from the decomposition of rocks con- πεντε πεφονευκασιν. 2. Φερεκύδης ελεγε μηδενι θεω τεθυκεναι. taining magnesia-such as the dolomite of the Permian, 13. Νεος πεφυκως πολλα χρηστα μανθανε. 4. Ο μαντις τα μελwhich ranges from Nottingham, through Derbyshire λοντα καλως πεπροφητευκεν. 5. Τα τεκνα ευ πεπαιδευκας. 6. and Yorkshire, to Tynemouth, and the serpentines of

Μηδεια τα τεκνα πεφονευκυια έχαιρεν. .

7. Οι Λακεδαιμονίες

Πλαταιας κατελελυκεσαν. . 8. Σαοδαναπάλος στολην γυναικεια Cornwall-are rich, but perhaps less so than those

ενεδεδυκει. 9. Οτε ήλιος κατεδεδυκει, οι πολεμιοι επλησιαζεν. derived from ordinary calcareous strata. The Lizard 10. Αλεξανδρος επιδιωκων Δαρειον, τον Περσων βασιλέα, πολλων Downs are, however, reckoned fine pasture-land; the

χρηματων εκεκυριευκει. . cultivated parts are amongst the best corn-lands in the county, and agriculturists agree that the land in the

EXERCISE 85.- ENGLISH-GREEK. Permian tracts is extremely fertile.

1. I have slain. 2. They have slain. 3. He had slain. 4. · The tertiary beds of the basin of the Thames are for They will slay. 5. Ho slew (first aorist). 6. We will slay. 7 the most part cultivated tracts, excepting where the We have slain. . 8. We had slain. 9. They will sacrifice. 10. "Bagshot Sands” form the superficial stratum. These They have saorificed. 11. They had sacrificed. 12. They sacriare familiar to us as heathy wastes, such as Aldershot ficed. 13. The soothsayer sacrificed to the god. 14. The soothHeath, Bagshot Heath, Hampstead Heath, etc.,

and have sayer has sacrificed to the god one hundred oxen. 15. I educate been converted into camping and exercise grounds for educate my children. 18. I educated my children. 19. I have

16. I was educating my children. 17. I will our troops and volunteers.

educated my children. 20. I had educated my children. 21. The older palæozoic rocks, although rich in minerals, Alexander destroyed Babylon. 22. Alexander had destroyed are generally barren, and seem peculiarly dreary and Babylon. 23. The boy puts on a woman's garment. 24. The desolate. This arises partly from the nature of the strata, boy has put on a woman's garment. 25. The boy had put on a and partly from the circumstance that, occupying hilly woman's garment. 26. The boy will put on a woman's garment. regions, they are to a great extent above the limits of the growth of economic plants, even if within the reach of

REMARKS ON THIS EXERCISE. ordinary agricultural operations.

In forming the tenses of verbs compounded with prepositions, The Highlands of Scotland, composed of masses of the student is advised to drop the preposition while so doing

, gneiss and granite, are heathy and barren, since their and form the stems according to rule ; thus, Sv-, duo

, too

restoring it afterwards. For instance, in evouw I drop the es, hard rocky materials come almost everywhere bare to Deðurs, ededUK-; ev-e-de-80-K, that is, evedeõuk. So with Kata the surface, forming a wild pastoral country, browsed by | λυ-, λυσ-, ελυσό, λελυκ-, ελελυκ- ; κατελελυκ : where observe that black cattle, poor sheep, and red deer. The neighbour- Kata loses its final a before the vowel €. hood of Parys Mountain, in Anglesea, is singularly I have accented the proper names, as Diodorus, Sardana, marked by sterility and gloominess—there is neither pálus, etc., according to the Greek, the rule being that in proper shrub nor tree, and the barrenness is unrelieved even names, as well as generally, a long vowel in the Greek should by a single blade of grass. Other examples might be receive the stress of the voice in English. adduced in illustration of the unproductive nature of

PRESENT AND IMPERFECT MIDDLE OR PASSIVE. the soil of the oldest palæozoic and metamorphic rocks. But in all these regions the character of the surface will

The present middle or passive is formed from the stem of the be more or less modified by the occurrence of alluvial present active by adding opar, as Av-, Ay-quat. Of ouai the deposits bordering the rivers, and by the presence of ending. This connecting vowel is seen in other persons of thi

may be considered as a connecting vowel, and war the person a glacial drift--the effect of denudation upon various same tense ; thus, Av-o-jai, Av-e-Tai, Av-o-uebov, Av-e-c807, Amo rocks, producing a favourable mixture of clay, sand, and meda, Au-e-obe, du-o-vrai, where e and are the connecting vowel lime, which forms a rich soil.

-vowels, that is, that unite the stem with the person-endings

The imperfect middle or passive is formed by prefixing the

augment and changing μαι into μην---thus, λυομαι, ε-λιeLESSONS IN GREEK.-XXX.

It may also be formed from the imperfect active by changin THE PERFECT, PLUPERFECT, AND OTHER TENSES. the active termination or into the middle termination out. The perfect stem is formed from the stem of the present by

VOCABULARY. adding k and prefixing the reduplicative augment, as aus, Auk: Adempos, -ov, d, a Epyaçouai (from ep-j Tiparta, I do ; Tos AeAvK-; the tense itself is formed by adding to the stem the person-endings. We are now speaking exclusively of the active Anodexouai

, I re-
you, work), I

TW Kalas, Id work.

well (that is voice. Observe that, as o is in general the sign of the future

ceive, am favour- Epxouat, I come,

am in a good con and the first aorist, so k is the sign of the perfect and the pluperfect. Qualifications of these statements will appear as we Aulos, -ov, d, a flute. navbavw (Latin, la- tpateva (from op

able to, welcome. go.

dition). proceed.

Εγχωριος, -ον, do- teo), I lie hid, am To form the stem of the pluperfect, prefix e to the stem of

mestic, belonging concealed.

make an expedi the perfect; thus, to AAUK- I prefix , and produce cleuk,

to the country Πενομαι (πενης, poor; tion. which, when the person-endings are suffixed, constitutes the


Latin, penuria ; Veudoua (from pluperfect tense. VOCABULARY

E.Be (with the opta- English, penury),

I am poor.

tive), O that! Γυναικειος, , -ον, η Διοδωρος, -ου, δ, Dio- Επιδιωκω, I pur

I lie womanly, belong dórus.


EXERCISE 86.-GREEK-ENGLISH. ing to a woman. Evovw, I enter, I put Karaduw, I go down, 1. Δυο ανδρε μαχεσθον. 2. Γενναιως μαχωμεθα περι της πατρα Aapelos,-ov, d, Darius. on.


| δος. 3. Αναγκαιον εστι τον υιον πείθεσθαι τον πατρι. 4 Πολλοί

Tia, an army),

dos, a falsehood)


αγαθος πενoνται. 5. Νομοις τοις εγχωριοις έπεσθαι καλον εστιν. of εν with the dative, being used, because motion is implied. 6. Μη αποδεχου των φιλων τους προς τα φαυλα χαριζομενους. 7. | We, however, in English say in such a case, in the citadel. Εκαστος ήσυχος μεσην την οδον ερχεσθω. 8. Οι πολιται τοις νομους πειθεσθων. 9. Τω αδελφω μοι έπεσθον. 10. Ει βουλει

EXERCISE 89.-ENGLISH-GREEK. καλως πραττειν, εργαζου. 11. Εαν βουλη καλως πραττειν, εργαζου. 1. He has been murdered. 2. The boys have been murdered. 12. Ψευδομενος ουδεις λανθανει πολυν χρονον. 13. Οι Λακεδαι- 3. The soldiers had been slaughtered. 4. He has been shut up. μονιου μετ' αυλων εστρατευοντο. 14. Ειθε παντες ανευ οργης | 5. Yo have been shut up. 6. Ye had been shut up. 7. They βουλευοιντο. 15. Δυο καλω ίππω εις την πολιν ηλαυνεσθην. 16. have been shut up. 8. The two men had been shut up. 9. The Εαν πενη, ολιγοι φιλοι (so. εισι σοι).

oxen are said to have been shut up. 10. I have been well edu

cated. 11. Thou hadst been well educated. 12. They have been REMARKS ON THIS EXERCISE.

well educated. 13. I had been ill educated. 14. Thou hadst My arodexov, etc. If this sentence be arranged a little diffe- been ill educated. 15. The trees have been well planted. 16. rently, the student will be better able to see its meaning-un The trees had been ill planted. αποδεχoυ τoυς των φιλων (or των φιλων τους) χαριζομενους σου προς τα φαυλα : in English, do not welcome those of your friends who gratify you in bad things. Ipos (Latin, ad), in regard to, in, KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN GREEK.-XXIX. Πραττειν is of a wider signifcation than ποιειν. The former

EXERCISE 80.-GREEK-ENGLISH. signifies to do, the latter to make; the former, therefore, may be used with adverbs in a general sense, as kakws #Patteiv, to do plough. 3. Let us rejoice, O boys.

1. Two roads lead to the city. 2. A pair of oxen are drawing the

4. How sweet is beauty when it ill; that is, to be in bad circumstances,

has good sense (sc. allied to it). 5. Let the citizens keep the laws. The conjunction et requires an indicative or optative mood; 6. Let companions take care for each other (lit., let companion take care the conjunction eay takes a subjunctive.

for companion). 7. Let father and mother take care for the education Mer' avawy, with flutes ; that is, to the sound of flutes. of their children. 8. He who is unskilful in letters does not really

Hlavverony, the third person, dual number, imperfect indica- see (lit., sees not, while he sees). 9. Bear bravely the chances that befall tive, from chavvw, I drive. The n is the temporal augment, e

10. The boy brings a rose to his father, that he may rejoice. being lengthened into n.

11. The boy was bringing a rose to his father, that he might rejoice. Epracouai, and several other verbs, such as earw, étouan, begin- 12. Socrates used to speak as he knew. 13. When the Greeks ap

proached, the barbarians fled. 14. Themistocles and Aristides once ning with e, form their temporal augment by changing e into el.

had a quarrel. 15. The Lacedæmonians are ignorant of music. 16. Turn EXERCISE 87.-ENGLISH-GREEK.

away peril from us, O ye gods. 17. Do not keep one thing concealed 1. That man is poor, and has few friends. 2. I am poor. 3. thing and mean another).

in your heart when you are saying other things (i.e., do not say one He was consulting. 4. They two were consulting. 5. I consult. 6. He consults. 7. Thou wishest to do well, work. 8. If (car)

EXERCISE 81.-ENGLISH-GREEK. you wish to do well, work. 9. They work. 10. He works well.

1. Αυτη η οδος προς την πολιν άγει. 2. Δυο όδω προς την πολιν αγετων. 3. 11. He was working. 12. Ye were working. 13. Ye two were working. 14. We work. 15. Ifght. 16. I was ighting. 17. Aνο εππω (or ίππω alone) το αροτρον αγετον. 4. Αύται αι οδοι προς την πολιν

5. Αί γυναικες καλαι εισιν όταν νουν σωφρονα έχωσιν.

6. Οι They were fighting. 18. They fight bravely. 19. You ight. πολιται φυλαττουσι τους νομους. 7. Οι πολιται εφυλαττον τους νομους. 8. 20. You were ighting. 21. O soldiers, fight bravely for your | Ο πολιτης φυλαττει τους νόμους. 9. Υμεις, ωπολιται, φυλαττετε τους νομούς. country. 22. It is honourable to fight for one's country. 23. 10. Ο πατηρ εμος προνοιαν εχει της εμου παιδειας. 11. “Η μητηρ εμη και αι I follow thee. 24. He follows me. 25. They follow me. 26. | αδελφαι εμαι προνοιαν ειχον της εμου παιδειας. 12. Οι πολιται τας προσπιπWe follow the general. 27 We were following the army. 28. τουσας τυχας γενναιως φερουσιν. 13. “Η μητηρ τω πατρι ροδον φερει, ένα χαιρη. Obey the laws, O boys

14. “Η αδελφη των αδελφω ροδον εφερεν ένα χαιροι. 15. Η θυγατηρ και η μητηρ

πατηρ εστασιαζον. 16. Μη στασιαζοιτε, ω γονεις. 17. Οι παιδες εχαιρον. THE PERFECT AND PLUPERFECT PASSIVE.

18. Χαιρω.

19. Χαιρετε. 20. Χαιρόμεν. 21. Χαιρεις. 22. Χαιρoυσιν. 23. The perfect passive may be formed directly from the perfect | Εχαιρετε. 24. Εχαιρον. 25. “Η εμη αδελφη εχαιραν. 26. Ο νεανιας μουσικης active by changing κα into μαι, as-perfect active λελυκα, perfect | απειρως εχει. 27. Αύται αι παιδες μουσικης απειρως εχουσι. 28. Μουσικης passive λελυμαι.

απειρως εχω. 29. Hμεις, ω παιδες, μουσικης απειρως εχομεν. 30. Οι The pluperfect passive may be formed from the perfect by | ματων απειροι ου βλέπουσι βλεποντες. 31. Εκειναι αι γυναικες γραμματων changing μαι into μην, and prefxing the augment ε, as perfect απειραι εισιν. 32. Ουκ απειρος ειμι γραμματων. 33. Ουκ απειροι γραμματων λελυμαι, pluperfect ε-λελυ-μην.

εσμεν. 34. Δυο ανθρωπω αποφευγετον. 35. Kευθει τον νουν εν τη καρδιά.

36. Οτε οι βαρβαροι επλησιαζον απεφευγεν. 37. Το δεινον αφ' ημων αποτρεπομεν VOCABULARY.

οι θεοι. . Ακρα, ας, ή, 8 sam- Εμφυτευω, I plant in κλεις, 8 key),Ι

EXERCISE 82.-GREEK-ENGLISH. mit, a fort or cita (εν, and φυτευω,Ι

1. The soldiers will free the city from the enemy. 2. The good plant).

Aeyouai (Latin, di. man will plant for his offspring also. 3. The messenger reported to Αυτονομια, -ας, ή (αυ- | Ιδρυω, ίδρυσω, ίδρυ cor), I am said. the citizens that the enemy would plot against the army. 4. Achilles τος, self, and νομος, μαι, I sit down, Ληστης, -ου, ο, ο

was angry with Agamemnon. 5. The Greeks prevailed much by their law), self-govern

valour. 6. Socrates did not implore the judges with many tears, but place, build. thief, a robber, a

trusting in his own innocence, incurred the furthest extreme of danger. ment, freedoτη, Κατακλειω, κλεισω, pirate.

7. Judge not before you have heard the tale of both. 8. The Lacedæindependence. κεκλεισμαι (from

monians destroyed Platan. 9. Who can believe a liar? 10. Hear me, EXERCISE 88.-GREEK-ENGLISH.

my friend. 11. The messenger reported that the enemy had plotted

against the army. 12. Hear me, my friend. 13. Let one friend believe 1. Οι λησται πεφονευνται. 2. Δυο αδελφω υπο του αυτου | another. 14. They say that the city incurred great danger. διδασκαλου πεπαιδευσθον. 3. Η βασιλεια υπο του δημου λελυται. 4. Τοις θεοις υπο των Αθηναιων πολλοι νεα ιδρυνται. 5. Η θυρα

EXERCISE 83.-ENGLISH-GREEK. κεκλεισθω. 6. Προ του έργου ευ βεβουλευσο. 7. Πασιν ανθρω 1. ο στρατηγος την πολιν απο των πολεμιων απολυσει.

2. Οι χρηστών πος εμπεφυτευμενη εστιν επιθυμια της αυτονομιας. 8. Οι λησται | ανθρωποι και τοις εκγονοις φυτευουσιν. 3. Οι χρηστοι ανθρωποι τους παισε πεφονευσθων. 9. Οι πολεμιοι εις την ακραν κατακεκλεισθαι λε- | φυτέυσουσιν. 4. Οι αγγελοι πολλα επαγγελλουσιν.

5. οι πολεμιοι επι. γονται. 10. Ξενοφωντος υιω, Γρυλλος και Διοδωρος, επεπαιδευσθην βουλευουσι το βασιλει. 6. Οι πολεμιοι εμοι επιβουλευουσιν. 7. Πολλα εν Σπαρτη.

τους πολιταις επαγγέλλω. 8. Αχιλλεύς Αγαμεμνον. μηνι€ι. 9. Αχιλλεύς REMARKS ON THIS EXERCISE.

Αγαμεμνόνι μηνίσει. 10. Συ των αδελφώ μηνιεις, 11. Εμηνισα τοις πολε

μιοις. 12. Τους δικαστας ικετευσω. 13. Σωκρατης ουκ ικετευσει τους δικαστας. Κεκλεισθω, let the door have been shut. This, which is something like the literal rendering of the imperative perfect pas- Πλαταιας καταλυουσιν. 16. Οι στρατιωται Πλαταιας καταλυσουσιν. 17. Οι

14. Οι χρηστοι πολιται ουκ ικετευσουσι τους δικαστας. 15. Οι πολεμιοι Rive, Scarcely makes sense in English, The force of the perfect | στρατιωται την πολιν κατελνσαν. 18. Ακουσατε μου, ω εκγονοι. 19 Εταιρος lies in representing the active as already done, and so in de- εταιρω πιστευει. 20. 'Εταιρος εταιρω πιστευσει. 21. Εταιρος εταιρω επισnoting despatch, as in our vulgarism have done, that is, cease

τέυεν. 22. Επιστεύσαν.

25. Πιστεύσουσι.

26. Πιστεύσεις. 27. Επιστεύσατην. 28. Πιστεναομεν. 29. Πιστευομεν. 30. Εις την ακραν, nto the citadel : εις with the accusative, instead ο στρατιωτης τη ανδρεια πολλα ισχυει. 31. Εγω της ανδρεία πολλα ισχύσα,

Kar α


shut up. .

del. .

23. Επιστενον,

24. Πιστεύουσι.


GEOMETRICAL PERSPECTIVE.—XVI. rays emanating from an artificial light, as a candle in a room,

are not parallel ; in this case they spread in all directions from THE PERSPECTIVE OF SHADOWS.

one common centre, upwards, downwards, and horizontally, so We now enter upon another division of our sabject, Sciography, that under some conditions we shall have to introduce rules for a term which signifies the science of shadows. The rules for the construction of shadows subject to an artificial light, which their projection are founded, generally speaking, upon the same the pupil will find very different from anything that has been principles as those for the projection of solids and planes ; yet, previously placed before him. In working the problems relating


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f on account of many peculiarities arising from the causes which to shadows, it will be necessary first to draw the perspectiva originate them, in reference to the sources of light, together representation of the objects we shall have to introduce; an with the various inclinations of surfaces upon which shadows explanation of this part of the work will not be repeated in fall, there must necessarily be additional and distinctive rules every case, as we trust our pupils are sufficiently competent to for their construction. We might point out a few of these do most of the work that is required previous to determining changes in cause and effect, but we think it better to leave them the shadows. Should there

be an exception to this regulation, until we come to special cases in which they are found, when

we it will be when a question is proposed in which

there may be can enter fully into all the particulars belonging to them. The something unusual in the perspective of the object which has great source of light is the sun, whose rays may be said to be not been considered before. parallel, on account of its great distance from the earth. The The position of the sun, the source of light, may be first,

when its rays are parallel with the picture ; secondly, when the the line of contact r s in m and t, and are continued on the sun is before, or in front of the picture; thirdly, when it is face of the wall to Ps; from r to c is 2 feet, to cut off from c behind the picture.

the nearest angle of the wall within the picture; from c to k is 1st. When its rays are parallel with the picture. The sun is 25 feet, the portion of wall on this side the opening. Lines then either on the right hand or on the left; its rays, although drawn from k v' o' (equal to k v o) to the DPS will cut the base at an inclination with the ground, are parallel with the picture of the wall for the perpendiculars of the opening; between these plane.

perpendiculars the parallelogram l k t o and the diagonals must 2nd. When the sun is before or in front of the picture; that be repeated; the corresponding points will be easily recognised, is, when it is behind the spectator, or when the spectator is and through them the perspective of the arch must be drawn between the sun and the object.

by hand. For the shadow draw any line a b, as in the last 3rd. When the sun is behind the picture. By this is meant problem, at an angle of 45° with the PP, and draw lines parallel when the object upon which the light falls is between the sun to it through e, b, c, to meet lines on the ground drawn from the and the spectator. Our first examples will be to illustrate the bases of the perpendicular lines e b and c, and parallel to the first of these positions.

PP in the points d, e, f ; draw the arc d e f by hand. The PROBLEM XLV. (Fig. 75).- A block of stone 3 feet high, 4 feet shadows of the angles of the wall n, o are found as d and c in wide, and 5 feet long, has its end parallel with the picture plane, the last problem. 2 feet to the right of the eye and 1 foot within the picture. PROBLEM XLVII. (Fig. 77).—The block of Problem 45 has Height of the eye, 5 feet, and 10 feet from the picture plane. The a pole 10 feet long laid across it horizontally at an angle of 40° angle of the inclination of the rays, or the sun's elevation, is 500 with the picture plane. The nearest portion of the pole which is

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h the horizon, and to the right of the eye. Project the shadow | in contact with the block is 1 foot from the right-hand corner of the block.

the block, and 2 feet of the pole as it approaches the picture plane Anywhere upon the PP draw an indefinite line a b, at an hang over the side. Project the shadows of the block and the pole. gle of 50° with the PP. Through the angles of the block c Sun's inclination 50°. 1 d draw lines parallel to a b, until they meet other lines Project the shadow of the block as in Problem XLV. To wn from f and e parallel with the PP in m and n. The side determine the perspective position of the pole, mark the point a the block cdfe will be the broad shadow, that is, the 2 feet from b; this will include the distance of the block from dow on the object; efnm will be the cast shadow on the the PP, and rule it towards DE', cutting b Ps in c. Draw the und, that is, the shadow caused by the object. It will be seen perpendicular c d (d marks the edge of the block over which t the edge of the shadow on the ground from the upper edge the pole projects). Through c and d draw indefinite lines the block retires to the Ps, the same vanishing point to which towards VP (the vanishing point for the pole); the lower line block retires, because it is parallel with the block.

through c will be the plan of the pole. Draw a line from c to e "ROBLEM XLVI. (Fig. 76).—The face of a wall pierced by directed by the DVP, and make e f equal to 2 feet; draw a line opening having a semicircular arch; retires at right angles from s towards DVP to meet the plan of the pole in o; draw the the PP, nearest end 1 foot within the picture. Height of wall, perpendicular o m; d m will then be that part of the pole which d. Horizontal length, 10 feet, and 5 feet to the left of the eye. projects 2 feet over the side of the block; make f g equal to 10 adth of opening, 5 feet, and height 7 feet. Height of eye, 5 feet; feet, and draw from g to DVP, cutting the plan of the pole in ance 10 feet. Sun's elevation, 45°, and its rays parallel with h; draw the perpendicular h i ; then the portion of the line picture plane. The thickness of the wall is purposely omitted between m and i will be the perspective representation of the

draw the perspective elevation of the arch, its elevation pole in the position given. To project the shadow, draw lines t be constructed parallel with the PP. At the given from the end of the pole parallel to the sun's inclination, and ht of the spring of the arch from the ground at o, draw ko from h draw a line h k parallel to the PP to cut the inclined u to the width of the arch; draw the diagonals v l and v t; line; from this intersection will be traced the shadow of the the horizontal lines p m and I t; p m must intersect pole in the direction of yp, appearing only beyond the shadow diagonals where they intersect the arch; these lines meet of the block.


PROBLEM XLVIII. (Fig. 78).-T.00 walls A and B form the lists of competitive examinations. A university, therefore, right angle, of these A is 40° with tl 2 picture plane. Height of which stimulates self-tuition by permitting such candidates to the walls, 9 feet 6 inches. Depth of A, 9 feet; that of B, 7 feet. present themselves for its degrees, honours, and prizes, and The nearest angle of the wall A is 2 feet from the picture plang, which, in its character of an examinational board, demands high and 5 feet to the right of the eye. A doorway is in the wall A, 2 and comprehensive scholarship, must be regarded as a necessary feet from the nearest end; width of doorway, 3 feet; height, 7 feet and useful supplement of any university system which professes Horizontal line, 5 feet. Distance of the eye from the picture plane, to be national, and is one which will become more obviously so 10 feet. Angle of sun's rays, 60° with the vertical, and parallel to with the extension of popular education and a taste and the plane of the picture.

facilities for study. The University of London effects this In this subject the pupil has to notice especially the angles of purpose ; and since its curriculum embraces the majority of the the wall and doorway, from which the lines parallel to the sun's subjects taught in our columns, and is an excellent test of the rays are drawn. First, those of the door, where it will be seen results of study; and since many of our readers have the the sun's rays are drawn from the angles on the other side of the honourable ambition to possess some academical degree, we wall, at the top, and the projecting line of the rays for the edge propose to indicate briefly the course of study requisite, and of the shadow on the ground; the opposite edge of the shadow the mode in which to proceed for that purpose. on the ground of the doorway is drawn from the nearest angle We shall speak successively of the matriculation or entrance of the further perpendicular, because the interior of that side examination of the university, which must be passed by all of the doorway is in light. After the lines of the shadow on non-graduate candidates for degrees in the various faculties, the ground have met the base of the opposite wall B, they are and which is often passed by those who have no intention of drawn perpendicularly until they meet their respective inclined proceeding further, and subsequently of the examinations for lines or sun's rays; the line of the shadow on this wall of the degrees in arts, laws, and science. There is, however, a pretop of the doorway will be easily understood from the figure. liminary question, the question of the expense of obtaining a The greater portion of the edge of the shadow of the top of degree, which will suggest itself at the outset to many of our the wall A falls on the opposite wall B to b and passes beyond students, and which must first be dealt with. to the ground at d, determined by the ray from c, and the The following fees are payable to the university : horizontal line de; the small portion of the shadow on the

At the matriculation examination ground at d projected from the upper and near corner of the

first examination for the degrees of bachelor wall A at c retires to vpl. The shadow of the angle of the wall

of arts, laws, or science.

5 B on the ground is found from the outer angle of the two walls

second examinations for those degrees on the further side projected at h; whilst the edge of the shadow h m of the top of the wall retires to vp?. We give

£12 these general directions as a guide during the process of con- To this sum / ust be added, in estimating the total expenses struction, in preference to giving a close description of the of graduating, the cost of the necessary books, of travelling to work in detail, that our pupils may have the opportunity of and from London or other place of examination in the provinces completing the drawing as an exercise

on three occasions, and of living from home for an aggregate of about three weeks. The total cost of obtaining the bachelor's

degree of the University of London can, therefore, seldom THE UNIVERSITIES.--VIII,

exceed £50, including the purchase of books, and must be in LONDON.-I.

many cases less.

Before proceeding to speak of the matriculation examination, The University of London is essentially the university of self- a word must also be said of the university itself. It is not, as taught students, and the one most interesting, because the most is very generally supposed, identical with University College in accessible to those of the POPULAR EDUCATOR. Its degrees, Gower Street, or with King's College in the Strand, which, like honours, and emoluments are open to all, without distinction of many other colleges and schools, have now the little more than creed or rank, and without the requirement of residence in any nominal connection of being affiliated to it. Burlington House

, college. The lists of successful candidates embrace students of in Piccadilly, has until recently been the home of the university, almost every nation and religion, from the ancient universities, and its examinations have been held there. A more appropriate from what were once the peculiar colleges of the University of and imposing university building is, however, being erected by London--King's College, in the Strand, and University College, the Government adjoining Burlington House, and it is probable in Gower Street-from the universities of Scotland, Ireland, that the university may in the future assume a more collegiate India, and Australia, and from the public and private schools of character.* all parts of England; while large numbers of students have not

The first step in order to become a member of the university, only graduated successfully, but have attained honours and and to graduate in any of the faculties of arts, laws, science, exhibitions at the metropolitan university as the result of self, or medicine, is to prepare for the matriculation or entrance tuition. It is not our purpose to discuss the advantages and examination, which must be passed by all candidates for degrees failings of such a university system. We are not disposed to who are not graduates in arts of one of the universities of the question the social benefit of college life, and of the indirect United Kingdom or of Australia. Two matriculation examinaintellectual and moral training which it involves. On the con- tions are held in each year, the first commencing on the second trary, we deem residence one of the most valuable elements in Saturday in January, and the second on the last Monday in university education ; and the high esteem in which the degrees June. Intending candidates should in the first instance either of the three older universities are universally held is due, in a purchase a copy of the University Calendar for the year, of great measure, to the social connotation which they possess, to write to Dr. Carpenter, the Registrar of the university

, and the evidence which thog afford of the refined and gentlemanly ask him to forward a copy of the Regulations for the time being, as well as scholarly qualifications of those who hold them. But in which information will be found of the general and special to many the privileges and advantages of the older university subjects of examination, and of the places at which the system are impossibilities, as neither the time nor the necessary examination will be held. expenditure can be spared. Such is the case with the sons of

Fourteen days at least before the commencement of the the great majority of professional men and men of business, examination, each candidate must transmit to the Registrar and with the large number of earnest students who desire to certificate showing that he has completed his sixteenth year, elevate themselves by means of education and to have their upon the receipt of which the Registrar will inform him of the attainments stamped by some competent authority. Such

stu- time appointed for the entry of his name upon the register, dents are willing to work hard, and to submit with others when the matriculation fee of £2 must be paid. possessing greater advantages to a high examinational test of their acquirements ; but they must read and study as they can. the matriculation examination, which lasts during five days, is

Thus much of the preliminaries. In its general character Evening classes and lectures, night-work, mutual instruction, and such works as the POPULAR EDUCATOR and similar publica

* Until the completion of the university, all communications should tons, afford the

only materials for preparation of which they be addressed to the Registrac, of the ứniversity of London, Dr. an avail themselves; but with these they are willing to enter Carpenter, 17, Savile Row.

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