ページの画像
PDF
ePub

PROPOSITION XXVIII.-If, in the figure of Enc. I. 1, AB in a door-post. It is by shells of this kind that the huge blocks produced cut the circles again in D, E (Fig. 27), and the circles of stone used in building the Plymouth Breakwater and some of cut again in F, the figure CEFD shall be a rhombus, having the new military works are slowly but surely being reduced to a each of the angles at c and F half the angles at D and E. species of stone honeycomb. Not only stone but solid and

Join AF, BF, CF; then because the angles CA B, CAD are dense-grained timber is readily bored into by the pholades. We equal to two right angles, and similarly C B A and CBE (Euc. stated in our last paper on this subject that much difference of I. 13), therefore angles C A B and CAD are equal to CBA and opinion and scientifio argument had arisen on the subject of the CBE. But CAB=CBA (Euc. I. 1), therefore remainder CAD= boring powers of these curious creatures. Some philosophers

remainder C BE; and since A B, AC, have stoutly maintained that the animal secreted a fluid of " acid" AD, BC, B E are all equal, being radii reaction, which possessed the power of so acting on the conof equal circles, therefore in the two stituents of wood, stone, amber, wax, and gum resins that they

triangles CAD, CB E, because sides became sufficiently soft and disintegrated as to admit of the E C A, A D=sides C B, B E, each to shell, together with the mollusk inhabiting it, passing freely into

each, and included angle CAD and through the substance aoted on. Others have maintained included angle C BE, therefore base that the minute rasp-like teeth, or asperities, with which shells

CD= base C E (Euc. I. 4). By of this kind are armed, being constantly brought to bear on the Fig. 27.

an exactly similar process of reason exposed surface of the stone at the bottom of the perforation,

ing, DF=FE, and because cb= were alone the agents in force to deepen the tube. Another set BF, and BD is common, and included angles CBD, FBD are of investigators have stated that the borders of the soft coating equal, each of them being the angle of an equilateral triangle, and or mouth of the mollusk, aided by its short, stout foot, were therefore equal to one-third of two right angles (Euc. I. 32), the means employed. It has been also urged that the constant therefore base CD equals base DF, similarly CEEEF; there- and decomposing action of minute currents of sea-water passing fore CD, DF, FE, EC are equal, and CDFE is a rhombus. through the siphon-like tissues of the animal brought about the Again, because AC=AD, the angles A CD, A D C are equal (Euo. fretting action requisite to form a hole. 1. 5); but angle c A B is equal to the two interior and opposite We have broken the pholas shells from stones of a sharp, angles A C D and ADC (Euc. I. 32), therefore the angle CAB is sand grit, which would be found to grind the hardest steel double either of the angles ACD Or ADC. Similarly the angle rapidly away. These shells we have examined under a powerful CBA is double either of the angles B C E Or BEC; therefore the lens. The asperities on them have been by us most carefully angle AC B, which is equal to either of the angles C AB Or A B C, scrutinised, but without our being enabled to detect the slightest is double either A C D Or ADC, or BCE OF B EC; hence ACB is evidence of wear and tear by friction. Every minute point equal to the sum of A CD and BCE, and is also equal to the remained as sharp as a new needle, and bore no traces of having sum of ADC and BEC; therefore the whole angle DCE is cut through a mass of stone thick enough to have destroyed the double ACB, and is therefore four times the angle CDE or points of a dozen engraving tools. Then when two of these CED; similarly, the angle DFE is double A F B, and is therefore shell-coated miners so drive their galleries that they intersect four times the angle F D E O FED. But F DE O FED is equal each other, the more powerful workman of the two, ignoring the to C D E Or CED, hence either of the angles DCE Or DFE is presence of his weaker fellow-labourer, works on, bores forwards, double either of the angles CDF or CE F. Q. E. D.

and not only tunnels the rock, but the shells and soft tissues of Our next article will extend as far as Euc. I. 40, and we shall his neighbour, literally boring him through and through. We give solutions of the following propositions :

have never been able to detect by the ordinary tests any "acid" PROPOSITION XXIX.--To trisect a given right angle, that is, in the water thrown off from the siphon of the pholas. to divide it into three equal parts.

The rock-boring snails (Helix saxicava) before described by PROPOSITION XXX. If two right-angled triangles have one us, although forming deep tubular chambers in hard, dense rock, side and the base in one equal to one side and the base in the have no currents of sea-water to aid them, neither have they other, each to each, they shall be equal in every respect the same rasp-like and rounded character of shell. The ring

PROPOSITION XXXI.-The straight lines which bisect the like mouth or portal of a snail-shell could but grind and wear angles of a triangle meet in a point.

down (supposing the file process to be that in force) in an PROPOSITION XXXII.—The straight lines drawn perpen- uneven circle corresponding with the shell border. dicular to the sides of a triangle through their middle points To illustrate our point a little more clearly, let us place a commeet in a point.

mon wine-glass or a metal thimble mouth downwards on a piece PROPOSITION XXXIII.-The straight lines which bisect one of soft Bath-brick, and then proceed to work it round until it interior and two exterior angles of a triangle meet in a point. penetrates the substance on which it is placed. On examina

PROPOSITION XXXIV.-If two triangles have one side, and tion of our work, we shall find a groove corresponding to the one angle in the one equal to one side and one angle in the edge of the circle of friction, and an even, table-like middle no other, and likewise their areas equal, then shall also their other deeper than the plane surface of the brick, which, as the groove sides and angles be equal each to each.

deepened, would enter the mouth of the snail-shell, press up the PROPOSITION XXXV.--If the bases of two equal triangles be inhabitant, and finally stop his boring operations altogether. in the same straight line, and the line joining their vertices be. We find, however, on examining a real snail-tube, that it is, parallel to this line, their bases will be equal.

although high and dry on land, formed much like that made by PROPOSITION XXXVI. - In the figure of Enc. I. 5, if ac be the pholas, and the bottom of the excavation, instead of being bisected in 1, and co be equal to c A, then BG shall be equal even, is cup-like in form, the centre, where no ring-shaped shell to twice BH.

could touch, being the deepest point; and, curiously enough,

the tracks made by the snails in going to and from their winter 1 RECREATIVE NATURAL HISTORY. retreats, year after year, are of a distinctly grooved form. Two

snails are not uncommonly found in the same tube, but, unlike SOME LAND, SEA AND FRESHWATER SHELLS, WORMS, the pholades, they never in any way interfere with each other. AND TUBE-DWELLERS (continued).

It has been stated that a distinct acid reaction has, by the aid of FBw of our readers who have investigated the habits of the litmus paper, been detected in the fluids given off by the boring deeply-interesting and curious creatures found amongst the rocks snail. To this statement we attach but little importance. Visit and rock pools of our own coast, will have failed to notice the a nest of black wood-ants, place a piece of slate in a split deep tubular excavations made in the rock by those accomplished stick, hold it over the ant-hill, and then irritate the community; and industrious borers, the Pholas family. In different localities acid enough to act strongly on litmus paper will be at once dewe find two of these stone perforators (Pholas dactylus and Saxi-posited on the stone. And yet ants do not bore holes in rocks. cava rugosa). The former of these we find prosecuting his The composition of the secretions of living orgarisms is, labours both amongst the chalk rocks and red sandstone of the in many instances, entirely beyond the powers of the most southern coast of England, whilst the latter, not content with accomplished chemist either to imitate or correctly lay down. attacking substances of an ordinary degree of hardness, proceeds The silkworm spins for itself a cocoon, or capsule, in which to to operate on the compact, hard limestone rock, cutting his way rest until the period for change into the moth stage arrives. deeply into it, just as a skilful carpenter bores an augur-hole Examine one of these cocoons, and reflect as to how a tiny,

on.

delicate creature like the moth of Bombyx mori could unassisted the sea-worms (Annelida), examples of which are to be found on have forced its way through a texture so immensely strong as the almost every oyster and crab shell brought to market. tough and almost leather-like capsule in which it was so long The serpula is one of these. Both the dentalium and serpala sealed up. Unassisted, it must as surely have perished in its are red-blooded creatures, but nevertheless do not belong to self-spun cell, as though locked up in some cavity of the solid the same family. The dentalium stands, so to speak, on the rock, for no moth possesses the power of eating through such a border-land dividing the two great and curious families, Molwall as that which the larvæ can build. But here steps in to lusca and Annelida. Dentalium shells of from an inch to an the aid of the imprisoned insect that beautiful, wise, and inch and a half in length are not by any means uncommen inscrutable Power which rules the universe and leaves nothing on our own coasts; but the true dentalium of commerce, undone. The moth throws out a fluid, or secretion, which the tusk-shell, or Hya-qua, is an inhabitant of warmer seas possesses the power of so softening the strong cement which than ours, and grows to a much larger size than those bound the thousands of tough silk fibres together, that by a found in British waters. Amongst the Indians of North-West trifling effort they are thrust aside, and the little

America, this shell is used as a circulating moth, soft as swan-down, with closely-folded

medium, just as the Cowory is used by the inwings, struggles into light and life. Could some

habitants of India and the Eastern world. The chemist discover the nature of this marvellously

commercial value of the dentalium is estimated active and potent golvent-for even the horn-like

according to its length when threaded on a Cocoons of the Tusseh worm in India (Anthorea

string. Thus & cord of a given length which paphia) yield immediately to it-an inestimable

will hold ten of these shells is of less value than boon would be con

one which will only ferred on the wind

hold six; and so ers of silk, whose

The manner great difficulty con

in which the densists in so soften

talium is captured ing by artificial

by the Indians is means the silk

both ingenious and under treatment as

curious. The habit to admit of its

of the shell when being reeled suc

containing the liv. cessfully.

ing mollusk is to Who shall say of

rest mouth upwhat fell ingredi.

wards in the fine ents the powers of

deposit at the another description

bottom of the sea. of cocoon are made

Bearing this in up? Here we al

mind, the crafty lude to the Ngnwa,

Indian provides or poison-grub of

himself with a the bushmen. This

long-handled im. cocoon, instead of 1

plement, armed at being formed from

the end with a silk, is built up of

number of sharpfine earth or clay,

ened fish-bones, and is buried in the

Then, entering his earth. When re

5 quired for poison. 1. THE SHARP-SPIRED MUREX,

4. DENTALIUM MOTH SHELL canoe, he is pad. ing arrows, it is COWRY (CYPREA

OR TUSK SHELL (HYA-QUA). dled quietly along MONETA). 3. FINGER PHOLAS

5. THE RAZOR-FISH OR over the spots dug up and broken (PHOLAS DACTYLUS).

SOLEN.

which experience open, when the

has shown to be juices exude. Should any of these enter a

rich in the sought-for shells. Here, by concut, scratch, or wound, agony of the most

stantly thrusting his bone-pointed spear downindescribable intensity is the result, and in

wards, he from time to time contrives to imthe absence of the proper antidote, which, in

pale one or more dentalia. The pointed fishthe form of a plant (the Cala he tel me), is

bone, entering their open, tube-like mouths, wisely placed by the Creator in the region

penetrates their soft tissues, and holds them of this baneful pupa-case, insanity, suicide,

with sufficient firmness to admit of their being or both evils combined, would probably be

drawn into the canoe and shaken off. the fate of the sufferer. In this case it is

The solen, or razor-fish as it is commonly well that even Lucretia Borgia herself would have utterly failed called, is a bivalve shell commonly met with on nearly all • to imitate the natural chemistry which has so fearfully endowed sandy coasts at home and abroad. (Fig. 5.) The habits of this

the African poison-grub. Reasoning thus, we say, place the mollusk are not unlike those of the dentalium, but instead of juices of the sharp-spired murex (Fig. 1), and those of the confining itself to comparatively deep water, the razor-fish is smooth and painted porcelain shell (Fig. 2), in the hands of the found abundantly on the sand Hats after the receding of the most experienced chemist in the world, and we doubt his being tide. A small heap of newly-raised sand serves to disclose its able to point out the spine-forming qualities of the one, or their lurking-place, and a sharp-pointed and well-notched stick thrust absence in the other. Therefore, we think, from the evidence adroitly from above downwards, just as an Esquimaux spears a before us, it is, to say the least of it, probable that these land seal in the ice, seldom fails to bring the solen to light. The and sea rock and timber borers possess the power of secreting would-be captor who heedlessly employs his finger in lieu of the a peculiar fluid which, like that of the silkworm moth, acts in stick will, in all probability, have cause to remember the razora manner not to be imitated by artificial means.

fish and its trenchant shells. These mollusks are in many Fig. 3 in the annexed illustration (reduced view) represents localities used extensively as bait, and are, when crisply fried the common finger pholas (Pholas dactylus), as it is seen on with bread-crumbs, a most appetising dish. There are numebreaking away the rock in which its tube is bored.

rous bivalve shells, not true tube-dwellers, which bury themThe dentalium-task shell, or Hya-qua,

the subject of our selves in the sand. Of these we can have little to say in the illustration (Fig. 4), is an example of a tube-dweller bearing present paper. There are other

creatures dwelling in the a single shell, unprotected by a rock gallery. This shell is sands of the sea-shore, without the protection afforded by shells, remarkable as forming, so to speak, the connecting link between but a consideration of these must be reserved for a fatare the true mollusks, as represented by ordinary shell-dwellers and lesson.

[graphic]

ELECTRICITY.-IV.

the spangles have often to be placed on one side of the glass

and the rest on the other, a strip of tinfoil passing over the ILLUMINATING EFFECTS—INTERRUPTED CONDUCTORS

edge to connect them. It is a good plan in making these LEYDEN JAR.

devices to put them in a frame made of well-baked wood, and HAVING now seen the way in which electricity can be obtained varnished with sealing-wax or shellac varnish. This is not, in large quantities, we have to observe what effects can be pro- however, absolutely necessary, as a split bullet may be placed duced by it. If we place a brass ball in one end of the con on one side to take the spark by, and the glass held carefully auctor, and hold the knuckle or another ball near to it, sparks by the edge, a finger being placed against the other strip of foil. will pass, which, if the machine be working well, will be seen If it be desired to make a device containing a word, it is to be forked and twisted about somewhat after the manner of a better to dispense with the spangles, and paste parallel strips of flash of lightning. The reason of this is supposed to be that tinfoil from end to end of the glass, at a distance of about the particles of dust floating in the air serve as conductors, and three-quarters of an inch apart, and then paste a vertical strip thus regulate the direction of the spark,

at each end so as to connect the others. These strips should If we provide a series of conducting bodies placed a little be about one-eighth of an inch wide, and should be very caredistance apart, and allow the spark to pass along them, it will fully rubbed down, as otherwise they are liable to come off always choose the shortest path, and will be broken up into a afterwards. Now cut away the strips between the alternate number of short sparks between each conductor. A great bars, first at one end and then at the other, so that the elecnumber of brilliant and instructive experiments may be tried tricity may pass from end to end by the top strip, back again to illustrate this principle. Let a number of rather large shot by the next, and so on, thus traversing the whole length. Trace be cut nearly through with

your word or devico on paper, a sharp knife, or procure a

and, laying the glass over number of split shot, such

it wherever a line crosses as are prepared for use with

one of the strips, make with fishing tackle, and fix them

a sharp knife two cross-cuts, on & piece of sewing silk at

Fig. 10.

like an X, and carefully pick distances of about one

out the small triangular eighth of an inch apart.

pieces. You will thus have Now hold a piece of this

a narrow interval left, at shot chain to the prime con.

which the spark will appear, ductor, and the spark will

and when the whole is combe broken up into a number

pleted, and the spark taken of short ones between each Fig. 12.

with a split bullet fixed on shot. If, however, we mea

the upper edge, the device sure the sum of these inter

Fig. 9.

becomes clearly lit up. The vals, we shall see that it

illustration (Fig. 9) shows is just about the distance

the way in which the sheet over which the spark would

of glass may be mounted for pass if uninterrupted. When

the lecture-table if so de the machine is working

sired. well, seven or eight inches

If a number of the spanof this chain should be illu.

gles be arranged spirally minated. Fig. 11.

round a glass tube (Fig. 10), This experiment may be

and a piece of wood, rounded varied by threading on silk

carefully and covered with alternate beads of glass and

tinfoil, be placed at one end, metal, and a string of this

sparks may be taken with kind becomes very prettily

it, and it will have a very illuminated; or metal span.

pretty effect. Frequently gles or buttons may be sewn

the tube thus prepared is on to a piece of silk ribbon

put inside another made of and treated in a similar

coloured glass, and in many way. In all these experi.

ways the effect may, with a ments silk must be used on

little ingenuity, be diversiaccount of its being a non

fied. The principle of these conductor. The spark only appears in the interval between the experiments is an important one, as it explains the effects proconductors, and hence, if cotton were employed, the electricity duced when lightning strikes a house or large building. If we would pass quietly along without producing any luminous examine any place thus struck, it will be seen that the electric effect.

fluid has leaped from one metal fastening or bar to another, Another very pretty experiment may be tried in a similar displacing the stones or brickwork which lay in its path, and way. Punch a number of small spangles of tinfoil. This may that its course was determined mainly by the position of these be done with a punch about one-eighth of an inch in diameter. conductors. As, however, the different layers of tinfoil are very apt to stick If we take a number of balls of different substances mounted firmly together under the pressure caused by the blow, it is on wires, and, placing them successively in the conductor, draw better to lay a sheet of paper between each thickness of the sparks from them, we shall find that the colour varies with foil while cutting it. Now paste these spangles on a sheet of the substance used. From a brass ball it almost white; common window.glass, so as nearly to touch one another, and if, however, we employ a ball of ivory, it will have a crimson 80 arrange them as to form a device-as, for instance, a star or tint; and when it is taken from å gilt surface, it has a a cross. Bring strips of the tinfoil from each end to opposite greenish hue. The colour is also affected by the medium sides of the glass. When it is dry, and the superfluous paste through which it passes : if the air be much rarefied it assumes wiped off carefully, one of these strips may be held between a redder tint, while different gases impart different colours to it. the finger and thumb, and the other presented to the conductor; Now insert a pointed wire into the conductor, having darevery interval will then be lighted up by the spark, and in a kened the room, and notice the effect produced. darkened room a very pretty effect will be produced.' In mak. A brush of light will be soen proceeding from the point, ing these devices, care will have to be taken in arranging the and no sparks can be taken from the conductor, for all the shape so that the nearest way for the spark shall be along the electricity is dissipated. In the same way, if a pointed wire spangles, for if by darting across it has to traverse a shorter be held near the conductor, the electricity will be silently distance than the

intervals between the spangles added together, drawn off. Instead, however, of a brush appearing at the end it will be certain to do so. To guard against this, a part of of the wire, a luminous star will be seen, the point being

96

[graphic]
[graphic]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

strongly negative. A similar star appears at the end of a wire or place it upon a common glass tumbler or other insulating inserted in the negative conductor, and thus the appearance support, we shall be able to take sparks from its exterior, of a star or a brush enables us to discriminate between posi- If no means be provided for this electricity to escape, we shall tive and negative electricity. So powerful is the influence be unable to charge the jar. exerted by a point, that one, even at a distance of several feet, In their normal state the coatings contain a definite amount will seriously diminish the power of the machine.

of electricity, and if there be an excess added to one side, the Soon after the invention of the electrical machine, the idea other must lose a corresponding amount. The spark and the of storing up the electricity suggested itself; and one of the shock are merely the effects by which the restoration of early electricians, finding that water was a conductor, filled a equilibrium between the two sides is manifested. bottle with it, and passed a wire through the cork, that by A striking illustration of this principle is seen if we place a means of it he might cause the electricity to enter. Having number of jars so that the knob of one is connected with the held the end of this wire to his machine till he thought the outside of the next. This may be done by supporting them bottle was full, he attempted to remove the rod lest the elec- on their sides on insulating stands, or by laying them on pieces tricity should escape by it; but on doing so, to his intense alarm, of glass. If now we connect the knob of the first with the he received a shock so violent that he kept his bed for a conductor, and the outside of the last with the ground, each short time, and declared that nothing should ever induce him to of the series will be charged, the electricity given off from repeat the experiment. The news of it, however, spread, and one charging the next. The charge in the last will, however, many others repeated it with various modifications; and thus be rather weaker than that in the first, owing to the thickness the Leyden jar, so called from the place where the experiment of the glass slightly interfering with the induction. This was first tried, was constructed.

mode is called charging by cascade ;” and if the jars are To make a Leyden jar (Fig. 11), take a wide-mouthed glass jar afterwards placed together on an insulating substance, so that (one of those used by confectioners for sweets will answer well), their outsides may touch, and a wire be so arranged as to and carefully coat it inside and outside with tinfoil to within about connect all their knobs, a very powerful shock will be produced. two or two and a half inches of the top. Cut a large bung, or, Great care must, however, be taken in doing this to guard better still, turn a cover of baked mahogany, to fit its mouth, against the shock being accidentally taken, as it would certainly and through this fix a piece of brass wire carrying a ball on its be too strong to be pleasant. upper end. From the inner end of this wire let a short piece of chain reach to the bottom of the jar. In some jars the wire at the top may be bent over like a hook, so that they can be

LESSONS IN LATIN.-XLII. suspended from the conductor. If the jar be now held with its knob close to the conductor,

DEVIATIONS IN THE FOURTH CONJUGATION. sparks will pass in for a little time till the jar becomes filled.

1. Perfect in -IVI and-UI; Supine in -TUM. Now set it down, and, taking a piece of wire bent into a curve, i. Sepelio, sepelire, sepelevi, sepultum, bury, inter (E. R. touch the outside of a jar with one end, and bring the other so sepulture). as to touch the knob. A bright spark, accompanied by a loud ii. Salio, salire, salui (no supine), to leap (E. R. salient). crack, will at once be seen, showing that the jar has discharged Compounds : silio, silire, silui, sultum; as, assilio, assilire, itself.

assilui, assultum, to spring at. For a small jar, one of the bottles that are used by chemists

2. Perfect in -I ; Supine in -TUM. for holding quinine may be used, as they are usually made of thin glass. The shock from one of these will be as powerful

i. Comperio, comperire, compēri, compertum, to experience, to as most people will care to take. With an ordinary narrow

find by experience. mouthed bottle there is a difficulty, arising from the impossibility

ii. Reperio, reperire, repěri, repertum, to find. Apěrio has of coating it inside with tinfoil. To obviate this, it has been aperui, aperire, apertum, to open (E. R. aperture). Opěrio and

coopěrio, to cover, have -rui, -rtum. suggested to pour some thick paste into the bottle, turning it about so as to wet the interior, and then put in a number of

iii. Věnio, venire, vêni, ventum, to come. brass or iron filings. These will adhere and form a conducting

3. Perfect in -SI; Supine in -TUM. coating ; but though a considerable shock may be obtained from i. Amicio, amicire (amixi and amicui, both rare); amictum, to a jar thus prepared, there is an objection to the plan, arising clothe. from the fact that the particles are not in absolute contact, ii. Farcio, farcire, farsi, fartum, to stuff. Compounds in and therefore, after the jar has been discharged, a second and fercio, fersi, fertum, as refercire, to stuff quite fully. even a third shock may be obtained from it, each, of course, iii. Fulcio, fulcire, fulsi, fultum, to prop, to support. much feebler than the first.

iv. Haurio, haurire, hausi, haustum, to draw up, drink. To take the shock, one hand should be placed against the v. Sancio, sancire, sanxi, sancitum (more seldom sanctum ; outer coating, and the other, or a wire held in it, brought near sanctus, -a, -um, as an adjective, holy), to consecrate, confirm. the knob. Any number of persons can join hands, those at the vi. Sarcio, sarcire, sarsi, sartum, to repair, make good, replace. ends of the chain touching the outside and the knob respectively, vii. Sepio, sepire, sepsi, septum, to hedge in. and the shock will be equally felt by all. Sometimes, when it is viii. Vincio, vincire, vinxi, vinctum, to bind, put into chains. desired to discharge a large jar, or to send a shock through any

4. Perfect in -SI; Supine in -SUM. substance, the jointed discharger represented in Fig. 12 will be found very useful. The handles are of glass, and thus prevent

i. Sentio, sentire, sensi, sensum, to feel, to be of opinion. any portion of the shock being felt by the operator. The

VOCABULARY. reason why, in discharging a jar with this, one knob should Affluenter, richly. Dispellère, to drive out, Munificentia, -2, L., be brought into contact with the outer surface before the other Catena, -2, f., a chain, dispel.

liberality. touches the ball, is that if the spark passes against the side of Cætus, ús, in., an Documentum, i, a Parricidium, -i, D. the jar it may break it. As electricity always chooses the best assembly.

proof.

killing of a father, conductors to pass along, it is not necessary for discharging a Consentire, to agree Dumetum, -i, 11., parricide jar to have glass handles; a piece of wire may be used and

a

with, consent.

place full of bushes. Probe, well. held in the hand without any shock being felt. For many pur- Curatio, -onis, f., keal- Exhaurire, to exhaust. Rector, oris, m, 4

Explorator, -oris, m., poses, however, the insulating handles are a great advantage, Desidero, 1, to require.

ruler, director,

an explorer, spy. Transilire, to jump and they can be made of gutta-percha instead of glass, if more Desilire, to leap apart, Indagare, to investigate. convenient.

to open.

Ludibrium, -i, n., scoff - Undique, on all sides. The Leyden jar is merely an illustration of the principle of Dissentire, to disagree. ing, sport.

Vepres, -is, m., a briar. induction already referred to. The glass is di-electric, and the

EXERCISE 161.- LATIN-ENGLISH metallic coatings serve to distribute the electricity over its surface. As soon as the interior becomes positively charged, it vinxit, hostes vicit.” 2. Hostes victi et catenis vincti in servitutem

1. Regis sepulchro hæc verba inscripta sunt, “Probe vixit, improbos acts by induction on the exterior, driving off from it an abducti sunt. 3. Imperium justis legibus fultum esse debet. 4. Bes, amount of positive electricity nearly equal to that which it has pace composità, rempublicam labefactam sui virtute fulsit. 5. Virtus received. Hence, if we suspend the jar from the conductor, difficilis inventu est, rectorem ducemque desiderat. 6. Artes iunt

over.

sensurum esse.

merabiles repertæ sunt, docente natura. 7. Vita, si undique referta 20. To play (with fabulam); that is, personate a character. bonis est, beata dicitur. 8. Homines urbes manibus sepserunt. Hence a distinction between facere and agere :9. Occultæ inimicitiæ magis timendæ sunt quam aperta. 10. Quis Potest aliquid facere et non agere; ut poeta facit fabulam et non est tam miser ut non Dei munificentiam sensërit? 11. Dei, induti agit: contra, actor agit et non facit ; et sic a poetâ fabula fit non specie humana, fabulas poetis suppeditaverunt, hominum autem agitur; ab actore agitur, non fit.-Varro. vitam superstitione omni referserunt. 12. Continuis bellis reipublicæ 21. To do, to be active, to be engaged generally :spes exhaustæ sunt. 13. Quo quis affluentius voluptates undique

Scipio Africanus solitus est dicere nunquam se plus agere quam hauserit, eo gravius ardenti usque sitiet. 14. Spero te mecum con

quum nihil ageret.-Cicero.

This is explained by another version of the anecdote :EXERCISE 162.- ENGLISH-LATIN.

Nunquam se minus otiosum esse quam quum esset otiosus.-Cicero. 1. The king, dying, said, "I have lived well; I have bound bad men; 22. To effect :I have conquered enemies." 2. The soldier, being conquered, was put Nihil agis, dolor, quamvis sis molestus, nunquam te esse malum into chains. 3. They will be led away into slavery. 4. He props the confitebor.-Cicero. falling republic. 5. He will prop the falling house. 6. The art of 23. To carry on, perform :writing has been discovered. 7. They have opened the book,

8. My

Delibera utrum colloqui malis, an per litteras agere, quas cogitas.life has been with the good. 9. I fear hidden enemies. 10. Peace Corn. Nepos. being arranged, I shall return home. 11. Happiness is difficult to be

24. To have in mind, consider :found. 12. The husbaudmen have surrounded the meadow with

Nescio quid mens men majus agit. -- Ovid. hedges. 13. The plain is full of brambles and briars. 14. The spies are approaching. 15. Cæsar has learnt from the spies that the enemy are

25. To acknowledge a favour (with gratias) :

Renunciate gratias regi me agere.-Livy. approaching. 16. The rising sun opens the day. 17. They have felt the goodness of God. 18. Didst thou make thy cloak with thine own

26. To spend time, pass one's life, etc. :hand ? 19. I made with my own hand the cloak with which I am

Pater cum esset infirmâ valetudine, hic fere ætatem egit in literis. clothed.

--Cicero.
CONSTRUCTION AND USAGES OF AGO.

So, agere custodias, to watch ; agere triumphum, to triumph ;

res agere, to attend to business ; agere poenitentiam, to repent, Ago is a verb used in a great variety of applications. So etc. various are these applications that they may serve to throw

Quartum annum ago et octogesimum.-Cicero. light on the nature of language. Ago must be well understood

27. To make war (with bellum) :by those who wish to be familiar with Latin.

Qui longe aliâ ratione ac reliqui Galli bellum agere instituerunt, Ago, agěre, egi, actum, of the third conjugation, has for its -Casar. radical or root-meaning the idea of setting in motion. Hence it So, agere pacem, to be at peace. is commonly given as denoting to lead, drive, act. But this is 28. To treat of (with de) :

Fery rough way of treating the subject. I will give the signi- Recordare velim quæ ego de te in senatu egerim.-Cicero. fications of the verb in the order in which they seem to have

29. To plead before, treat with, deal with (with cum) :arisen.

Cum populo agere est rogare quid populus suffragiis suis aut jubeat 1. To lead, as a shepherd :

aut vetet. ---Gellius. Agit, ut pastor, per devia rura capellas.--Ovid.

30. To accuse of anything (with accusative of the percon, and 2. To lead, as a poem leads the mind :

genitive of the thing) :Poemata dulcia sunto et quocunque volent animum auditoris

Furti egit eos. - Cicero.

In the passive, it is used of the thing which is the matter at agunto.-Horace,

issue/" the question is," " the point at issue is." 3. To drive, as men are driven out of a country :

Agitur populi Romani gloria, agitur salus sociorum.-Cicero. Multis millibus armatorum actis ex eâ regione in quam missus erat.---Livy.

31. To deliver, used of orators :

Quæ sic ab illo acta esse constabat, oculis, voce, gestu, inimici ut 4. With the reflective pronoun to betake yourself, in poetic lachrymæ tenere non possent.--Cicero. diction:

32. To conduct yourself, to act (with se, as, se agere) : Quo agis te ?--Plautus.

Quanto ferocius ante se egerint, tanto cupidius insolitas volup5. To march in the passive voice) :

tates hausisse.-Tacitus, Si citius agi vellet agmen.-Livy

Agere gratias differs from referre gratias ; the former signifies 6. To plunder, lay waste (with prædas) :

to feel gratitude, and the latter to manifest it. Observe that Quâ pergebat urbes, agros vestare, prædas agere. -Sallust.

the plural gratias, not the singular gratiam, is used. 7. To hunt :

One or two conversational and idiomatic usages may be Ut cervum ardentes agerent canes.-Virgil.

added :8. To move lifeless objects to and fro:

Quid agis, dulcissime rerum - Hoc agite !--Plautus. Celeriter vineis ad oppidum actis.--Cæsar.

Horace.

Attend ! 9. To steer (with navis) :

How are you, my sueet fellow ? Age, da veniam filiæ.--Terence, Navim agere ignarus navis timet.- Horace.

Quid agitur ?-Plautus.

Come, pardon thy daughter ! 10. To drive a chariot (with currum) :

Hor is it with you?

Age, sit ita factum !--Cicero, Non agat bos currus ?-Ovid.

Well, be it so! 11. To levy a tax or tribute (with vectigal) :

The instances given show that ago, like our own do, has the Publicum vectigal in Asiâ egit.-Suetonius. 12. To send forth :

widest signification, and may be applied to almost any state or Et spumas aget ore cruentas.-Virgil.

action, whether internal or external, whether of the mind or of 13. To die (with animam) :

the body, Herein it differs from facere, as our make differs Nam et agere animam et efflare dicimus.--Cicero.

from do ; for facere is used in the particular sense of giving 14. To strike root (with radices) :

existence, form, or shape to some outward object. After the Robora suas radices in profundum agunt.--Pliny.

same manner it differs from gerere, which is applied to the con15. To spring a leak, split, open (with rimas) :

ducting of anything, as the administration of a government. Tabernse rimas agunt. The meanings already given imply a literal moving of the

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN LATIN.-XLI. objects spoken of. Another series of meanings arises from the

EXERCISE 155.-LATIN-ENGLISH. tropical or metaphorical use of the term; that is, where not the movement of sensible objects is denoted, but actions, etc.,

1. It is known that the colonies of the Tyrians were spread through.

out almost the entire circle of the lands. 2. Let us think that in resembling those either in reality or in appearance.

death a haven and refuge have been prepared for us. 3. Whither I 16. To move, drive, or induce any one :

wish it were allowed me to be borne in full sail, 4. Hannibal was reAgricola in gloriam præceps agebatur.-Tacitus.

called from Italy to defend his native country. 5. Precepts profit 17. To pursue, persecute :

nothing, as long as error is diffused over the mind. 6. We are all Acerba fata Romanos agunt.-Horace.

inflamed with a desire of living happily. 7. A great number of coins 18. To plead (with causam):

have been coined this year. 8. Grief lacerated, wasted, and entirely Hanc egit causam apud judices.-Cicero.

wore down my mind, 9. The letters of the epigram inscribed on the 19. To take an augury (with augurium):

monument had been worn away by age. 10. The soldiers vigorously Augures agere augurium dicuntur.-Varro.

defended the city attacked by the enemies. 11. Formerly a vast

« 前へ次へ »