« 前へ次へ »
» 626, » 627,
» 623, 1024,
22nd. LESSONS IN BOOKKEEPING.-XVIII.
Paid Bill No. 152, J. Halifax .
$73 15 0 FOREIGN TRADE (continued).
21 7 6 Paid for Dock Dues, etc., on Sugar per the Ballarat £5 196
£200 0 0 Paid Tuelon and Co. their Bill of Parcels
£33 10 0
110 00 Received discount at 21 per cent, on do.
0 16 9
1500 0 0 Paid William Phillips his Bill of Parcels
256 15 6
24th, Received discount at 5 per cent. on do.
12 16 9 Received of Schofield, Halse, and Co., of Jamaica, the Paid Thomas Barker his Bill of Parcels .
250 16 6 Received discount at 5 per cent. on do..
following Remittances in Bills:
12 10 10 No. 625, dated Aug. 4, on R. Kirkman, at 3 months £900 0 3rd.
4, , T. Griffiths, 3
200 0 0 Received of Peter Hutchinson and Co., of Liverpool, the
4, N. White,
200 0 0 following Remittances in Bills :
25th. No. 613, dated Aug. 12 on T. Salomons, due Oct. 15 2100 0 0 614, J. Sidney,
Received of Richard Sykes, of Barbadoes, the following
150 0 0 18 L. Dixon,
Remittances in Bills : 21
120 7 6 616, W. Turner,
LO0 0 0 170 0
No. 628, dated Sept. 6th, on W. Currie, at 3 months
10000 618, D. Hughes 140 00
Received from Peter Hutchinson and Co., a Bill drawn Paid W. Silver and Co: their Bill of Parcels
£87 10 0 by R. Farrar, Belfast, No. 630, dated Oct. 18th, on W. Received discount at 2} per cent. on do.
2 3 9 O'Callaghan, Dublin, to the order of S. Richards, at 2
£350 00 Received in Cash for Bill No. 560, on N. Johnson . £1260 0 0
Received from Richard O'Brien and Co., a Bill drawn by Accepted a Bill drawn this day by W. Smith and Co., No.
D. Anderson, Cork, No. 631, dated Oct. 21st, on T. 150, payable to J. Masterman and Co, at 4 months £675 120 Charrington, London, to the order of W. Wbitmore, 6th. . at 1 month.
£135 0 0 Received of John Roberts, of Jamaica, the following
29th, Remittances in Bills:
Took out of Cash for Petty Cash
£20 0 0 No. 619, dated Aug. 20th, on R. Payne, at 3 months £200 0 0
November 1st. 630, T, Bevad,
200 0 N. Allison,
Received from Thomas Brown and Co., a Bill drawn by 1621,
T. Chandler, Falmouth, No. 632, dated Oct. 24th, on
350 0 0
W Coles, Plymouth, to the order of J. Noyes, at 2
400 0 0
4th, Sth. Sold per William Knight and Co., at public sale, 7 hhds.
Paid Bill No. 141, Robarts and Co..
£505 0 0 of Sugar per the Ballarat, net 78 cwt., at 60s.
200 0 0 £234 0 0
» 142, Thomas Riley Dne to them for Brokerage at 1 per cent.
Received in Cash for Bill No. 610, Keunard and Co. £1000 0 0 Received in Cash for Bill No. 611, J. Harris .
£200 0 Paid for freight of Coffee per the Wellington
242 15 0
200 0 0
200 0 0 Received in Cash for Bill No. 561, on W. Benson. £1000 0 0
£200 0 0 Paid for duties and fees on Coffee per Wellington .
£3 4 6
, 626, T. Griffiths
200 0 0 12th.
» 627, N. White
200 0 0 Accepted a Bill drawn by Schofield, Halse, and Co., of
8th. Jamaica, dated 30th July, 1867, No. 151, payable to W. Bright, London, at 90 days' sight
Received of William Knight and Co. their proceeds of
LA3! 0 0 14th. Paid dock dues, etc., on Coffee, per Wellington
Paid their Brokerage on ditto :
2 69 £12 11 1 15tlı,
9th, Received cash for Bill No. 613, on T. Salomons
Received in Cash for Bill No. 564, on R. Brett 0 0
£930 0 0 Do. do.
150 » J. Siduey
10th. Accepted a Bill drawn by Fox, Tennant, and Co., dated
Received in Cash for Bill No. 612, W. Melville
£876 15 0 Liverpool, 7th Oct., 1867, No. 152, payable to J. Halifax,
12th. London, at 15 days' date
473 15 0 Paid in Cash for Premiums of Insurance due since Juno
£1880 15 0 Accepted a Bill drawn by R. Heathfield, on account of T.
14th. Ellis and Sons, dated Liverpool, 15th Oct., 1867, No.
Received for £3,000 of Three per Cents, stock, sold at 953 153, payable to S. Cattley, London, at one month £132 10 0
£2876 5 0 20th.
16th. Sold per William Knight and Co., at public sale, 14 tierces
Paid Bill No. 140, R. Hastie and Co.
£600 0 of Coffee, per Wellington,
17th. Net cwt. 76 : 0:22, at 121s. 6d.
£2500 0 0 Discount 1 per cent.
4 12 7
$132 10 0 21st. Received Cash for Bill No. 615, on L. Dixon. £120 6 Paid Bill No. 144, Barnett and Co..
L200 0 0 Do.
200 0 0
22nd. Bold per William Knight and Co., at public sale, 6 tierces
Received of W. Knight and Co, their proceeds of Coffee, of Coffee per Wellington,
per the Wellington
£676 5 6 Net cwt. 32:1:19, at 120s. per cwt.
6 16 7 tierce, net cwt. 4:1:17, at 1178. per cwt.
25 15 0
23rd. Received in Cash for Bill No. 619, R. Payne.
£200 0 £220 4 4
» 620, T. Bevan
200 0 0 Discount 1 per cent. .
2 4 0
62, N. Allison
200 0 0 £218 0 4
24th. Due to them brokerage on £683 2 1, at 1 per cent. 6 16 7 Received in Cash for Bill No. 631, T. Charrington , £135 00
£6 13 0
6 9 137 3 5
4 13 4 83 3
16 18 569 16
400 0 0
whereas the Canadian group are more closely connected with Made up the account sales of Sugar per the Ballarat, as
the metamorphic rocks. Since they are largely developed in per A. S. B. fol, 1:
North Wales, the term “ Cambrian" has been applied to them, The Insurance, etc., being.
as Cambria was the ancient name of that part of the Princi. The Brokerage paid Knight and Co.
pality. The American rocks of this group have been studied The charges for Duty, etc. . The Commission on £234 at 2 per cent.
chiefly by Sir W. E. Logan, and from the fact that their chief The net proceeds due to Nathan Herschell, Esq.
& development occurs in the neighbourhood of the St. Lawrence,
they have been termed Laurentian. This sub-system is thus
£234 0 0 tabulated :30th.
CAMBRIAN GROUP. Made up the account sales of Coffee per the Wellington,
1. Upper Cambrian rocks (the primordial zone of Barrande). as per A. S. B. fol. 2:
2, Lower Cambrian rocks (Longmynd group). The Insurance, etc., being.
£22 16 The Brokerage paid Knight and Co.
6 16 7
LAURENTIAN GROUP. The charges for Duty, etc.
59 18 1
1. Upper Laurentian. | 2. Lower Laurentian. The Commission on £676 at 2) per cent. The net proceeds due to John Henderson, Esq.
The Laurentian Rocks are known to occupy an area of 200,000
square miles, and frequently they attain a thickness of 30,000 £676 5
feet, the upper group being 10,000 and the lower 20,000. The 30th, Took out of Cash for Potty Cash
rocks are stratified, yet crystalline gneiss, mica-schist, quartzite,
£10 0 December 1st.
and limestone are all represented. As yet, the upper group has Received for Drawback on Goods per the Tigris
afforded no fossils; whereas, in 1859, Sir W. Logan discovered
an organic remain in the lower Laurentian. This is the oldest Received from Dawson and Hancock for Scotch Linen £1750 0 o fossil as yet discovered. It appears to be a foraminifer, and 3rd.
bears a similarity to the well-known nummulite; it has been Receired for Drawback on Goods per the Racer
£182 0 o called the Eozoon Canadense. 4th.
The Lower Cambrian or Longmynd group is composed of Received in Cash for Bill No. 622, S. Stone
£350 O O sandstones, which are found in the Longmynd hills to be some · 623, B. Hulme .
6,000 feet thick, and of the Llanberis slates. The sandstones · 626, W, Alexander 4th,
are often rippled, proving that once they were the shores of a Paid Bill No. 143, H. Green and Co.
of the existence of myriads of annelides, of which there appear Received in Cash for Bill No. 628, W. Currie .
o to be four or five species. The slates are about 3,000 feet thick, » » 629, J. Overton.
100 0 and are developed on the coast of Ireland, directly opposite 10th.
Anglesea. Here are found the oldest fossils in Europe, two Received for freight of Goods per the Victoria
£3000 zoophytes to which Professor E. Forbes gave the name of Old. Received for Interest on Exchequer Bills
hamia. In Fig. 28 and Fig. 29 are drawn the two species, Old
£500 0 0 19th.
hamia antiqua and 0. radiata. The whole thickness of the Paid Bill No. 146, T. Gurney.
Longmynd group is about 10,000 feet. 21st.
The Upper Cambrian contains the Tremadoc states, which lie Received in Cash for Bill No. 630, W. O'Callaghan. £350 0 0 upon the Lingula flags, these latter being 6,000 feet thick, while 24th.
the slates are but 2,000. The group bears evidence of a great Paid Andrew Lloyd balance of account.
£116 11 o advance in life, both as to the number of species as well as 26th,
their superior development. That remarkable crustacean, the Received for Exchequer Bills transferred
Trilobite, so characteristic of the Silurian system, begins to 26th, Received of T. Ellis and Sons
appear; while in the upper part of the group the Bellerophon 26th,
orthoceratite and the Theca find representatives. Paid Samuel Morley balance of account.
£960 15 0
Mons. Barrande in 1846 gave to the world his laborious 26th.
researches on the geology of Bohemia, which he had studied for Received of Fox, Tennant, and Co. balance of account . £73 15 o ten years. The result is, that these Bohemian strata have been 27th.
found to correspond with the Cambrian. Barrande termed the Received in Cash for Bill No. 632, W. Coles
£2600 o lowest group "Primordial,” because he believed that in these 27th.
rocks the earliest indications of life were found; but, as this is Paid Thomas Brown and Co. balance of account
£260 O o not the
case, the term is gradually becoming obsolete. Mang 27th. Paid Peter Hutchinson and Co. balance of account £32 7 6
geologists hold that the Cambrian rocks were deposited at a
time when the first creations of life took place upon the earth. 28th. Received of Richard O'Brien and Co. balance of account £138 17 0 But suppose that the metamorphic action had extended through 30th.
the Silurian and Devonian strata, obliterating all traces of "Took out of Cash for Petty Cash
£200 o organic remains, then the carboniferous system would have
been the first in which fossils were found; and in Ireland there Due to Schofield, Halse, and Co. for Interest, less post
is a large area, covered by sandstones which belong to this ages, etc.
period, utterly destitute of fossils. It would have been argued Received in Cash for Interest on our deposits
that at the time of the deposition of these sandstones there £116 11 3
was no life upon the earth, and that the creation of life took
place at a subsequent period. How fallacious would the reaLESSONS IN GEOLOGY.--XIV.
soning prove! And it may be that the Cambrians occupy much
the same position as the yellow sandstones of Ireland in our We now enter upon the fossiliferous strata. Hitherto, all supposition. The metamorphic rocks beneath may have once attempts to discover signs of organic remains in the igneous been very fossiliferous strata, which have undergone a total and metamorphic rocks have failed, and this fact at present alteration and all traces of organisms obliterated, and for some rises as a well-defined wall of demarcation, separating all the reason or other the Cambrian group were deposited in such & lower rocks from the first great system, the Silurian. Before position as to preclude the burying of many organic remains. we enter upon that well-defined series of rocks, so ably described Yet it must be confessed that this supposition is hardly credible; by Sir Roderick Murchison in his "Siluria,” we must notice a because, had the carboniferous strata, as above supposed, been small group which occupies an intermediate position between the first to contain fossils, we should have suddenly fonnd our the metamorphic system and the Silurian.
selves in the midst of a highly developed flora and fauna, This sub-system, if we may so nse the word, has been whereas in the Cambrians only very low types of life are foand. described as existing in England, in Bohemia, and in Canada. The Oldhamia, for example, for a long time was believed to "he Bohemian and English rocks are of the same period, be of a vegetable origin. Every appearance seems to indicate
that this period was the dawn of life. Yet it may have been pyramid of eyes, so that it could survey the waters on all sides otherwise.
of it, above as well as around. This highly-developed eye is an THE SILURIAN SYSTEM.
argument against Darwin's theory of development, for in the We now enter upon the true sedimentary strata. The meta- very earliest of the fossiliferous strata we should surely find morphic action has not penetrated to this system, and the beds very crude organs, the uncouth fore-elders of those highlyare preserved to us in the condition in which they were deposited, organised senses which the animals of our epoch of life possess; save that they have been tilted and upheaved by igneous agency and yet it is not so, for one of the very earliest creatures posfrom beneath. The term Silurian was selected by Sir R. Murchi. sesses as fine an eye as any which has succeeded it, a very plain son because the system is typically exhibited in North Wales, indication of the power of a Creator. The trilobite, which is throughout the territory anciently occupied by the tribe of the found chiefly in the Llandeilo rocks, is the Asaphus tyrannus Silures. They are most favourably placed for examination, (Fig. 31), and is therefore considered characteristic of these since they have been “set on edge," so that as you walk along beds. The Ogygia Buchii is also a feature of the period. The a line in an easterly or westerly direction, you pass over the trilobites have been closely examined by M. Barrande, who disexposed edges of the successive strata. The different series of covered that they underwent metamorphoses as our present the system and their sub-divisions are as follow:
crustaceans. He traced them, from their escape from the egg, UPPER SILURIAN
through all their 28
changes until they I. Ludlow Series.
arrived at the adult -1, Downtown
form; and, as these sandstones; 2, Ay
changes are many, mestry limestones;
it is not to be won3, Lower Ludlow
dered at that freshales.
quent mistakes are
36 II. Wenlock Series.
made in supposing -1, Wenlock lime
a fossil which is stone; 2, Wenlock
only a young triloshale; 3, Woolhope
bite to be something
29 limestone; 4, Upper
else. Llandovery grits
The Graptolites 30 and shales.
are Hydrozoa, and
they appear in very LOWER SILURIAN
some of which are III. Llandeilo
represented in our Series.—1, Lower
illustration. The Llandovery sand.
didymograpsus stones and slates;
(Figs. 32 and 32a) 2, Caradoc sand.
and diplograpsus stones; 3, Bala
(Figs. 33 and 33a) beds ; 4, Llandeilo
do not appear and Lingula flags;
above the lower 5, “Bottom rocks."
In Fig. LOWER SILURIAN
34 the didymo
37 grapsus is enlarged. Sir Charles Lyell 34
Arms are extruded adds a third divi.
out of the lateral sion to the Silurian
tubes, which were strata, which he
joined to the main terms the Middle
trunk of the grapSiluria, and in it
tolite, which was he places the upper
in the long tube and lower Llando
out of which very series, which
the short consists of the Tar
branch. annon shales, the
In Fig. 35 is reMay Hill sandstone,
presented another Pentamerus limestone, and the Llandovery slates, the aggregate of the hydrozoa of the lower Siluria—the Rastrites peregrinus, measuring about 2,600 feet in thickness; but, as a very definite having spines projecting from it like the teeth of a rake. line of division is wanting, we have divided the middle Silurian Resting upon the Llandeilo series are the Caradoc sandbetween the upper and lower.
stones and Bala beds. These, not including the trap rocks The Llandeilo series is so named from a town in Carmarthen- which are interstratified with them, attain the thickness of shire, about which the rocks are exhibited, where they reach a 9,000 feet. Caer Caradoc, where the sandstone shows itself, is a thickness of nearly 1,500 feet. Here we meet plentifully with mountain in Shropshire. The rock is very shelly, and contains fossils ; in such abundance, indeed, do some species occur—as many fossils. The Trinucleus Caractaci is found throughout the graptolites—that some geologists ascribe the dark colour of this sandstone; it is a beautiful trilobite, which has six rings in the slates which lie on the top of the series to the carbon | the thorax, the three bosses very prominent, and two long con. derived from these animals.
tinuations of the head, which will be figured in some of the But the most characteristic fossil of the Silurian period is the upper Silurian trilobites. The Strophomena grandis (Fig. 36) trilobite (Fig. 30), a crustacean with which those early seas and the Orthis vespertilio (Fig. 37) are also characteristic fossils must have swarmed. They evidently had a jointed body, and of the Caradoc beds. At Bala, in Merionethshire, a limestone probably could spring like our shrimps. There are many va- of this age occurs very fossiliferous. In it the trilobite life rieties, each bed of the system possessing some, if not peculiar to reaches its maximum. It yields fossil star-fish, and the Echinoitself, yet which predominates in that locality. However much sphærites balticus (Fig. 38) and others of the Cystidæ lately they may differ in other respects, they have all one feature in classed with the Radiata. The mouth of the creature was at the common—they are all three-lobed, hence their name ; that is, top, and it was fixed to the rock by a stem which was attached their body is divided into three lobes by the penetration of á at the opposite side to the mouth; but this stem is never found ridge down the centre ; this is very evident from the figures. still adhering. The Bala limestone is about 30 feet thick. The trilobite possessed a wonderful eye; indeed, it seems a Lower Llandovery Beds are grey and brown grits and con.
glomerates with dark shales. They occupy the whole of Cardi. Names of towns ending in CHESTER, CASTER, CESTER.-Instances: Dorganshire and parts of Glamorgan and Radnor. They contain chester, Porchester, Lancaster, Doncaster, Gloucester, Worcester, Leicester,
Cirencester. many fossils common to the Bala beds beneath and to the upper Silurian above. They are about 1,000 feet thick.
These endings come from either the Roman castra or the Saxon Of the life of the lower Silurian we may thus sum up. Of caester, according as the one or the other may be considered as that of the flora we are ignorant, save with regard to a few the original word; not improbably the Saxon caester is a derivasea-weeds. Of the fauna several classes have representatives. tive from the Latin castra or castrum. Castrum in Latin, as These seem to appear simultaneously, and all indicate that the caester in Saxon, denotes a fort, a fortification, a castle, an rocks in which they are embedded are of marine formation.encampment; hence a military settlement, and so a town or The lower Silurian fossils belong to the classes Zoophyta, Bra- city; for many of our towns were at the first military settlechiopoda, Conchifera, Gasteropoda, Cephalopoda, Echinoder- ments. mata, Annelida, and Crustacea.
Names of towns and villages ending in WICH or WICK. - Instances :
Greenwich, Woolwich, Harwich, Norwich, Nantwich, Berrick, Keswick. LESSONS IN ENGLISH.-XLI.
Wich or wick denotes an inlet or creek formed by the bend of
a river; then the land so enclosed, and then the collection NOUNS: THEIR ORIGIN AND CLASSES (continued). of abodes fixed there ; and so a fortification, a village, or town. PROPER nouns may be distinguished as names of places and
The ending SHIRE.-Instances : Yorkshire, Cardiganshire, Devonshire,
Lancashire, Cheshire. names of persons. Names of places were originally descriptive; they described the places to which they were assigned. The Shire, connected with the German scheren (Saxon, scir), to Bible furnishes such names in abundance : for instance, a place cut, to cut off, to divide, denotes a division of a country, a large in the Wilderness of Sinai was denominated Kibroth-hattaavah, district; thus, Yorkshire is the district which belongs to the that is, graves of lust, from an historical event recorded in the city of York, and of which that city is the (provincial) capital. book of Numbers xi. 34. Names of places have, to the un. The ending sex. -Instances : Essex, Middlesex, Sussex, Wesser, learned, ceased to be descriptive, because the terms have lost
Sex is the remainder of the old Saxon term Seaxe, Saxe their meaning. Those who would know the meaning of the (German, Sachse), signifying Saxons ; so that Sussex means the names in English topography must study the Teutonic and the south Saxons, etc. Celtic languages, which contain the original elements out of which those names were formed. Some instances have been stances : Peterborough, Queenborough, Edinburgh, Sudbury, Bury.
The endings BOROUGH, BURG (German, BURG, a castle), BURT.-IDgiven-I add two or three. Orc, the name given to the Orkney islands in the Welsh Triads, signifies that which is extreme, 80
Borough, softened into burg and bury, is the German burg that Orkney is the extreme or last country, the Ultima Thule. (Greek, purg), a fortified place, a town ; borough, considered as a Ramsgate means the gate or pass leading into Ram, or Raim, municipality, is a derived and comparatively recent application. the British name for the Isle of Thanet. Canterbury is a cor: Burg or bury also signifies a bosom, that is, a vale environed with ruption of the
Anglo-Saxon Cantwara byrig, the forts or strong. hills; hence the use of the word in relation to places situated as holds of the Cantware, that is, the men of Kent. Cant itself is Bury in Lancashire. comes from Caint, which, in Welsh, means a plain or open The ending or prefix HAM.--Instances : Higham, Hampstead, Hampton, country; and it was probably the old Welsh name for the slip
Oakham. of open land lying between the Weald and the Thames. The
Ham, still continued as a separate word in the diminutive word Winchester is a hybrid, that is, a cross between the British hamlet, denotes a dwelling, and hence a village. and the Latin. Chester is the Latin Castra, a camp, and de The ending MINSTER.-Instances : Westminster, Exminster, Warnotes a Roman station. It is frequent in our names of places; minster. 6.g., Manchester, Dorchester, Chester. The first syllable Win is Minster is a Saxon word signifying a monastery or settlement the Welsh Gwent, which like Caint (probably the same word) of monks; hence its application to some of our cathedrals ; as signifies an open country. It seems to have been a name given York Minster. to several districts in this island. Monmouthslure is still called
THE ARTICLES. Gwent by the Welsh, and was called Went by our English chroniclers as late as the 10th century. The Welsh name Gwent form a diminutive (articula), and, according to its etymology or
The word article, coming from the Latin artus, a joint, is in was softened by the Anglo-Saxons into Winte, whence came derivation, signifies a little joint. The articles may have been Winceaster, or Winchester. Names of places, as being proper nouns, are distinctive as well or because, being small, they, as limiting the application of
called "little joints," because of their smallness as articulations, as descriptive, Thus Paris is the capital of the French empire. But is there another Paris in the world ? The descendants of nouns, are the points or pivots on which discourse turns, British colonists, who settled years ago in North America, have the demonstrative pronoun this, for “the man
The article the does not essentially differ from what is called
" and "this unsparingly given the names belonging to the old country to man" are phrases of kindred import. Indeed, the appears to places of recent foundation in the new country. In so doing | be an abbreviated form of this (from the Saxon, thes, as in they have caused many of our names of places to lose their these), being softened down from this into thie (thic is still distinctiveness. The namo Boston once denoted the town in common among the peasantry of the south), and thae Scotch Lincolnshire so called. The name was distinctive. Another into the. In the Anglo-Saxon, the article the is connected in Boston has sprung up in Massachusetts. Now, then, when we origin as well as signification with this and that (that). use the term, we are obliged to add some distinctive epithet, and call the one Boston in England, and the other Boston in the German ein, the Greek en, the Latin unus, the French un, and
The article an (a before a consonant), the same with the United States. Unless such an epithet is added, confusion must the Scotch ane (ae), in all of which the n is a radical letter, ensue. I have known a letter travel over a large part of England denotes unity. in search of the right Broughton, where lived the person for whom it was intended.
From these etymological statements we are led to the exact I subjoin some examples of the meaning of names of places in
import of the articles. In English there are two articles. Of England.
these the one-namely, the-is called the definite article; the Names of towns ending in mouts and ford.--Instances : Plymouth, article points out one object, as an opple, a man, thus limiting
other-namely, an—is called the indefinite article. The indefinito Tynemouth, Yarmouth, Portsmouth ; Oxford, Stratford, Romford, Salford. the noun to a single object of its kind. Such a limitation at
The ending mouth denotes the mouth of a river, or the point first sight seems very definite; but an or a, while it indicates whero a river falls into the sea ; thus Tynemouth is the mouth one, leaves it uncertain, that is nndetermined (or indefinite! of the river Tyne. Portsmouth, the mouth of the Port, origi- what one is meant. The office of determining what object is nally denoting the projecting land forming the narrow opening meant belongs to the definite or determining article the. For by which ships pass from the sea (Spithead) into the harbour. example, "I saw a man." " What man?" "The man whom Ford, the German furt, signifies the part of a river or stream, you and I met yesterday." which, from its being shallow, may be forded, or passed dry A has the same origin as one. But a differs from one : " foot.
man" and "one man” do not signify exactly the same. A
man is one man as contrasted with the man, that is, some par- meaning would be wholly changed by converting the singular ticular man; and one man is a man as contrasted with many noun into a plural one; as, " The horses are noble animals," men. A simply indicates one of a class of objects, e.g., a book, that is, the horses in question. a horse, a needle; one indicates a single object as the opposite A, the article, must not be confounded with a, the old prepoof several. These statements may be illustrated in an example: sition or particle ; for example :"I bought a book.” “ Yes, but not the book you wanted.” “I “They go a begging to a bankrupt's door."—Dryden, bought one book.” “Indeed! I thought you had bought many." Nor must an, the other form of a, be confounded with an, the "No, I bought but one."
old conjunction; for example :The differs from this as being less demonstrative without
"Nay, an thou'lt monthe, I'll rant as well as thoa.”-Shakspeare. being less definite. The declares, this points out; the is the declaration of the tongue, this is the declaration of the finger: day," a doubt has been expressed whether the an and the a are
In such phrases as “four miles an hour," "twenty leagues a *I have sold the table." “The table ! what table ?"--The table you mentioned." “What! this table ?”-“ Yes."
the article or the preposition. I incline to the opinion that an, The undergoes no change by inflection, remaining the same a, in such cases is the article. This seems probable from the whether the noun is singular or plural, masculine or feminine, fact that an, not a, stands before a noun beginning with a the subject or the object.
vowel, or an h not pronounced ; for the preposition a is inAn, for the sake of euphony, drops the n before a consonant, variable ; for example :or consonantal sound; thus we say an empire and a kingdom,
"Every one cut off a piece and fell a eating." By a “consonantal sound” I mean a sound which has more The meaning of " four miles an hour" is not " four miles an or or less the force of a consonant. Thus h when aspirated, as in in hour," which has no sense, but four miles in an hour, that is, horse, is a consonantal sound. U (pronounced you) as in uni- four miles in one hour, four miles each or every hour, the article versity, is a consonantal sound. Consequently we say "a being used distributively, as in the phrase "a guinea a head,” horse," “ a university,” as well as " a tiger,” “a school.” Ithat is, a guinea to every head or person. give a list of
The form" a many" is found in Shakspeare :-
"A care-craz'd mother of a many children." WORDS, THE INITIAL LETTER OF WHICH HAS A CONSONANTAL
"A many" is still very common in the north of England in A European. A universal (custom). A usurper.
instances where it is now more usual to say " a great many."
“Many a," as in
"Full many a gem of purest ray serene,"
A humorous (story). is customary and good.
Some have denied to an and the the honour of being a A unitarian.
A usual (hour). A horseman, A united (company).
separate part of speech, alleging that the article is merely an So we also say " such a one ” and “ a once beloved friend.” An adjective. Thus they say that in the chair' and mahogany chair, is required before what is called a silent h, that is h which is qualify chair. But the two words qualify chair with a difference,
the and mahogany perform the same functions, namely, they not aspirated; for example :
the one indicating what the chair is made of, the other denoting An BEFORE WORDS BEGINNING WITH A SILENT h.
some particular chair of whatever material it may consist. An heir. An hospital ?
An honest (man). Surely there is a material differenco of meanity between these An herb ? An hostler.
An humble (friend). three forms of words : green chair, a green chair, and the green An honour. An hour.
An honourable (man). chair. At least the article qualifies the qualifier as well as the In regard to some of these words usage is not strict or uniform. object qualified, inasmuch as it tells us that a single green chair In those that I have marked with a note of interrogation, the is meant, or the particular green chair in which some one sat. initial h is aspirated by some authorities, whose practice in this There is consequently solid grounds for studying the article particular seems to be increasing in prevalence. When the h is apart from the adjective, and, if only for that purpose, there is aspirated, of course not the full form an, but the shortened a good reason for giving the article a specific name. form a, is required.
The adjectives formed from some nouns in which the h is aspirated, drop the aspirate, and so take an instead of a; thus RECREATIVE NATURAL HISTORY. we say, “ a history,” but “an historical narrative;" “ a heretic," SOME LAND, SEA, AND FRESHWATER SHELLS, WORMS, AND but "an heretical book." A common noun, when taken in its widest sense, admits no Not far from the homes of these sea rock-borers we shall, by
TUBE-DWELLERS (continued). article ; for example :
dint of a little searching about, find, on some fragment of “The proper study of mankind is man."-Pope. A noun is also without the article when it is used in a general and irregular-looking white tubing, like lilipatian tobacco-pipo
broken shell or detached stone, a mass of coiled up, twisted, sense, and in cases when the word some may be supplied; as : stems, or tiny ram's horns. Each of these minute dwellings will "To buy food are thy servants come."-Genesis.
be found to hold an inhabitant (Serpula contortuplicata), whose A may denote a class, and the may denote the particular class; beautiful scarlet fringe-like gills, or cilia, wave and undulate
as the fresh sea-water flows over it, bearing the microscopic "A bird which I saw in America sang the sweetest of all the songs elements on which it subsists. It is deeply interesting to trace I have ever heard.” “What bird ? "_"The yet unnamed species the gradual increase in the capacity of these tubes from their described in my new work.”
first appearance in the form of hollow pipes, no larger than a A, though denoting a single object, may stand before a nónn hair, until, by the untiring industry of the little tube-dweller of multitude, provided the idea of unity predominates ; thus we within, the length and capacity of his twisted mansion increases say " a hundred men,” that is “a band of a hundred men," a until at length it becomes as we see it represented in Fig. 1; hundred men considered as a total. So “a few days” means a and here we have an example of the fixed form of tube, certain indefinite period. There is a difference between "few needing no shield beyond its own natural calcareous walls. people" and "a few people ;” “ few people” says that the Should fortune favour our search among the rocks and rockpeople in question were not numerous ; "a few people” declares pools, we shall probably find some fragment of broken spar or that there was present a company, in opposition to their being piece of wood which, sea-borne, has voyaged from afar to be present no persons at all ; e.g., "few people were at the play." cast up by the tide at last. On examining this we shall find it “Few ? None." “Oh, I beg your pardon, there was a few." perforated in every direction by tubular orifices, the dwelling
4, prefixed to the name of an eminent personage, denotes one places of the Teredo navalis. On looking closely we shall porof a class; thus, “a Nero” is a person as cruel as the emperor ceive that each tube has a lining to it, but that the lining differs so called. The is also used before such names in the plural in character according to the position it occupies in the interior number; e. 9., " The Neros, thank God, are not numerous.” of the tube. Within an inch of the mouth of the canal or
The is put before a noun in the singular, when a particular orifice, it will be found to consist of a viscid paint-like mucus. species is intended; as, “ The horse is a noble animal.” The Beyond this distance, and extending inwards, the tube will be