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issue were questions which concerned every man. The theo-close of Henry VIII.'s reign, Surrey, together with his father, logians and philoscphers of the Reformation period had to the Duke of Norfolk, was thrown into prison on a charge of address themselves not to the learned class, but to the nation; treason. There does not seem to have been the slightest preand they aimed not merely at compelling the assent of men's text for any such charge, and probably it is to be ascribed to judgments, but at engaging their sympathies and rousing them the jealousy and ill-will of the reigning favourite, Hertford. to action. For this purpose they needed an instrument of a Surrey was, however, found guilty after the mockery of a trial; compass and variety unknown before. The formation of English and one of the last acts of the king's life-the last of his long prose style therefore dates from this period.
series of crimes-was to order his execution. A very judicious critic, Hallam, pronounces Sir Thomas The poetry of Wyatt and Surrey is very similar in its geneMore to have been the first who wrote good English prose. ral character, though Surrey was decidedly the greater poet of More was unquestionably the first in learning, in genius, and in the two. The poems of both are generally short, and for the integrity among Englishmen of his day. He was known and most part on amatory subjects. They are clearly formed upon respected among scholars throughout all Europe ; filled the Italian models; and they show a smoothness and ease of versifihighest offices in the state with equal uprightness and ability; cation, and a delicacy and refinement both of thought and exand at last died on the scaffold for his fidelity to the Roman pression, quite unknown to any poet since Chaucer. Surrey Catholic faith. Among his works, the one which is best known deserves to be remembered, also, as the first to introduce blank in the present day is his " Utopia," in which he develops his verse into England. This metre he derived, no doubt, from the views of government and political systems by depicting an ideal Italian, and he used it in his translation of two books of republic. The “Utopia" was written in Latin, but More's the "Æneid" of Virgil. English writings are numerous, most of them being tracts bear A single specimen of one short poem of Surrey is all that ing upon various phases of the great controversies of the day. our space allows us to give. It is a fair specimen of his style :His English work of most permanent interest is “The Life and
Give place, ye lovers, here before Reign of King Richard III.”
That spent your boasts and brags in vain ; Among the leaders of the English Reformation were many
My lady's beauty passeth more copious and fluent writers, Cranmer and Latimer perhaps stand
The best of yours, I dare well sayen, ing first among them. Less serious in purpose, but of not less
Than doth the sun the candle light, interest in the present day, are the translation by Lord Berners
Or brightest day the darkest night. of the great chronicle of Froissart, and the works of Roger
And thereto hath a troth as just Ascham. The learned Ascham was tutor to both Queen Eliza
As had Penelope the fair; beth and Lady Jane Grey. He left behind him two works,
For what she saith ye may it trust, "The Schoolmaster,” a treatise on education, and " Toxophilus,"
As it by writing sealed were ; the object of which is to explain and encourage the use of the
And virtues hath she many mo' bow,
Than I with pen have skill to show. But there can be no doubt that by far the most important
I could rehearse, if that I would, prose works of the reigns of Henry VIII. and his successor
The whole effect of Nature's plaint,
When she had lost the perfect mould, most important in the history of literature, no less than from
The like to whom she could not paint; other and higher points of view—were the several translations
With wringing hands, how she did cry, of the Bible into the English tongue, and the compilation of the
And what she said, I know it, aye. Book of Common Prayer. It must be remembered that each of
I know she swore, with raging mind, the long series of versions, beginning with that of Tyndale and
Her kingdom only set apart, Coverdale in Henry VIII.'s reign and ending with our present
There was no logs by law of kind authorised version in James I.'s, was not a separate, indepen
That could have gone so near her heart; dent translation, but, speaking generally, each was founded upon
And this was chiefly all her pain, and largely influenced by its predecessor. And each of the
"She could not make the like again." various forms in which the Book of Common Prayer was from
Sith Nature thus gave her the praise, time to time issued was only a comparatively slight modification
To be the chiefest work she wrought, of the book previously in use. And if this be borne in mind,
In faith, methink, some better ways and it be further remembered how many thousands of men and
On your behalf might well be sought, women must in successive generations have derived all their
Than to compare, as ye have done, literary enjoyment and formed their literary taste from little
To match the candle with the sun. else than the English Bible and Prayer-Book, it will not be difficult to realise how great and lasting the influence even of the earliest translators and compilers must have been in de
READINGS IN LATIN.–VI. veloping the faculty of literary enjoyment, cultivating the
CICERO. national taste, and establishing and maintaining a high stan. The perfection of the literature of Rome culminates in Marcus dard of tone and style in English prose-writing.
Tullius Cicero, who lived from B.C. 106 to B.C. 43. Both as an We have reserved to the close of this lesson the works of the orator and a philosopher Cicero attained to the highest point of two poets who adorned the latter portion of the reign of Henry excellence, and as a writer of letters he is without a rival. With VIII. The Earl of Surrey and Sir Thomas Wyatt were little re- his achievements as a statesman we have little to do in this moved in actual date from Barclay, Skelton, and others whom place, but it may be at least noticed that he took an active part we have already mentioned, but in the style and character of in political affairs, and at least on one occasion—the conspiracy their poetry there is the widest gulf between them. The one of Catiline, the merit of the discovery and suppression of which batch of poets connect the age of Henry VIII. with the darker fairly rests with him alone-was in a literal sense the "saviour period that preceded; the other are the harbingers of the Eliza- of his country.” The part which he subsequently played in the
civil wars between Pompey and Cæsar does not greatly redound Sir Thomas Wyatt was the elder by some years of these illus- to his credit, and he showed himself weak and vacillating. Protrious friends, having been born in 1503, and died in 1542. bably he was too much of a philosopher to be a man of energetic From his wit and accomplishments, he was one of the most action when the right path was difficult to discover, and in each briliant ornaments of the court of Henry VIII., and his public of the great political parties Cicero must have seen much that Career was distinguished, but he died in the very prime of life. was revolting. Still, one forgets much of his weakness in his His character, as painted by Lord Surrey--and Lord Surrey's tragical end, and his murder, which was an act of stupid, unsketch is in harmony with all we learn of Wyatt from other reasoning cruelty, must remain for ever as a dark blot on the sources—is singularly attractive.
policy of those who dictated it. But it is by his writings that Lord Surrey was born in 1517. He was heir-apparent to the Cicero will best be remembered. Treatises on philosophy, dukedom of Norfolk, and the leading representative of the speeches forensic and judicial, and letters innumerable flowed ancient and noble house of Howard. His rare mental gifts from his pen, and happily the greater part of them have been and noble and generous character made him, during his short preserved to our own times. He left to others the writing of carcer, the very ideal of the chivalrous noble. At the very history, but his short essay, “ De Republica,” shows that he had
an intimate and critical acquaintance with the history of his mores! senatus hæc intelligit : consul videt: hic tamen vivit. country, and a sound knowledge of the political principles on Vivit ? immovero in senatum venit, fit publici consilii particeps : which the Roman constitution had been built up. His style has notat et designat oculis ad cædem unumquemque nostrum. always been allowed to be perfect, “ Ciceronian" Latin having Nos autem, fortes viri, satisfacere rei publicæ videmur, si istius passed into a proverb, and it is the ideal to which all the writers furorem ac tela vitemus. Ad mortem te Catilina, duci jussu of Latin prose in the Middle Ages and subsequently have consulii jam pridem oportebat; in te conferri pestem quan ta endeavoured to attain. It is distinguished by its simple elegance in nos omnes jamdiu machinaris. An vero vir amplissimus P. and singular absence of mannerism; the words are selected and Scipio, pontifex maximus, Ti. Gracchum mediocriterio labefaothe sentences constructed and balanced with a careful attention tantem statum rei publicæ privatus interfecit. Catilinam orbem to the laws of rhythm and harmonious propriety, which, in a terræ cæde atque incendiis vastare cupientem, nos consules perwriter so voluminous, may well excite our astonishment and feremus. Nam illa nimis antiqua prætereo, quod C. Servilius challenge our imitation. In the extracts given below we have Ahala, Sp. Mælium novis rebus studentem manu sun occidit. endeavoured to give the reader a specimen of Cicero's powers in Fuit, fuit ista quondam in hac re publica virtus, ut viri fortes each of the branches of literature in which he chiefly dis- acrioribus suppliciis civem perniciosum quam acerbissimam tinguished himself-philosophy, oratory, and letter-writing-hostem coercerent. Habemus senatus consultum in te, though our space is far too limited to allow us to do anything Catilina, vehemens et grave, non deest rei publicæ consilium like justice either to the quantity or the quality of his writings. atque auctoritas hujus ordinis : nos, nos, dico aperte, consules Cicero's philosophical works, always faultlessly written, contain, desumus. every now and then, passages of singular beauty. The follow
NOTES. ing eloquent apostrophe to philosophy, taken from the “Tus
1. Tandem, to what length will it go, when will it ceaso 1 culan Disputations," a series of imaginary discourses and
2. Quamdiu etiam, how long still ! conversations held at his villa at Tusculum, has always been 3. Palatii, the ascent to the Palatine Hill from the Via Sacra bad greatly admired :
been occupied by an armed force. CICERO.-—“Tusc. Disp.," V. 2.
4. Munitissimus, most strongly defended. Sed et hujus culpæ,' et ceterorum vitiorum peccatorumque nos- in preference to the gerund governing the noun--habendi senatum.
5. Habendi senatus. The participle in dus agreeing with the noun, trorum omnis a philosophia petenda correctio est: cujus in sinum 6. Constrictam, stifled, restrained. cum a primis temporibus ætatis nostræ voluntas studiumque nos 7. Proxima. The speech was delivered on the Sth of November ; on contulisset, his gravissimis casibus in eundem portum, ex quo the 6th superiore (= priore) a meeting of the conspirators had been eramus egressi, magna jactati tempestate confugimus. O vitæ held at the house of M. Læca. Philosophia dux! O virtutis indagatrix, expultrixque vitiorum! 8. O tempora, etc. The degeneracy of the age consisted in the fact quid non modo nos, sed omnino vita hominum sine te esse potuis that Catiline could still show his face, without danger of being put to
death. set? tu urbes peperisti; tu dissipatos homines in societatem vitæ convocasti ; tu eos inter se primo domiciliis, deinde conjugiis, who led the rout that attacked Ti. Gracchus and killed him, B.C. 133.
9. P. Scipio. This was P. Scipio Nasica Serapio, Pontifex Maximus, tum literarum et vocum communione junxisti; tu inventrix
-Long. legum, tu magistra morum et disciplinæ fuisti: ad te confu 10. Mediocriter, etc., who was only sapping the foundations of the gimus, a te opem petimus : tibi nos, ut antea magna ex parte, state, to a moderate extent. sio nunc penitus totosque tradimus. Est autem unus dies 11. Privatus-consules. If he did this as a private man, how much bene et ex præceptis tuis actus, peccanti immortalitati* antepo- more should we, who are the constituted authorities, act in a similar nendus. Cujus igitur potius opibus utamur quam tuis ? quæ et way in this case ? vitæ tranquillitatem largita nobis es, et terrorem mortis sustu
12. C. Servilius Abala. Ahala killed Mælius because he refused to listi? Ac Philosophia quidem, tantum abest, ut proinde ac de obey the orders of the dictator, Cincinnatus.-Long. hominum vita est merita, laudetur; ut, a plerisque neglecta, a
13. Studentem. Studeo, with acc., means to study; with dat., to
be bent upon, to aim at; novis rebus, a revolution. multis etiam vituperetur. Vituperare quisquam vitæ parentem,
14. Senatus consultum. This was a decree passed on the 21st of et hoc parricidio se inquinare audet ? Et tam impie ingratus October previous, by which the consuls received authority to employ esse, ut eam accuset, quam vereri deberet, etiam si minus force of arms.-Long. percipere potuisset ?
15. Hujus, the senatorial order. NOTES. 1. Hujus culpæ. The error to which Cicero had just before alluded which will serve as a specimen of his style in this branch of
The following is one of Cicero's letters to his friend Atticus, of magnifying and exaggerating our misfortunes.
literature : 2. His-casibus. He probably alludes to Cæsar's death, or perhaps more generally to the civil wars of the period.
CICERO.—“EPISTOLÆ AD ATTICUM," I. 15. 3. Eundem portum, etc., philosophical retirement and contem Asiam Quinto, suavissimo fratri, obtigisse audisti: non plation.
enim dubito, quin celerius tibi hoc rumor, quam ullius nostrum 4. Peccanti immortalitati, an eternity of sin. The reader will per- litteræ nuntiarint. Nuno quoniam et laudis avidissimi semper force be reminded of the more pious ejaculation of the Psalmist, “One fuimus, et præter ceteros planes et sumus et habemur, et day in thy courts is better than a thousand.” 5. Tantum abest , ut, etc., is so far from being praised as it deserves, that mayrolns åperas uluvíoneo, curaque et effice, ut ab omnibus et
multorum odia atque inimicitias reipublicæ causa suscepimus, it is even railed at. 6. Hoc parricidio, by the guilt of such a parricidal act.
laudemur et amemur. His de rebus plura ad te in ea epistola The following extract is the vigorous commencement of the scribam, quam ipsi Quinto dabo. Tu me, velim, certiorem first of Cicero's speeches against Catiline, the story of whose facias, quid de meis mandatis egeris, atque etiam, quid de tno conspiracy, and its detection by Cicero, we have already given negotio. Nam ut Brundisio profectus es, nulla mihi abs to in our extracts from Sallusts account of the transaction. In redditæ litteræ: Valde aveo scire, quid agas. Idib. Mart. spite of the fact that his treason was well known, Catiline still Cicero's brother Quintus has just obtained the government of had tho andacity to appear in the Senate; and it was while he the province of Asia (Asia Minor), and Cicero writes to Atticus was sitting there that Cicero attacked him in the following in- to ask him to endeavour to strengthen his hands. dignant words :-
1. Fuimus. Cicero by this expression completely identifies himself Quousque tandem, Catilina, abutere patientia nostra ? with the welfare of his brother. Quamdiu etiamno furor iste tuus nos eludet? Quem ad finem 2. Denver. Cicero very frequently makes use of Greek words sese effrenata jactabit audacia ? Nihilne te nocturnum præsidium and phrases in his familiar letters, just as we often use French; Palatii, nihil urbis vigiliæ, nihil timor populi, nihil concursus knowledge of Greek being considered in a Roman a mark of A polite bonorum omnium, nihil hic munitissimus* habendi senatus education, as French with us. locus, nihil horum ora vultusque moverunt ? Patere tua con- brother
, on the occasion of his appointment, full of excellent advice on
3. Ea epistola. There are extant some letters of Cicero to his zilia non sentis ? Constrictam jam horum omnium scientia
these points. beneri conjurationem tuam non vides ? Quid proxima,7 quid
4. Tu me, velim, etc., please let me knor. superiore nocte egeris, ubi fueris, quos convocaveris, quid consilii 5. Brundisio. Á town on the south-west coast of Italy, the usual
aperis, quem nostrum ignorare arbitraris ? O tempora !$ o starting point for Greece.
6. Idib. Mart. Sc. Idibus Martiis dato; posted on the 15th of if placed under the basket, will prevent all risk of damage to March.
the table from the moisture. To make such baskets affords
much pleasant social amusement for children, who will find a TRANSLATION OF LIVY, I. 13, IN READINGS IN LATIN.–V. constantly renewing pleasure in varying their appearance. One
At this juncture the Sabine women, from the outrage on whom the week, snowdrops and crocuses will cluster among the mossy war originated, with hair dishevelled and garments rent, the timidity edges; then will come groups of " dancing daffodils” and hazel of their sex being overcome by such dreadful scenes, had the courage catkins, which, mixed with ivy leaves, make almost the prettiest to throw themselves amid the flying weapons, and making a rush dressing that can be found for it. In another week or two, across, to part the incensed armies, and assuage their fury; imploring anemones, hyacinths, and jonquils will crave admittance into their fathers on the one side, their husbands on the other, " that as the place of honour; and long before the basket is decayed, fathers-in-law and sons-in-law they would not contaminate each other roses, lilies, jasmine, and even carnations, will have sprung into with impious blood, nor stain their offspring with parricide, the one beanty, and had their day in the favourite moss basket. their grandchildren, the other their children. If you are dissatisfied
The organisation of the Lycopodiacee, or club-mosses, will be with the affinity between you, if with our marriages, turn your resentment against us; we are the cause of war, we of wounds and of blood- found
well worthy the attention of those who delight in looking shed to our husbands and parents. It were better that we perish than into the minutiæ of creation, and desire to find subjects for live widowed or fatherless without one or other of you.” The circum- praise and adoration of the Great Creator in the works which stance affects both the multitude and the leaders. Silence and a He has made. The order contains but two families, the club. sudden suspension ensue. Upon this the leaders come forward in mosses and the Isoeteæ, or quill-worts. order to concert a treaty, and they not only conclude a peace, but The club-mosses have a tough, persistent stem, beset with form one state out of two. They associate the regal power, and hard short leaves. There are no veins in their leaves, which transfer the entire sovereignty to Rome. The city being thus doubled, are, however, furnished with large stomata, or apertures in the that some compliment might be paid to the Sabines, they were called cuticle for the admission of air to the cellular tissue of the Quirites, from Cures.
plant, and are for the most part narrow and taper-pointed. The
stems are frequently twelve or thirteen feet in length, and in LESSONS IN BOTANY.-XL.
some species raise themselves into an erect position and become
woody; thus approximating to the character of some Conifere. SECTION CXXI.-MOSSES (continued).
In the coal strata are found some curious fossilised remains of Mrs. SOMERVILLE, in her “Physical Geography,” gives some gigantic Lycopodiacæ, which are called Lepidodendra, or scaly curious facts regarding mosses and lichens on those Antarctic trees, from the modo of the arrangement of their leaves. These lands which are scattered, according to some, at immense dis- seem to establish the connection between the two groupstances from each other round the South Pole, while others sup- the club-mosses and the Conifere. The fructification of this pose that they are connected at points beyond the parallel of group consists of a short spike, formed by a prolongation of the latitude to which man has hitherto been able to penetrate, and branch, round which are clustered a number of two-valved capthus fornt a great southern continent. She says :-“As the sules. These are sometimes of two kinds; one containing a latitude increases, the vegetation decreases, till at last utter mass of fine powdery granules; the other, including only three destitution prevails, not a lichen clothes the rocks, nor a sea or four roundish fleshy bodies, are very much larger in size than weed lives beneath the gelid waves. In the Arctic regions, on the granules. Both these kinds of capsule lie among the hair. the contrary, no land has yet been discovered wholly destitute pointed leaves of the head, one in the bosom of each leaf, and of vegetable life. The difference seems to arise more from the enclosed in pale yellow cases. Whether both these kinds, the want of warmth in summer, than from the greater degree of powder and the spores, have alike the power of reproducing cold in winter.” She also states that " in Tierra del Fuego their species seems as yet not to be determined, and botanists there is a greater number of plants identical with those of differ as to which of them is to be considered as the seed. Great Britain, or representatives of them, than is to be found Lindley tells us, that the larger bodies are the reproducing in any other land in the southern hemisphere, and among them, organs; Decandolle thinks that the one fertilises the other ; but forty-eight of the same mosses.”
nothing seems clearly ascertained on the subject. It is certain, Lovely as is this tribe of plants, we cannot give a good report however, that the powder is endued with a curious inflammable of them as ministering directly to the life of any part of the property, and is used in making the Chaldee fire, and has also animal creation. They do not furnish nectar for the moth or been employed in making artificial lightning at the theatres. butterfly, nor honey for the bee; nor does any grub or worm Lycopodium clavatum (Fig. 286), the wolf's-claw or stag'sfind its sustenance from them; and if they are eaten by cattle, horn moss, is the only species that can be said to be common in or by hares, and other small animals, it is rather by accident England, but that may be found on most elevated moors and than choice. They, however, tend much to the extension and heaths. It is found on Hampstead and Hounslow Heaths, and preservation of vegetable life, both by the soil which their decay in other London localities. In Wales, Scotland, and the lake supplies, and by their power of absorbing moisture and retaining countries, and in other mountainous districts, it is abundant, it, which makes them a valuable shelter to the roots of trees but in Ireland less frequent. The roots of this species are not and plants. The power which they possess of imbibing, as it deeply fixed into the earth, but they run matting themselves were, new life from water after they have long been dry and together just under the surface, serving thus to bind the soil, apparently dead, renders mosses very useful in the greenhouse. and prevent it from crumbling away. The stem is prostrate, freVery beautiful baskets for holding flowers may be made of the quently branched; the branches slightly raised at first, and then longer and more feathery kinds. We have made them often; becoming procumbent; these branches thus run sometimes for and never do flowers, whether wild or garden, look more lovely ten or twelve yards from a centre. The branches are covered than when clustered within a verdant border of that most deli- with narrow, fiat, smooth leaves, the edges of which are slightly cate and beautiful material, which by proper management may toothed and hair-tipped. These leaves do not fall off, but are be made to preserve its freshness and brilliancy for many evergreen and persistent. When about to form fruit there are months. We will here give a receipt for their manufacture. thrown out from varions parts of the branches spikes clothed
A light frame of any shape you like should be made wiun with leaves, longer, narrower, and of a paler green than those wire and covered with common pasteboard or calico, and the which beset the original stem'; these branches are crowned with moss, which should first be well picked over and cleansed from pale sulphur-coloured heads, something like catkins, usually two any bits of dirt or dead leaves which may be hanging about it, on each stem in pairs, but in some cases three will start from gathered into little tufts, and sewed with a coarse needle and the same point. On these spikes are the two kinds of fruit thread to the covering, so as to clothe it thickly with a close which we have described. The capsules which
contain them and compact coating, taking care that the points of the moss are in this species kidney-shaped, perfectly sessile, and situated are all outwards. À long handle made in the same manner at the base of the bracts. Each is two-valved, and fall of should be attached to the basket, and antin or other vessel, filled either spores or powder. with either wet sand or water, placed within to hold the flowers. Lycopodium annotinum, the interrupted club-moss (Fig. 287), By dipping the whole fabric into water once in three or four is another very interesting species of this genus, of rare occur. days, its verdure and elasticity will be fully preserved, and a rence in the British Isles, but common in Norway, Sweden, and block of wood about an inch thick, and stained black or green, in North America. The roots of this species are tough, wiry,
and tortuous, the stem creeping, very strong, and with a deeply especially where the turf has been pared ; and neither that nor indented and striped surface. It sends out at intervals branches the prickly club-moss (Lycopodium selaginoides) must receive from one to three or four inches apart, in an erect position ; much of our attention, though of the latter we mnst just notice these increase annually, the growth of each year being marked that this species produces the double sort of fructification which by the altered length and direction of the leaves. These upright we have named in our account of Lycopodium clavatum. The branches sometimes divide again, and when fertile, which is not upper capsules contain the minute pollen-like granules, the always the case, the spike is usually on the sixth or seventh lower larger grains almost equal in size to the seeds of some joint of the branch. When mature, the branches become prone, flowering plants. throw out roots, and send up erect branches as before. The The fir club-moss (Lycopodium selago) is the last species on branches are clothed throughout with linear leaves very acutely our list. This ascends the summits of our highest mountains, pointed, and with minute serratures at the edges. The fruit and is also found on the level of the sea. It has been con spike is oblong, and seated on the point of the branch in sidered as possessing many extraordinary medical properties, but this species,
seems an unbeing entirely
safe remedy devoid of the
to medale peduncle
with, as, if foot-stalk on
too much is which the
used, it in spike of Ly.
duces convulcopodium cla
sions. There vatum is ele
is a curious vated. The
species of ly. leaves, or
copodium bracts, in the
mentioned by spikes are
Dr. Carpenter nearly round,
as inhabiting yet pointed at
Pern, which the apex, and
he says is liain the axil of
ble to be eneach is placed
tirely dried a large con
np when despicuous veniform cap
water for : sule, which,
time. “It when ripe,
then folds in opens trans
its leaves and versely, and
contracts its sheds nume
roots, so as to rous minute
form a ball, sulphur-co
which, appaloured seeds.
rently quite Lycopodium
devoid of ani. Alpinum, the
mation, is savin - leaved
driven about club-moss, is
hither and more
thither by the mon than the
wind. As soon last-named
as it reaches species ; it
a moist situsis a pretty
tion, it sends plant, its
down its roots foliage of
into the soil, a brighter 287
and unfolds green than
to the atmoany other of
sphere its its congeners,
leaves, which, and in the
from a dingy its
ly change to have a blue
the bright tint. After
286. WOLF'S-CLAW OR STAG-HORN moss (LYCOPODIUM CLAVATUD). 287. INTERRUPTED CLUB-MOSS (LYCOPODIUM the escape of
tive vegetathe seeds, the
tion." spikes bend into a semi-circular shape, and the bracts be The quill-wort (Isoetes lacustris) is the only other genus comcome reflexed. Sir W. Hooker tells us that it is much used prised under the order Lycopodiace. This is a little plant conin Iceland as a dye for woollen cloths. He says, “A vast fined to mountain lakes, and there is but one species in the heap of Lycopodium Alpinum, lying before the priest's house, genus. It has a tuberous root
about the size of a hazel-nut, drew my attention, and on inquiring, I found that it was used from which hang tubular white fibres; the leaves are also for the purpose of giving their wadmal a yellow dye, which is tubular, and rise from the point of the root without any foot done by merely boiling the
cloth in water with a quantity of stalk. They are of a bright green, and very brittle. The fruit the Lycopodium, and some leaves of Vaccinium uliginosum (the is very curious, consisting of capsules about the size of swan. bog-whortleberry). The colour imparted by this process, to shot, embedded in the very substance of the base of each leaf
, judge from some cloth shown me, was a pale and pleasant, Newman says the quill-wort "clothes the bottom of deep and though not a brilliant, yellow.” Wadmal is the woollen cloth still waters with a perennial verdure." It is found in the little usually worn by the Icelanders. Sir W. Hooker tells us that lakes which abound among the Snowdon range. this species of club-moss is the badge of the Clan Macrae. The marsh club-moss (Lycopodium inundatum)
is a rather racter of the tribe which appears to connect the mosses with
Such as we have described them are the structure and chainsignificant species which springs up on heaths and commons, the ferns.
green of ac
body, is that which has the highest refracting power; and this REFRACTION, LENSES, AND MAGNIFYING POWER.
being understood, the above general assertion is easily proved
by allowing a sunbeam to pass through a hole in a shutter, so REFRACTION—from re (back) and frango (to bend), the bending that it may fall upon the bottom, c, of an empty glass fishback of the ray of light—is a property of light which has tempted globe, A B, or other convenient basin. (Fig. 2.) many a youth to plunge into water that appeared shallower The place, c, where the ray of light strikes the glass, should than it really was, because a place six feet deep would seem to be now be marked by laying a piece of bright silver there, and only a depth of four feet and a half; and upon this fact may be when the globe is filled with water, without moving it from its founded the question, Why does the water appear to be shallower position, the ray no longer falls upon the spot where the silver than it really is ? The answer is best given experimentally. was placed, but at D; hence “the angles of incidence and re
When a pencil of light falls upon the surface of water in a fraction are in the same plane perpendicular to the refracting perpendicular direction, nearly every portion passes into, and is surface," corresponding in this experiment with the shutter-line transmitted by the latter. If the rays fall obliquely upon the through which the beam of light passes. If the water in the globe water some of them are reflected, whilst that portion which is made slightly opalescent by the addition of a few drops of enters the water does not pursue a straight line, but is bent in milk, the course of the refracted ray is very nicely marked out, F
a direction towards or nearer to the perpendicular ; and it is and when allowed to fall upon a piece of looking-glass it is seen to this bending of the ray which is called refraction.
be reflected through the water, according to the laws of reflection, Thus the ray A B (Fig. 1) enters the refracting surface R R, and and emerging from the denser medium, water, into the rarer one, proceeds to c in the same direction, whilst DB, entering the air, the bending of the ray from the perpendicular is seen : thus water obliquely, instead of proceeding in the same direction BE, both refraction and reflection are illustrated in these experiments. is bent in the direction BG, which makes a less angle with the The sunbeam, A B (Fig. 3), falling on the surface of the water, perpendicular, BC, than if it had proceeded to E.
where a plummet line, P, is suspended, is bent or refracted in the It is therefore asserted, with certain exceptions, that a ray | direction BC, or towards the perpendicular; the ray, BC, falling of light in passing from a rare into a denser medium is bent on the looking-glass, L, is reflected at an equal angle through towards the perpendicular, and the contrary when the pencil the water to D; here, on emerging into the air, it is refracted of light emerges from a dense into a rarer medium. It must from the perpendicular or plummet line, L, in the direction DE; be understood that the density or rarity of the body referred hence " the sine of the angle of incidence, divided by the sine of to is not that of specific gravity. Optically considered, one the angle of refraction, is a constant quantity," and is called the body may be denser than another, whilst, physically, it is really index of refraction. The sine is a perpendicular line drawn from lighter ; thus, oil of turpentine is lighter than water, but has a the extremity of an arc to the diameter of a circle. The law of mgher refracting power than the latter, so that a ray of light sines published by Descartes, and known as Descartes' law, was passing from turpentine into water is refracted from the perpen- discovered by Willebrord Snell, a Dutch mathematician, about dicular, and in passing from water into turpentine it is bent 1612. towards the perpendicular. In optical language the densest At the back of a white plate, A (Fig. 4) describe a circle in