Les yeux de l'amitié se trompent The eyes of friendship are seldom, (1.) The French, as well as the English, use the second rarement,

deceived (deceive themselves), person plural for the second person singular, in addressing one (13.) The same pronoun has sometimes a reciprocal and someperson.

times a reflective meaning, according to the context :(2.) The second person, however, is used, as in English, in

Ils se flattent,

they flatter themselves. addressing the Supreme Being :

Ils so flattent,

they fatter one another, each other. Grand Diea! tes jugements sont Great God! thy judgments are full

(14.) Sor, himself, itself, etc., is of both genders and numbers, remplis d'équité. of equity.

and is applied to persons and things. It is used in general and (3.) It is also used in poetry, or to give more energy to the indeterminate sentences ; having commonly an indefinite prodiction :

noun for the nominative :O mon souverain roi !

O my sovereign keing! On a souvent besoin d'un plus We have often need of one mora Ne voici donc tremblante et seule Here I am, trembling and alone petit que soi.

hranble than ourselves. devant toi. before thee.

For additional rules on personal pronouns, see Syntax, $ 98, (4.) It is used by parents to children, and also among inti- and following. mate friends.

(5.) The pronoun il is used unipersonally, in the came manner as the English pronoun it;

Il pleut, it rains.
I gåle, it reenes.

CONCLUSION. Observe that the personal pronouns of the third person 201. Ilaving at length conducted the student through a complete are not used for the indirect regimen to represent inanimate course of Phonography, under the personal guidance of the founder of objects. The relative pronouns En, of or from it (8 39 (17)], y, the system we propose to close our Lessons with a brief sketch of photo it [§ 39 (18)], are used instead of the personal pronouns. nographic lite ature, from the pen of one who, as being wholly unconThus, in speaking of a house, we do not say, Je lui ajouterai une nected with Mr. Pitman, can speak freely, and, as being a professional aile, I will add a wing to it. We must say :

shorthand writer oi many years' standing, can also speak with J'y ajouterai une aile, I will add a wing to it (thereto).

authority. Our object in giving this sketch is twofold. In the first

place, we desire to point out to the learner the abundant incans he In speaking of an author, we may say :

has at hand of parsuing, with the least possible expenditure of time Que pensez-vous de lui ? What do you think of hin ? and labour, the study of the art in which he should now be well Bat in speaking of his book, we should say;

grounded. In the second place, we desire to give some indication of

the widely extended nses to which Phonography may be put as a meQu'en pensez-vous ? What do you think of it (thereof) ? | dium for the intercommunication of thought, and of the signal (6.) The word même, plural mêmes, may be used after the triumphs it has already won for itself in that direction. pronoun in the sense of self, selves :

202. At the outset it is worthy of observation that Phonography is Le roi lui-même, the king himself.

the only system of short hand which has ever yet achieved a literature. La reine elle-même, the queen herself.

Every other system begins and ends with the one lesson book which Les princes eux-mêmes, the princes themselves.

explains it to the world. It is true that the Bible was printed ia Les princesses elles-mêmes, the princesses themselves.

Rich's system, from engraved plates, in 1689, and an abridged Prayer (7.) The pronouns moi, toi, lui, euc, are often used after the Book was lithographed by Lewis the stenographer; but these two Ferb, to give greater force to a nominative pronoun of the same books, though the very best, do not make a library. The reason person, in those cases where the emphasis is placed on the that no other system than Phonography has given to the world a nominative in English, or where the auxiliary do is used :

shorthand literature, is that in no other system of shorthand is there

the same definiteness and simplicity of principle, the same certainty Je le dis, moi, I say so, or I do say so.

as to the meaning of the written character, the same general legibility n le dit, lui, he says so, or he does say so.

utterly independent of the context. The Bible in Phonography is, to (8.) The same pronouns, moi, toi, lui, eux, are used instead of the practised student, as easy to read as the Bible in ordinary type. the nominative pronouns, je, tu, il, ils, for the English pronouns, Nay more, so certain is the system in its results that the most intriI, thou, he, they, when those pronouns are employed without a cate, the most technical, the most delicate correspondence may be verb in an answer, when they are used by themselves, or have a carried on between two phonographers with all the clearness of the verb understood after them :

most legible longhand. Time makes no difference to its readableness : Qui est arrivé ce matin ? Moi. Who arrived this morning ? I.

that which was written ten years ago is as easy to decipher as that Vous écrivez mieux que lui. You write better than he.

which was written to-day. Nor is the memory called in to assist the (9.) The same pronouns are used in exclamations, and in those eyes in this matter. The writer once, when taking down a speech by fases where the English pronouns, I thou, eto.,

are followed by one of our leading orators, fell into a profound reverie on a matter of the relative pronoun who; also after c'est, c'était, etc.

deep persoual interest, and awoke to consciousness to find, as he

supposed, that he had missed full ten minutes of an address which it Moi, lai céder! I, yield to hiin!

was his duty to write out then and there for to-morrow morning's Lui qui est officier, He who is an officer.

daily paper. Turning to his note-book in a kind of despair, his de. C'est moi, c'est lui,

It is I; it is he.
Ce sont eux,
It is they.

light scarcely knew bounds when he found that the practised hand

had registered every sound as it fell on the equally practised ear, and (10.) These same pronouns are also used instead of the that every word that had been attered was as legible to him as if it nominatives, je, tu, etc., when the verb has several subjects, had been printed in bold Roman letters. With no other system of which are all pronouns, or partly nouns and partly pronouns. shorthand would this have been possible, because in no other system The verb may then be immediately preceded by a pronoun in is the character so certain, the context so entirely a matter of 'indifthe plaral, representing in one word all the preceding sub- ference. And it is in virtue of this clearness, this certainty, this jects:

never-failing legibility, that Phonography has been able to make to Votre père et moi, nous avons Your father and I were a long itself a literature. One phonographer can read another phonograété longtemps ennemis l'un de time enemies.

pher's writing, provided such writing be not sloveuly and imperfect,

as easily as he can read his own, and he can read lithographed Pho(11.) The recapitulating pronoun and the verb sometimes nography as easily as he can read print. come first in the sentence:

203. We now proceed to our sketch, Phonographic literature Nous avons, vous et moi, besoin

may be conveniently divided into four branches: 1. Educational, You and I have need of tolerance. 2. Periodical, 3 Bibliothecal, 4. Recommendatory and Eulogistic.

204. In the Educational division we have first of all three works (12.) The reflective pronoun se, himself, etc., is used for both which lend the student op to the point at which we leave him the genders, and for both numbers; for persons and for things; " Phonographic Teacher," the “ Phonographic Reader," and the and always accompanies a verb :

“Manual of Phonography.” These three books, which may also be


de tolérance.

had compactly bound in one volume, contain all that is necessary to come.” No error is more fatal to accurate or swift trauscription. induct the learner into a kuowledge of the art as it is used in corre- And it is therefore that these phonographic magazines are so helpful spondence and business, and for making uotes and memoranda. For to the student. They accustom him to read. They do more; they the actual work of professional reporting, where greater speed and accustom his eye to correct spelling and correct form- both matters consequently greater brevity are requisite, there is, as will be seen of prime necessity in all shorthand work. The reader of Dickens directly, another set of books which, while utilising all that has gone cannot forget how poor David Copperfield, after travelling a weary before, develop the system almost indefinitely, rendering it possible to way through some antique system of stenography, until he was able follow with case the most rapid speaker. While grounding the stu- to follow with difficulty Tom Traddles' impassioned declamation, dent in Phonography proper, however, as distinct from the Reporting suddenly found out that he had to retrace the whole journey, because branch of the art, the three works we have mentioned are not the he could not decipher a phrase of what he had written. So will it only ones belonging to this period of study. There is an invaluable be with the student of Phonography unless he accnstom his eye to little volume bound in roan (price 5s.), upon which immense labour read that which his hand may so readily be taught to trace; and in must have been expended, entitled "A Phonographic and Pronouncing this view of the case we are by no means sure that we onght not to Vocabulary of the English Language.” It holds to Phonography have included the phonographic magazines among the strictly educathe same relation which a dictionary holds to a language. In it are tional literature of the system. to be found the easiest and most legible methods of writing the longest 207. In the Bibliothecal division we have a proof at once of the and most awkward words. None but those who in the earlier stages capabilities of Phonography and the universality of its use among those of their learning have availed themselves of this useful little volume, who write shorthand. "Nothing but a very large constituency of know the difficulties it smooths over, or the ease and clearness it phonographers could repay the enterprise which has brought into es. imparts to their writing. At this period, too, certain of the shorthand istence so many handsome library volumes, all beautifully lithographed magazines give useful help to the student, but of these we shall speak in shorthand-some in plain Phonography, and some in Reporting, presently.

First we have a magnificent edition of the Holy Bible, to be diad 205. We now come on to the Educational literature of the “Report- cither in roan gilt or morocco gilt, in size an octavo, and, though ing Style"-that is, the style which is indispensable to the intending written in ordinary Phonography, not thicker than a printed reference reporter. First of all there is the “ Phonographic Reporter, or Re- Bible such as one carries to his place of worship in his pocket. Then porter's Companion” (to be had either in boards or cloth), which is we have, similarly bound and got up, a Church Service, and a Book to reporters' Phonography what the " Manual" is to ordinary Pho. of Common Prayer, the former in Reporting, the latter in Phonograpography. It lays down principles for shortening the system, gives phy. The Bible complete is in Phonography, but parts of it, as for additional grammalogues, leads the learner farther into the labour- iustance the New Testament, and some other portions, are published saving paths of phraseography, and closes with a number of admirably separately in handsome bindings in an easy Reporting Style. Nor is arranged exercises. As with the " Manual " so with the "Reporter's our library yet complete. Next in order we have " Bunyan's PilCompanion :” it contains all that the studeut absolutely requires to grim's Progress," handsomely bound in cloth, with gilt lettering and know. But in the same manner as the “Vocabulary "supplements edges, a "History of Shorthand” in cloth and in roan gilt," Macaothe “Manual,” so are there other works which supplement the lay's Essays " complete in one volume, Dr. Johnson's "Rasselas," the “Reporter," and lighten the labour of practice. One of these is the "Dairymau's Daughter," an able " Prize Essay on Teaching Phono“Phonographic Phrase Book," which contains, together with a pre-graphy," "Extracts from Life, its Nature, Varieties and Phenomena," liminary essay on the principles of phraseography, somewhere between by Grindon, and “Hart's Orthography," a reprint of a scarce work three aud four thousand useful phrases, written, after the manner of of the sixteenth century preserved in the British Museum. All these the “Vocabulary," in such a way as to combine the maximum of case latter works are in cloth bindings, and together form a handsome with the maximum of clearness. And there is a "Reporter's Assis- phonographic library. Besides these, however, there are a number of tant,” forming a most valuable key to the reading of reporting Pho-works, too numerous to catalogue, in paper covers. We single out nography after it is written. The tyro may often boggle for a long two_“ Selections from Goldsmith's Poetical Works,” beautifully time over some word whose consonants he has written legibly enonyh, lithographed with fancy borders round each page, and Gray's "Elegy but whose meaning, in the absence of the vowels, he cannot decipher. in a Country Churchyard,” wherein the shorthand is interlined with The “Reporter's Assistant " gives him a list of all the words that the a longhand' interpretation of it. The remaining tracts consist of puzzling sign can by any possibility stand for. It is a most useful essays, tales, addresses, etc., and are written some in Reporting and book for the beginner-a crutch which will enable him to walk with some in Phonography, ease while his limbs are yet weak. Two other works--the "Reporter's 208. The fourth department of phonographic literature must be disReading Book" and the “Reporter's Guide"-complete, with a missed in a sentence or two. It consists mainly of tracts and pamphlets few minor exceptions, the Educational literature of the "Reporting illustrative of the advantages of Phonography-wisely urging the Style" of Phonography. The first contains elaborate reading lessons young man setting out in life to master it, and pointing out the in shorthand, with a longhand key, enabling the student to practise thousand and one ways in which it may be made subservient to the from dictation and compare his work with a recognised standard of daily necessities even of those who can conceive of no present use for good Phonography afterwards. The second is filled with every sort it. Soine of these tracts are reprints of publications or speeches from of technical information concerning the preparation of copy for the America and the colonies; others have their origin nearer home. press and the correction of proofs. Both are of the atmost value to Others, again, are the production of the fertile brain and facile pea of the intending reporter.

the venerable inventor of Phonography, Mr. Isaac Pitman, who de206. Turning to the periodical literature of Phonography, we find scends into the vale of years, 10€ only accompanied by the gratitude that the system boasts no less than seven inagazines, two of which ar- of thousands whose labours he has lightened, but cheered by the conpear weekly, and five monthly; and as we write, an advertisement of a sciousness that he has benefited millions who, as they read their new one, The Phonographic Pulpit and Sacred Repertory, meets our morning paper, little dream that they are indebted to a still living eye. They are all replete with articles which combine instruction benefactor for the accuracy, the speed, and to some exteut the cheap with entertainment. Some of them contain papers that solve the ness with which they are furnished with the report of last night's student's difficulties, others give him information upon points likely debate or public meeting. When we mention that all the educational to be of special value to him in his profession. Others again travel works we have enumerated, (except the "Reporter's Guide," and the ont of the technical into the general, and win his suffrages by their “Reporter's Reading Book”), and by far the larger number of those literary merit alone. The uses of these magazines are simply incal- which we have classed under the other three heads of division, have culable. If we were to single out one of them, for the purpose of been produced ander Mr. Pitman's own superintendence, and the recommending it to the student, it would be the Phonetic Journal, lithography executed by his own hand, we shall have thrown an adpublished weekly, 3d. In addition to a large amount of literary ditional light upon the Herculean task which has been undertaken matter, printed partly in the common spelling and partly in phonetic and accomplished by him, under whose gnidance our shorthand students spelling, cach number contains sixteen pages of lithographed short- have been piloted so pleasantly through the preliminary difficulties of hand, beautifully written by the inventor of the system. "Nothing is an invaluable art. To add that full particulars concerning all the of more importance to the shorthand writer than that he should be works to which we have referred in this brief, and necessarily iundeable to read with ease what he has written; nor is there any point of qnate notice, may be obtained by application to Mr. Isaac Pitman, practice more frequently neglected. It is too often forgotten that in Phonetic Institute, Bath, or of his brother and London publisher, Mr. learning a langunge the firsê thing we do is to read it fluently. It is Fred. Pitman, 20, Paternoster Row, is to close our task and with it too often thought sufficient to write swiftly and "let the reading our " Lessons in Shorthand.”

NATURAL HISTORY OF COMMERCE. dividing line being a means of production or a facility for

trade. The ill-fated Lord Strafford, more than 200 years CHAPTER IV.

ago, saw how well the flatness of the country and the THE UNITED KINGDOM : IRELAND-RAW PRODUCE, MINERAL, slow flow of the rivers suited inland communication, and VEGETABLE, ANIMAL.

he devised a great scheme of intersecting canals, as yet Relation between Raw Produce and Industry--Geological Conditions of but partially carried out. Mineral Produce-Application of Principles to Ireland-Ireland

Oats have in recent years become the largest tilled not noted for Minerals-Pre-eminently Pastoral-Vegetable Pro

crop, while wheat has so increased as sometimes to leave duce—Natural Advantages of Ireland-European Analogues,

a surplus for exportation : nevertheless, the humidity of The industrial occupations of the people of the United Ireland will ever render the harvests capricious. The Kingdom have been proved in the preceding pages to be native sheep was covered with a coarse hair, but by interthe result of natural laws, and not of chance. The seats mixture with English breeds is now improved. The of mining and of manufactures are determined by the production of wool is valuable and abundant, but the local mineral deposits, and the importance of the one is manufacture is confined to coarse goods, and carried on proportionate to the richness of the other--especially with insufficient capital. For cattle-rearing and dairy so in relation to iron and coal. Given the geological produce, Ireland might be matchless. Her only European character of the rocks and soil, with the physical distinc- analogues are Denmark* and the Netherlands, where the tions of highland, lowland, plain, and marsh, and the prevalence of water shrouds the plains with vapours, climatic phenomena, we may infer much of the raw which clear away before the summer winds, to reveal produce, organic and inorganic.

meadows covered with kine. The quays and jetties of The mountain borders of Ireland give occupations to the Hanse Towns and the Dutch ports resemble those labourers in mines and quarries, and copper and lead of Cork and Waterford, swarming with stock, and filled are produced in the counties of Wicklow, Cork, and to repletion with cheese and “provisions." While Waterford. Iron is more widely dispersed, but for want Ireland has languished, however, and a fifth of her inof coal is unprofitable to smelt. Peat is almost the habitants have disappeared, Denmark and the Netheronly fuel. Limestone is the principal rock of the lands, with disadvantages from which Ireland has never interior; statuary marble of fine quality is met with in suffered, have grown prosperous and opulent. Galway and Donegal, and granite in many parts. Nevertheless, Ireland is not noted for its minerals. The

CHAPTER V. special feature of its geology is the dreary expanse of bog, occupying 3,000,000 acres, or a tenth of the central

THE UNITED KINGDOM : GREAT BRITAIN-RAW PRODUCE, plain of the kingdom. The great bog of Allen, once a

MINERAL, VEGETABLE, ANIMAL. forest , spreads through four counties. These bogs are General Description -- Relation between Industrial and Geological

Features-Mineral Produce of England and Scotland contrastedconsiderably above the level of the sea, and sometimes

British Mineral Produce compared with European-Animal and very deep. They lie upon vast deposits of clay and Vegetable Produce of Great Britain-Population. drift, which overspread the mountain limestone, and, in England is more a mining and manufacturing than an steep impervious embankments, form the confines of agricultural country, although the mineral region occupies stagnant reservoirs of saturated vegetable soil, unsafe but a third of the surface. The mining and manufacin places for the smallest quadruped to walk upon. The turing industries of Scotland assume larger proportions, structure of the bogs indicates the proper method of with a still more confined space for their operation. The drainage, but notwithstanding a river system unusually chief mineral products of Scotland, as in England, are complete, little has been reclaimed; and, since bog earth coal and iron, the beds of which, together with limestone is deficient in mineral constituents, it is doubtful if and sandstone, cover nearly a thousand square miles drainage would ever repay, in produce, the cost of recla- lying south of a line joining the estuaries of the Clyde mation. Ireland is pastoral

, and there appears no limit and the Tay—the densest, wealthiest, and most busy to its dairy and grazing capabilities. Pastures cover two part of the kingdom. Rich mines of lead, with which thirds of the country, and four-fifths of the people depend a small quantity of silver is intermixed, are worked in upon field labour. As a rule, however, the farming the Lowther Hills. The Highlands are deficient in is inferior, the tillage slovenly, and the implements rude. metals. The Grampians, especially, are as destitute of The production of butter and provisions for export is, ores as their summits are of vegetation. nevertheless, prodigious. Salt beef, pork, bacon, lard, and

The most important quarries of granite are those of many millions of eggs, are consigned to England. Cork Kircudbright and Aberdeen. Whole towns in Scotland has

, virtually, the victualling of our navy. . Waterford are granite-built, and with the improvements in the dispatches abroad over 100,000 casks of butter yearly, and machinery for cutting and preparing this stone, its use slaughters every week an average of 5,000 swine, while has greatly extended in England. Many of the new the quays, a mile long, swarm with live stock for em- buildings which adorn London are decorated with barkation.

polished shafts and columns of coloured granites. Its The eastern provinces are more flourishing than the great weight prevents its more general adoption for western.

The Curragh of Kildare competes with the monumental and national designs. Monoliths of any English downs as a grazing-ground, and sheep have fed size are rare. Felt in the greatest depths and found in for ages upon its sweet herbage. In the open country the highest peaks, underlying the ocean and overtopcorn intervenes between the breadths of potato, and ping the cloud, unyielding in substance but variable in meal and milk are used for food. The fields smile with colour and in chemical constitution, this primeval rock the blue-flowered flax, which the cotters grow for their has sometimes been called a type of truth, and an emfamilies and weave in the hand-loom. The people of blem of the virtues, faith, hope, and charity. these districts are of English or Scotch descent, and have carried their native skill and thrift into the country of their parts of Scotland.

Roofing-slates, also, are extensively quarried in a few adoption. They command higher wages, and can pay higher rents for less propitious soil, than the native Erse. * "When the plains of Germany are brown and ashy with the sum. Ireland's resources

are, to a great extent, undeveloped. mer heat, the isles of Denmark delight the eye with a fresh bright With a coast-line of 2,000 miles, and inlets penetrating green, and as truly deserve the title of Emerald Isles as our sister the land from opposite coasts, with a matchless system vernal appearance, owing to the humidity of the atmosphere and on of rivers and lakes, the surface is a dissected map, every the soil." —Milner's “ Baltic," p. 82.



Oolite is quarried in Somersetshire and Portland. wave with corn. Barley for malting is a great object The city of Bath, St. Paul's Cathedral, Somerset House, of culture in the same tracts and in the midland counties, and many London churches show with what favour it while oats grow chiefly in the fens and in the north. is regarded for building. Lime is made from the chalk Potatoes thrive in Leicestershire and Cheshire, and the that stretches from the South Downs to Lincolnshire. turnip tribe has spread from Norfolk all over the kingdom. Fuller's earth is dug at Reigate; and millions of bricks, Pulse grows everywhere. Flax and coarse hemp of excelfor railways, sewers, and buildings, are made from the lent quality are cultivated, though the quantity is small. London clay.

The husbandry of Scotland ranks very high even In the mining region, properly so called, we observe within the mineral lines, but the soil capable of tillage is that Cornwall has scarcely any manufactures and very limited. Comparing one kingdom with another, Eng. limited agriculture : its commerce and shipbuilding are land has half its surface in pasture, a third under tillage, comprised within the smallest bounds; but it has an and a sixth in wastes, towns, roads, and waterways; apparently exhaustless supply of tin and copper, which while Scotland has only one-fourth under cultivation, make the country both interesting and important. with three-fourths in wastes and ways. For the opera

The South Wales coal-field is the parent of several tions of husbandry a granitic district offers few facilities : industries. Besides the smelting of copper from Corn- the bare pinnacles weather slowly, and form too scanty wall, and also from Ireland and abroad, and its produc- a soil for cultivation. The Grampians are naked and tion of fuel, it is the seat of the iron manufacture, sterile, as are also the broken islands of the north; Merthyr Tydvill and Cardiff being the most important while large counties, such as Sutherland, can only be towns thus engaged, while Swansea is the centre of laid out in sheep-walks. The most fertile parts of Scotcopper-smelting. Our other coal-fields, with one excep- land are the tract between Perth and Dundee, Teviottion, are also productive of ironstone, and originate the dale, Fife, the Lothians and Berwick. From climatic characteristic pictures of the " Black Country" covering causes the Scotch crops arrive at less perfection than they the Dudley coal-field, and of the congeries of iron-works, do in England: the solar heat is inconstant, and, as in Irecollieries, and factories which give to South Lancashire land, often insufficient to ripen grain and secure harvest. the aspect of one densely-populated town. The cele - Barley of the same weight as English barley contains brated coal-field of Northumberland is deficient in iron- less sugar, and does not malt well. Fruits which ripen stone, although the neighbourhood of Hexham produces in one division seldom mature in the other, and never iron of very fine quality.

become so choice; but different berries acquire in ScotThe wonderful supply of coal and iron casts every land somewhat of the delicious flavour which distinother mineral into the shade, or Great Britain would guishes them in still higher parallels of latitude. be called rich in lead, zinc, and the minor metals. The Owing to the broken nature of the Welsh counties, precious metals are rare, and seldom worth the working. sheep and cattle are pastured upon the hills, which, Burât has computed that the production of the useful unlike the Scottish highlands, are covered with grass metals and coal in Great Britain is four times that of to their summits, and tillage and dairy work are carried France and Russia, six times that of Austria, eight times on in the valleys. Welsh mutton is small, but renowned that of Spain or Scandinavia, nine times that of Prussia, for the delicacy of its flavour. and eleven times that of Belgium. What is the result? Food products are the special objects of British The metal and coal of Great Britain, transformed into husbandry. Barley and hops for beer, cider apples and machines, are computed to equal in productive power flax, are exceptional; but none assume the importance the hand-labour of every human being living. It is as of the vine in France or of flax in Holland. if the population of a second world were contributing to lessen the toil of the thirty millions in this small corner of Europe. Manchester and Liverpool were

LESSONS IN LATIN.XLIII. small towns till machinery made our gigantic cotton

IRREGULAR VERBS. industry possible. The imports of raw cotton have been We now come to those verbs which custom characterises as the over a thousand millions of pounds yearly, and are Irregular Verbs, inasmuch as they greatly depart from the rapidly returning to that amount.

models supplied in the four conjugations; and first we present Eastward of a line drawn between the Tees and Exe, Possum. the surface exhibits fertile plains, varied by rivers, valleys,

I.-POSSUM, POSSE, POTUI, to be able. and green undulations, by a few wild and sterile heaths, Possum consists of potis, able, and sum, I am. The potis and in the north by bogs. The Bedford Level and the is contracted into the stem pot, and pot before the s in sum, Lincolnshire fens are the principal marshes. The soils, becomes pos ; whence comes pos-sum. like the rocks upon which they lie, are not distinguished by their extent so much as by their variety. Clay, loam,

sand, chalk, gravel, peat, are all represented, simply and Pos-sum, I am Pos-sim, I may Pðt-ui, I have
in many forms of combination, and impress distinctive

be able.

been able.

Pot-ueris. (etc. characters upon an indefinite number of districts. The


Pot-perit. largest tracts of uniform soil are in Norfolk and the Possumus. Pos-simus. Pot-uimus.

Pot-uerimus. wealds of Kent and Sussex. Surrey, for its size, has Pot-estis. Pos-sitis. Pot-uistis. Pot-ueritis. more beds of sand than any other county, of which the Pos-sunt.

Pos-sint. Pot-uorut (-učre). Pot-uerint. heaths-Bagshot, Wimbledon, Weybridge, Woking-and


Pluperfect. the suburban commons of London are illustrations. Pot-éram, I Pos-sem, 1 Pot-néram, I had Few of the plains are quite barren, and none of the

was able,

might be able. been able. sandy tracts are so large as the Landes of France. South of the wealds, from Beachy Head to Salisbury

Pot-eras, etc. Pos-ses, etc. Pot-ueras, etc. Plain, runs a low line of chalk downs, with a velvet pile

1st Future,

2nd Future, of herbage, trodden and cropped by sheep of the finest

Pot-ero, I shall be able.

Pot-uěro, I shall have been able. Pot-eris, etc.

Pot-uěris, etc. breeds, famous both for flesh and wool." Kent is the garden of England. The trailing hops of Canterbury Pres. Pos-se, to be able.


Participle. and Farnham vie with the vineyards of France, and Perf. Pot-uisse, to have been able. (None.)

Pot-ens (only as an adjective the scene at hop-picking resembles the animation of Fut. (None.)

(None.) the vintage. Between Sussex and the Wash, wide tracts

No Imperativo.





Pot-uerim, I

may haveben,

Pot-uissem, 1

might have

been able, et Pot-ruisses, etc.



It is thus seen from the preceding conjugation that with the narrant Saturnum liberos ex se natos comesse solitum esse, consümit aid of potis the verb is formed by sum and its parts, of which enim ætas temporum spatia. the ui is for fui, the f or aspirate being dropped in combination

EXERCISE 166.-ENGLISH-LATIN. to prevent the harshness of two consonants coming together, as

1. Saturn did not devour his children. 2. Do you think that pot-fui, etc.

Saturn devoured his children? 3. The waves eat away rocks. 4. VOCABULARY.

Thou livest to eat. 5. Thou oughtest to eat in order to live. 6. They Adeo, to such a degree, Effector, oris, m., a Pejërare (in its origi- eat very little. 7. We are going into the country in order to enjoy a greatly. creator.

nal form perjūro, pic-nic. 8. This bread is bitter to eat. 9. Corn-worms have eaten up Casus (cado, I fall), Enumerare, 1, to num. from per, through; the corn, 10. Old age devours all things. 11. Grief will devour the -ūs, m., chance, ber.

and jus, right), to mind, and destroy life. 12. They have eaten and drunk moderately. Celare (aliquem ali- Inducăre, 3, to lead in, swear falsely.

13. A wise man will eat little. quid), 1, to conceal, induce.

Proinde quasi, just as if. Constituěre, 3, to ap- Meditari, 1, dep. (with Quam potuit maximis KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN LATIN,-XLII, point, ordain

acc.), to meditate on. itineribus, with the Desistěre, 3, to stand Mitescăre (no perf., utmost speed.

EXERCISE 161.-LATIN-ENGLISH. back from, desist, no supine), 3, to be- Situs, -üs, m., place, 1. These words are inscribed on the king's tomb, “He lived virtucome mild, tame. position.

ously, he bound bad men, he conquered his enemies." 2. The enemies EXERCISE 163.-LATIN-ENGLISH.

having been conquered and bound with chains, were led away into

slavery. 3. Authority ought to be supported by just laws. 4. The 1. Pergite, pueri, atque in id studium, in quo estis, incumbite, ut king, having concluded a peace, sustained the tottering republic by et vobis honori et amicis utilitati et republicæ emolumento esse his virtue. 5. Virtue is hard to find, and requires a ruler and a guide. possitis. 2. Nemo adeo ferus est ut non mitescăre possit. 3. Hoc 6. Innumerable arts have been discovered by the teachings of nature. quotidie meditare, ut possis æquo animo vitam relinquere. 4. Quidam 7. Life, if replete on all sides with good things, is said to be happy. idcirco Deum esse non putant, quia non appāret nec cernitur; 8. The men have enclosed the cities by walls. 9. Hidden enmities are proinde quasi nostram ipsam mentem videre possimus. 5. Univer more to be dreaded than open ones. 10. Who is so wretched as not sum mundum quum cernimus, possumusne dubitare quin ei præsit to have perceived the goodness of God ? 11. The gods, clothed in aliquis effector et moderator ? 6. Nihil tam difficile est quin (=ut non) human form, furnished abundance of fables for the poets, but crammed quærendo investigari posset. 7. Sic cogitandum est tanquam aliquis the life of man with every kind of superstition. 12. The hopes of in pectus intymum inspicere possit, et potest. 8. Satis nobis per the republic have been exhausted by continual wars. 13. The more suasum esse debet, etiamsi Deum hominesque celare possimus, nihil abundantly any one has drunk in pleasures from every quarter, the tamen injuste esse faciendum. 9. Potestisne dubitare quin Deus more deeply and eagerly will he thirst for them. 14. I hope that you universum mundum gubernet ? non possumus. 10. Cur nobiscum will agree with me. ambulare non potes? 11. Alcibišdes Athenas Lacedæmoniis servire non potěrat pati.


1. Rex, quum moreretur, dixit, “ Probe vixi; improbos vinxi; hostes

vici." 2. Miles victus in vincula conjectus est. 3. In servitutem 1. We cannot conceal wickedness from God. 2. You cannot doubt abducentur. 4. Labefactam rempublicam fulcit. 5. Labefactam that the world is governed by a mind. 3. Can the world be from fulciet domum. 6. Ars scribendi reperta est. 7. Librum aperuerunt. nothing ? out of nothing, nothing can arise. 4. What can arise out 8. Vita mea apud bonos acta est. 9. Occultos timeo inimicos. of confused masses ? 5. Can order arise out of chance ? 6. They 10. Pace compositâ, domum revertar. 11. Felicitas difficilis est could not allow good men to be punished. 7. I will return home with inventu. 12. Agricolæ pratum dumetis sepserunt. 13. Campus the utmost speed. 8. They will return home with the utmost speed. dumetis vepribusque refertus est. 14. Exploratores adventant. 9. Before I could speak I was seized. 10. The world cannot be more 15. Cæsar per exploratores comperit hostes adventare. 16. Sol beautiful. 11. Can those women be more fair? 12. I will give thee a oriens diem aperit. 17. Munificentiam Dei senserunt. 18. Pallium book if I am (shall be) able. 13. He was unable to subdue his grief, tuum tuâ manu confecisti? 19. Pallium quo amictus sum meâ manu but he will be able to conceal it. 14. Only among good men can confeci. friendship exist. 15. If I could have come I would have told you all.

CONSTRUCTION AND USAGES OF AGO. 16. Unless they had been able to come we should have known nothing.

1. He, as a shepherd, leads the she-goats through unfrequented II.-EDO, EDERE, EDI, ESUM, to eat.

country places. 2. Let poems be delightful, and let them lead the

mind of the hearer whither they please. 3. Many thousands of armed This verb in its irregularities has an apparent identity with men having been driven out of that district into which he had been parts of the verb esse, to be. This arises from the changes sent. 4. Where are you going? 5. If the army should be willing to required with regard to sound. The e in sum is short ; in the march more quickly. . 6. Wherever he went, he laid waste and parts of edere it is long, inasmuch as it involves a contraction.

plundered cities and fields. 7. That the eager dogs might hunt the

stag. 8. The hurdles having been rapidly brought up to the town. Present Indic. : Edo, edis (es), edit (est); edimus, editis (estis), edunt. 9. A person unacquainted with ships is afraid to steer a ship. 10. Imperf. Subjunc. : Ederem (essem), ederes (esses), ederet (esset); edere- May he not drive these chariots ? 11. He levied a public tax in Asia.

mus essemus), ederetis (essetis), ederent (essent). 12. And he shall send forth from his mouth bloody foam. 13. For Imperative : Ede (es), edite (este),

we say both animam agere (to drive out the soul) and efflare (to edito (esto), editote (estote), edunto.

expire). 14. Oaks strike their roots far down. 15. The huts open in

chinks. 16. The husbandman was driven headlong to glory. 17. The other parts are regular ; only for editur, estur is found; Merciless fates pursue the Romans. 18. He pleaded this cause before and for ambedens, ambens, eating round. So the compounds, the judges. 19. Augurs are said to take an augury. 20. He can comedo, comēdis, comēs (to eat up), exedo, exedis, exēs (to eat compose something, but not perform it; as the poet writes a play, but up or out). Comedo has comesas, as well as comestus.

does not act it : on the other hand, the actor personates the charac

ters, but does not write; and thus the play is written, not acted by VOCABULARY.

the poet; by the actor it is acted, not written. 21. Scipio Africanus Adolescentulus, -i, a eat at the common Perrumpăre, 3, to break doing nothing ; that he was never less at leisure than when he was at

was wont to say that he was never doing more than when he was young man.

expense, to enjoy a through, break into. Argentum vivum,

leisure. 22. You have no effect, O Grief, although you are troublepic-nic.

Res familiaris, pro- some; I will never confess that you are an evil. 23. Consider whether quicksilver.

Familiaris, -e, belong perty, substance. Curculio, -ōnis, the ing to the family.

you prefer to state in conversation, or to carry on by correspondence Symbola, -e, a contri- what you wish. 24. My mind is considering something or other Modicé, moderately. bution. De symbolis esse, to Moles, -is, f., a mass.

unusually great. 25. Say that I am thankful to the king. 26. When Væ, woe! alas !

my father was in ill health he generally spent his time here in literary EXERCISE 165.- LATIN-ENGLISH.

pursuits. I am in my eighty-fourth year. 27. Who determined to

carry on war in a way far different from the rest of the Gauls. 28. 1. Esse oportet ut vivamus, non vivere at edamus. 2. Modice Recollect, I pray, what I said in the senate concerning you. 29. TC bibite et este. 3. Heri aliquot adolescentuli convenerunt ut de sym- plead with the people is to ask for what the people either order or bolis essent. 4. Hæc herba acerba esu est. 5. Ægritudo lacărat, forbid by their votes. 30. He accused them of theft. The glory of exest animum planeque conficit. 6. Curculiones frumentum exesse the Roman people and the safety of our allies are at issue. 31. Which incipiunt. 7. Argentum vivum exest ac perrumpit vasa. 8. Majores sentiments, it was allowed, were so delivered by him, by his eyes, nostri cavere non potuerunt, ne vetustas monumenta exesset. 9. his voice, and his gestures, that the tears of his antagonist could not Que un quam moles tam firma fuit quam non exessent undæ ? 10. restrain themselves. 32. The more savagely they acted before, the Væ vobis qui omnem rem familiarem luxuriâ comestis! 11. Fabulæ more eagerly they drank in the unwonted pleasures.


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