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GEOMETRICAL PERSPECTIVE.-XVII.

a long beam standing on its end, and opposite a point 2 feet

from the nearest end of the block. The beam is 1 foot 6 inches PERSPECTIVE OF SHADOWS.

square at the base, 8 feet high, and 1 foot space between the We now propose to consider the projection of shadows as they block and the beam. Sun's inclination 38°, elevation 30°, vanishappear under the second conditions mentioned in Lesson XVI. ; ing point of the sun to the left of the eye. Line of sight 5 feet, viz., when the sun is before, or in front of the picture ; that is, when Distance from the PP 6 feet. it is behind the spectator, or when the spectator is between the Trusting our pupils will be able to represent the perspective sun and the object.

of the solids, we shall limit our instructions, for that part of the RULE.-Draw a line from the station-point, or E, to the hori- drawing, to merely reminding them of some of the leading par. zontal line at the same angle with the picture plane at which the ticulars in the process of construction. a is 2 feet to the left of horizontal direction of the shadow is said to be inclined; this the eye, b is 3 feet from a, for the purpose of finding the nearest will give the vp for the sun's inclination. The length of the angle of the block within the picture by drawing from b to DE. shadow is determined according to the sun's elevation (or height To find the point in the block to which the beam is opposite, in the heavens). Therefore the angle of elevation must be con- rule a line from the near angle of the block to the BP atc; make structed by drawing a line, at the given angle of elevation, from c d equal to 2 feet, and rule from d back again to the base of the distance point of the vanishing point of the sun's inclination the block, directed by Dypl_this is cutting off from the near to meet the perpendicular line drawn through the VP of the angle of the block a distance of 2 feet on the line of its base; sun's inclination. This will be the vp for the sun's elevation, rule from the point thus found towards the PP, directed by DYP";

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and will be the point of direction to determine the lengths of upon the last line a portion of the shadows, by drawing to it lines from the angles and pro- 1 foot must be cut off to obtain jecting parts of the object, to cut those drawn from the object the perspective distance between in the direction of the vp for the sun's inclination. When the the block and the beam, this position of the sun is, as in the present case, before the picture, will be between e and f. The the line forming the angle of the sun's elevation is drawn down- lines for the production of the

VPSE wards. When the sun is behind the picture, the line of the angle shadows are dotted, drawn from the projecting angles of the is drawn upwards ; this latter case will be treated upon in a solids to the vanishing point of the sun's elevation (VPSE) to future lesson. To render the above rule as clear as possible,

we cut the lines drawn from the plans or bases of the projecting have introduced a very simple example (Fig. 79), giving only the angles towards the vanishing point for the sun's inclination vanishing points for the representation of the shadow. Let AB (VPBI). The intersection of these lines will limit the extent of be a pole in a perpendicular position, visi is the vanishing point the shadows, as shown in Fig. 79. for the sun's inclination at an angle of 35', and VPSE, the PROBLEM L. (Fig. 81).-—Ă circular board in a perpendicular vanishing point for the sun's elevation, is at an angle of 30° position, 6 feet diameter, and having a square opening in the centre with the horizon; therefore the shadow of the pole on the 3 feet wide. The plane of the board is at an angle of 500 with the ground retires towards its vanishing point on the HL, and its picture plane. Sun's elevation 300, and inclination 40°. Height length is determined by a line drawn from the top of the pole of the eye, 4 feet 6 inches; other conditions at pleasure. towards the vanishing point of the sun's elevation, producing After drawing the al, and determining the station point, AC, the shadow of AB. Our pupils will perceive

that the prin vanishing points, and distance points, the plan of the circle (4) ciples of the perspective of shadows closely resemble those which must be made with the additional working lines for the purpose belong to horizontal and inclined planes.

of obtaining the true form of the circle when placed in a retiring PROBLEM XLIX. (Fig. 80).- A rectangular block of stone 2 and perpendicular position B (see Fig. 31, page 8; Fig. 36, p. 73, feet wide, 6 feet long, and 3 feet high, is lying horizontally

on its and Fig. 40, p.

141 in Vol. III.). It will then appear as a circle narrowest side ; its face is at an angle of 40° with the PP, 3 in a square. If the pupil will turn back to the above figures, he feet within, and 2 feet to the left of the eye. Parallel

to it is will at once understand why the points in the base of the plan

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е a fc

30°

VPSE!

A, viz., a, b, c, d, etc., are again set off on the Pp, and the points Athens, where Orestes is tried and finally acquitted. Our first h, i, k, etc., are repeated on the line of contact from a to o in extract is the speech of Clytæmnestra when she appears upon Fig. B, the former for cutting off the perspective distances on the stage directly after murdering her husband, and defiantly the base of the retiring plane from a to vpl, and the latter for describes the deed :determining the perspective heights upon the same plane, their retiring lines being ruled towards the vanishing point of the

ÆSCHYLUS.—“AGAMEMNON,” 1372—1394. plane. Thus will be reconstructed in its perspective proportions

Πολλών πάροιθεν καιριως ειρημένων, , the working lines forming the square a g po, and the square

τάναντίειπείν ουκ επαισχυνθήσομαι. . opening in the centre of the board. The circle representing

πως γάρ τις εχθρούς έχθρα πορσύνων, φίλοις the board must be drawn by hand through the points in the

δοκούσιν είναι, πημoνής άρκύστατάν

1375 retiring plane B, which are found to correspond with the points

φάρξειεν, ύψος κρείσσον εκπηδήματος; in the plan A. To determine the extent of the shadow, lines are

εμοί δ' άγών όδ' ουκ αφρόντιστος πάλαι drawn to the vanishing point of the sun's inclination (VPSI)

νείκης παλαιάς ήλθε, συν χρόνω γε μήν: from all the points in the base of the retiring square a g po,

έστηκα δ' ένθ' έπαισ', επ' εξειργασμένοις. which contains the perspective view of the circular board. The

ούτω δ' έπραξα, και τάδ' ουκ αρνήσομαι, 1380 rays of the sun's elevation are drawn from the intersections of

ως μήτε φεύγειν μήτ' αμύνασθαι μόρον. . the circle with the diagonals, and the sides of the square a g po

άπειρον αμφιβληστρον, ώσπερ ιχθύων, in k srd. Through the points on the ground where the lines or

περιστιχίζω, πλούτον είματος κακόν. rays for the sun's elevation intersect those which represent the

παίω δέ νιν δίς καν δυοϊν οιμωγμασι sun's inclination drawn from the base of the square to VPSI,

μεθηκεν αυτού κώλα και πεπτωκότι

1385 the extent and form of the shadow must be drawn; the same

τρίτην επενδίδωμι, του κατά χθονός method of proceeding must be observed with regard to the

"Αιδου νεκρών σωτήρος ευκταίαν χάριν. . square opening in the circular board.

ούτω τον αυτού θυμον δρμαίνει πεσών PROBLEM LI. (Fig. 82).--To show how a shadow of a perpen

κάκφυσιών οξείαν αίματος σφαγήν, dicular object is to be projected on an inclined plane. Our

βάλλει μ' έρεμνή ψακάδι φοινίας δρόσου, ,

1390 example is the shadow of a chimney upon a roof. After the

χαίρουσαν ουδέν ήσσον, η διοσδότη perspective view of the roof and chimney is drawn, and the

γανει σπορητός κάλυκος εν λοχεύμασιν. . vanishing-points for the sun's inclination and elevation are

ως ώδ' εχόντων, πρέσβος 'Αργείων τόδε, found, draw a line from vpo through vps (the vp for the incli

χαίροιτ' άν, εί χαίροιτ', εγώ δ' επεύχομαι. nation of the roof) to the perpendicular line from VPSI; this gives the vp for the shadow of the chimney on the roof, viz.,

NOTES. vp, to which the lines from the base of the chimney must be 1372. Kalpios, suitable to the occasion, kaipór. Having spoken many poris drawn. For the vp of the shadow of the retiring side, ab, of previously merely to gain my purpose (alluding to the affectionate terms the chimney, rule a line from VPSE through vpl to vpo, the in which she had welcomed Agamemnon), I shall not now be ashamed to vanishing point required. We trust the figure will explain assert the very contrary. the rest.

1375. 'Αρκύστατ’ άν. The άν goes with φάρξειεν-άρκύστατα is a space enclosed by a net (apkve)—and the passage may be rendered, " How coul]

any one erect a fence of destruction (like a hunting net, where wild beasts READINGS IN GREEK.-V.

are snared), too high for them to leap over? "Yor is either in apposition ÆSCHYLUS.

with ảpkúctata, or follows pupčarev, erect it to a height-to ox high; like We oome now to the earliest of the three great tragic poets of

dedcovery Tivá oopov, to teach a man to be wise.

1378. Neixns, of an old feud; ovv xpovy, etc., but it has come at last, rila Greece-Æschylus. Of his relation in point of time to the other the lapse of time. re mamu serves to emphasise our xpóry. two masters of dramatic poetry, Sophocles and Euripides, we 1379. 'Ezi, with dat., signifies on the top of, and so after-after the dead have already spoken, and it only remains to say a few words was done. upon his individual characteristics as a poet. Both in his 1381. The accusative before peúyelv may be either fue, or better, after choice of subjects and his method of treating them, Æschylus (sc. Agamemnon). approaches more nearly to the heroic. To use the words of Mr. 1382. “Atelpov. Out of which there was no escape-made into a "cul de Grote, “ The passions appealed to are the masculine and violent, sac."-Paley, to the exclusion of Aphrodite and her inspirations; the figures 1383.-1AozToy, etc., lit., an evil wealth of robe-a rich fatal robe. are vast and majestic, but exhibited only in half-light and 1385. MeOiker. He relaxed his limbs, aŭto, on the spot. shadowy outline; the speech is replete with bold metaphor 1386. Tpitnu--xcipuv. A third-as a votive offering to Hades beneath. Tha and abrupt transition-grandiloquent even to a fault, as number three was mystical, and there is an allusion to the usual caston Quintilian expresses it, and often approaching nearer to of pouring out a third libation to Zeus Swrap (the preserver). "Aedov Oriental vagueness than Grecian perspicuity." For these is genitive of the object after xciper. reasons the plays of Æschylus are more difficult for the student

1388. Opuaiver. Ho frets out-pants out. to understand than those of Euripides and Sophocles; and in field does in the heaven-sent blessing at the bursting of the bud. (Aoyeva is ta

1391. Xaipovcav (sc. me in previous line), rejoicing no less than the core addition to this, it has happened that there are gaps and imper- bring forth, akin to Nexos.) fections in many of the MSS. which greatly increase this difficulty. In selecting a few extracts from his poems, we things are so. Tõde, etc., elders of the Argives here.

1393. 'ns wo" <xóvrov (SC. Toutw, genitive absolute), wherefore, since these shall, however, endeavour to choose such pieces as may not 1394. Xasport' av, optative with av, is equivalent to imperative, reprica altogether bafile the powers of the reader, but may serve at if you will. the same time to give a tolerably fci. idea of the style of the author.

The following lines are from the choras sung by the EamoThe most important of the plays of Æschylus are the three nides, when Orestes is awaiting his trial before the Areowhich are generally known as the Orestean trilogy – the

pagus :"Agamemnon," "Choephoræ," and " Eumenides.” The three

ÆSCHYLUS.-"EUMENIDES,” 307–333. together form a continuous story. In the “Agamemnon" we find

'Αγε δή και χορόν άψωμεν, επει Clytæmnestra, his wife, during the absence of her lord at Troy,

μούσαν στυγεραν living in a guilty union with Ægisthus. Agamemnon suddenly

αποφαίνεσθαι δεδόκηκε, returns, and is murdered by his wife and her paramour. Orestes,

λέξαι τε λάχη τα κατ' ανθρώπους

310 by the aid of Electra, escapes the sword of his mother, and in

ως επινωμά στάσις αμά, , the “Choephoræ" he returns, and avenges the death of his father

ευθυδίκαιοι θ' οιόμεθ' είναι. by slaying Ægisthus, and Clytæmnestra, who comes to the aid of

τον μεν καθαράς χείρας προνέμοντ' ' the latter, is also dispatched. In the “Eumenides," which is the

ούτις αφ' ημών μήνις εφέρπει, last of the series, Orestes appears at the temple of Apollo at

άσινής δ' αιώνα διoιχνει shi, pursued by the avenging Furies (Eumenides), to seek

όστις δ' άλιτών, ώσπερ δδ' ανήρ, - the murders from the deity. Apollo promises him

χείρας φονίας επικρύπτει, , id the scene shifts to the court of Areopagus at

μάρτυρες ορθαι τοισι θανούσιν

315

στρ. α'.

παραγιγνόμεναι, πράκτορες αίματος

TRANSLATION OF EXTRACT I. IN LAST READING. αυτή τελέως εφάνημεν. .

320

Creon. Thee I ask, thee who bendest thy face to the ground, dost μάτερ ά μ' έτικτες, ώ ματερ

thou confess to this deed, or deny it? Νυξ άλαοίσι και δεδορκόσιν ποιναν

Antig. I say I did it, and deny it not. κλύθ'· ο Λατούς γάρ ινίς μ' άτιμον τίθησι,

Creon. As for thee (to the sentinel), take thyself off where thou wilt τόνδ' αφαιρούμενος

325

be free from this heavy accusation. But do tbou (to Antigone) tell me,

not at length, but briefly, didst thou know of the proclamation that πτώκα, ματρώον άγνισμα κύριον φόνου.

forbad this deed? επί δε τώ τεθυμένω

Antig. Know it? Of course I did. It was clear enough, τόδε μέλος, παρακοπά, παραφορά, φρενοδαλίς, 330

Creon. And didst thou dare then to transgress a law like this? ύμνος εξ Εριννύων, ,

Antig. Yes; for it was not Zeus that proclaimed this to me, nor δέσμιος φρενών, αφόρ

Justice, that sits associate of the gods below (who have determined μικτος, αυονά βροτοίς.

these laws among men), nor did I deem that decrees of thine had such

power, that a mere mortal like thou couldst override the unwritten and NOTES.

surely fixed laws of the gods. For their laws live not merely from one 308. Movdav, etc., to unfold our strain of vengeance.

day to another, but ever and ever, and no one knows whence they come. 311. Etáris áp, how our company (åná for muerépa) distributes the lots Such laws it was not for me to transgress in the face of heaven, when

I feared the will of no man, for I knew that I must die, ay, surely, trong mankind. 312. Eübvdikatos, etc., and we think ourselves strictly just.

even if thou hadst never proclaimed thy decree : and if I am to die

before my time, I count it but a gain. For one who lives as I do in 313. Ilpovéuorta, who holds out clean hands--the innocent: opposed to the midst of many evils by death may surely be said to be a gainer. the guilty, who conceals them (énikpúrTEI).

Wherefore my sorrow at meeting with this fate is as nothing. But if 318. 'Oplai, straight, unerring.

I had endured to see the corpse of him whom my mother bore, lying 320. TeNews, following him to the end, Télos.

unburied, then I should grieve. Now I grieve not. But if I seem to 322. 'Alacīoi, etc., lit., to blind and seeing alike.e., to both the dead and thee to be acting folly, it is something like incurring a charge of folly the living.

at the hands of a fool. 323. 'lvis, son, from is, fibre. Apollo is meant. 325. 'Apaspoúperor, if he takes away from me (for himself). Itāka, this trembling one (ATCCW), usually means a hare, in consequence of the ex

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY.-XXI. cessive timidity of that animal. Matpoov, etc., my own peculiar (kúptov)

MAMMALIA. ridim, to avenge a mother's murder. Marpộov agrees with áyvioua, instead The philosophy of the Duke Senior, called forth, as it were, by of póvou, by the figure of speech entitled enallage, or interchange of the grand yet simple beauty of the Arden forest, as contrasted epithets.

with

the turmoil and conflicts of court-which Shakespeare so 328. Tý rebupéve, the victim consecrated for the sacrifics. From éri forcibly illustrates—is little in comparison with the enthusiasm supply επέρχεται.

which arises in the mind of the anatomist, as he beholds the The “ Persæ ” (Persians) is about the only instance where a successive stages of development evinced by those beings which Greek dramatist has chosen contemporary history for his theme. Nature has endowed with the attributes of life. Artifice can The subjects of almost all the Greek tragedies are taken from a produce a variety of buildings, widely different in shape ; but pre-historic period, in almost every case. But the “ Persæ" the temples which Nature has created and tenanted are so varied gives the account of the expedition led by Xerxes against the and beautiful that we are lost in a maze as we recognise her Greeks which met with complete overthrow in the battle of power. From the same materials, she builds up form after Salamis, B.C. 480, in which the poet himself took part. Here form, differing in magnitude and beauty; and, by modifying is his vigorous description of the advance of the Grecian fleet now one tissue and now another, gives origin to beings which on the ships of the Persians:

apparently differ as much from each other as the earth's poles

in distance. But, yet more wonderful still, we find evidences of ÆSCHYLUS.—“PERSÆ," 398–416.

the same life pervading the whole, differing only in degree in Θοώς δε πάντες ήσαν έκφανείς ιδείν.

accordance with the facilities bestowed for its manifestation. το δεξιόν μεν πρώτον εύτακτον κέρας

We have described beings adapted to live in water ; beings ηγείτο κόσμο, δεύτερον δ' ο πας στόλος 400 capable of living on land or in water; others that can soar in επεξεχώρει, και παρήν δμου κλύειν

air far above earth's surface; and now it only remains to πολλήν βοήν, "Ω παίδες Ελλήνων ίτε,

describe those animals which constitute the final link in so ελευθερούτε πατρίδ', ελευθερούτε δε

extensive a scale--and being final, in possession of forms the παϊδας, γυναίκας, θεών τε πατρώων έδη,

most beautiful, of faculties characterised by the highest degree θήκας τε προγόνων· νυν υπέρ πάντων αγών. . 405 of intelligence, and of peculiarities which distinguish them και μην παρ' ημών Περσίδος γλώσσης δόθος

from every other division of the great vertebrate kingdom. The υπηντίαζε, κούκ έτ' ήν μέλλειν ακμή.

chief distinctive peculiarity is that of breasts, which each posευθύς δε ναύς εν νηt χαλκήρη στόλον

sess and from whence they take their name, the word mammalia έπαισεν ήρξε δ' εμβολής Ελληνική

coming from the Latin, mamma, a breast. The preceding divi. ναύς, κάποθραύει πάντα Φοινίσσης νεώς

410 sions are, more or less, independent of their parents for support. κόρυμβ', επ' άλλην δ' άλλος 7θυνεν δόρυ.

Not so, however, the mammalian young; helpless when born, τα πρώτα μεν δή ρεύμα Περσικού στρατού

they would hopelessly perish, had not bounteous Nature provided αντείχεν ώς δε πλήθος εν στενή νεών

the parent with breasts which furnish the secretion milk, and a ήθροιστ', αρωγή δ' ούτις αλλήλοις παρήν,

corresponding degree of affection--the one to nourish, the other αυτοι δ' υφ' αυτών έμβολαίς χαλκοστόμοις 415 to cherish them until sufficiently matured to seek food for themπαίοντ', έθρανoν πάντα κωπήρη στόλον.

selves. The breasts vary somewhat in position and number. NOTES.

In man and the quadrumana they are situated on the chest;

in flesh-eaters, over the chest and belly; in the cow, mare, etc., 400. "Hyeito ków, led the array, 'Hydouar, with dative, has the sense they are placed close to the hind extremities. They are two of going before.

in number in the goat, elephant, and ape; four in the horse and 41. llapñu, it was possible--one could-hear one loud universal shout. 405, Omas, the tombs-where the dead are placed (FiOnut).

cow; eight in the cat; ten in the rabbit and pig; and ten or 406. Tlap huwy, on our side. It is a Persian messenger who is telling lobes bound together by connective tissue. Each of the small

twelve in the rat. Each breast consists of a number of small 408. Zrólov, ornament, array (07€//w), here means the beak of the ship minates in a small tube or duct. The ducts of the smaller divi

lobes is made up of still smaller ones, and each of these terwhich was used to strike against a foe.

110. Návra kópvuß", the whole figure-head. Povvioons: the Phænicians sions of each lobe join to form a common duct. The ducts so were the earliest navigators, and at this time were employed as formed terminate at the central projecting part (nipple) of the mercenaries.

breast. The chief constituents of the milk are: Caseine, butter, 412. 'Peūpa. At first the rush (charge) of the Persian host bore up sugar of milk, alkaline and earthy salts, with traces of iron. against it.

The lowest order of each great class is represented by be 416. Daiore', for éraiovto, it being the speech of an ängelos, the which partake of the character of the next lowest class, ar augment is, as usual, omitted.

we find it here. The Duck-billed Platypus (Ornithorynch

the tale.

native of Australia, has certain features which are essentially formidable and invincible barrier to the would-be antagonist. bird-like in character; e.g., it has a bill like that of a duck, Every hair is divided into a free part, or shaft (Fig. I., 1), with webbed feet, etc. It spends much of its time in water, though its tapering point, and a root (Fig. I., 2) inclosed within a sac. it has burrows excavated in the adjacent banks of the stream. In straight hairs, the former is generally straight and rounded; A little time ago naturalists had some difficulty in determining in the curly and woolly hairs it is twisted spirally, and quite flat, whether this animal was a mammal or not. Later researches or slightly ribbed. The root is always straight and cylindrical, have, however, satisfactorily settled the question in the affirma- and softer and thicker than the shaft; at least, at its lower part. tive. Closely allied to it is a peculiar hedgehog-like animal, In living hairs it ends in a still softer knob-like enlargement, furnished likewise with a bill, and prickly spines on its back, two to three times thicker than the shaft, the bulb of the hair the porcupine ant-eater (Echidna).

(Fig. I., 3), which is placed, cap-like, upon a little process of the In the next stage towards mammalian perfection, we find an sac named the hair papilla.* (Fig. I., 9.) extensive order of animals, principally found in Australia, Van The nails and claws are, like the hairs, modified epidermic Diemen's Land, and the islands of the Asiatic Archipelago, as processes, and, like it, consist of a soft and horny layer. far as Java. A few species are found also in America. These Some animals, as the elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, hog,

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VII.

IX.

XI.

x.

MAMMALIA.—I. HAIR AND HAIR FOLLICLE (MAGNIFIED 50 TIMES). II. HUMAN TEETH. III. VERTICAL SECTION OF A HUMAN MOLAR TOOTH.

IV. TRANSVERSE SECTION OF A HUMAN MOLAR TOOTH. V. SURFACE OF THE ENAMEL, WITH EXTREMITIES OF THE ENAMEL FIELES (MAGNIFIED 350 TIMES, AFTER KOLLIKER). VI. Osseous HEAD OF THE GREENLAND WHALE, WITH THE WHALEBONE PRESENT. VII. TuE WHALEBONE. VIII. TEETH OF A CARNIVOROUS ANIMAL. IX. TEETH OF AN INSECTIVOROUS ANIMAL.

X. TEETH OF AN HERBIVOROCS ANIMAL. XI. TEETH OF A FRUGIVOROUS ANIMAL. Refs. to Nos. in Figs.-I. 1, shaft; 2, root; 3, bulb ; 4, epidermis of the hair; 5, inner root sheath ; 6, outer root sheath ; 7, structureless

membrane of the hair follicle ;' 8, transverse and longitudinal fibrous layers of the same; 9, papilla of the hair follicle ; 10, excretory ducts of two sebaceous glands ; 11,'cutis ; 12, mucous and, 13, horny layer of the epidermis--the

latter entering a certain way into the follicle ; 14, end of the inner root sheath. II. 1, incisive teeth ; 2, canine or eye-tooth; 3, small or premolars; 4, large molars. 1,1, enamel; 2,2, puip cavities; 3, 3, cement; 4,4, dentine.

III, and IV.

are the marsupials, or pouched quadrupeds (kangaroos, opossums, | horse, ass, etc., have remarkably thick skins, and on this etc.), so named from the presence

of a bag, developed from the account were formerly classed by Cavier as a distinct order, skin of the belly, in which they carry their prematurely brought under the name Pachydermata (maxús, thick ; depua, skin). forth young during the helpless condition of infancy. Safe The Teeth.-- For variety and beauty, the teeth excel every from danger in the pouch, the young are enabled to reach the other part of the mammalian body. They are confined to the maternal teats, by which they hang and are fed.*

jaws, and arranged in an uninterrupted series. Each jaw is With few exceptions, the mammalia have their skin protected hollowed out into a number of pits

, or alveoli

, in which the with hair. In colour, shape, and strength, the hairs vary consi- teeth are lodged, connected to the bone through the intervention the protective spines of the hedgehog. The hair fulfis the follow. socket. Each tooth is composed of dentine, or ivory (Figs. 1. ing conditions :-Provides warmth to the body, adds to the beauty and IV., 4, 4), which forms the greater part of its substance

, of the animal, forms a protective covering to the skin, and like The projecting part, or crown, is covered with a very hard wise, as in the timid hedgehog, a spiked coat of mail, a most

Plutarch, in his treatise on the love of parents for their children, mentions these animals as an illustration of affection for their offspring: Hyracoidea, and the remainder may be called Ungulata (

Huxley.) + The elephants now form the order Proboscidea, the bgras

• Kolliker.

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